Skip to main content

Full text of "Apocryphal Gospels, Acts, and Revelations"

See other formats


“eo eed 


δ β κε, ἐνῷ 


ΜῈ 4 


Beet oy Pm σι ων. 


DR er tn tne ke Me, Nee Recline ἡ 
tly δια I Ne he ὅυευῶσν MyM: 


OND Mee oh Nedra. ΨΚ dy 
i ca τῳ 
Demers Rader. OT ET Remark, Sink Uy ane Rebate ey tet Ne τ 
Soak AR Meds tint ot Pa ΨΥ ΨΥ Rok ete 
BRS WAR τὸ phe Meet pee Wale Tt Me Monte ee, ΟΝ 

sh σοι Δ anda 4. bt te SA ea oa eS 
ΟΣ Te oY we Fah > Be, ΨΥ 


EO, gd ah 0 DM τ δον 
ve HEF 


hee dy Mende ee ἐκεῖ 
fate tart & δὲν» οἷν Se ee ΜΝ 
Ee ly Oe he EA de Ba BR Oa ds OO be am we ob 


Sa eet * συν νν 
“ ἘΡ te σὺ, ἐς ἦν δ δὰ.» ὁ σι “Δ «ἰ ν δὲ" Oe Pe Ae PAS GA ance iy RMN BTR RN eae Dy ὺν φαγολψονν 
wae ade © fe Feo δ΄ σ' δὴ" Me ee D8 onde Mes Fn alee os WINER om ote ene? ον ὧν EO Ee δ» yy of No ON OE No ca 4 ων, Bed be Metre aoe ας 
ΣΥΝ ΨΥ ΨΚ we eed og Shea Oe ae Coe eee Son 
ORE Bn ARR tree Oe od Ὁ». 5.“ ὦ δ 5.4.2 δ᾽ bas 1.4) ὧν 2. ἂν ae pote a ‘ 


PNAS A ek eet Oe og Me 
aia Me NAS see as re tee © 


rar ΨΥ wm et 


ee ee 
A NM Te tere ae 


- HAO a Pra tee Rdg wh Bande oe howe ge 
AD de eM or Pale nw te eh LM Someta etd tee SM oi hw 
σοι δ i ati de te to Oe ee ee 
eRe PA DM wee Be te Mid το σῷ Caves ΄ ΠΣ ΥΣ 
a Le At OA PAY Me ho Of Gh ΔΑ 6 πον Ole δ. σα 


a ee el 
Meine Mode ok etoile Sane 


ΤΙΣ ΓΤ oe 
te Ce gg 


ΚΣ ΟΣ A bee Dart adh ans ct ee 
GRD BR AM AS he iO eS : ΓΑ, 
Bol ΣῈ SO AAD Cael nd ΨΥ ἀν WE Oc Mia Site ot m4 


ee oe ere 
LRP Het 5.» Δ. ee ee ed 
SOP ABA RE SO & SF Bal rte end Saher δα 
-- WA PAA δ: λ΄6 ee EM NO δὲ Φ ie Bn ὧν Bod 9. Ct 
2 EPA CALA LLM AM © in & hat d- A tes fo wre Ce “' 
babe © ead OMe PS BT CO Re Oa Oy ee 
Fm δ» ὦ INT A BA Itt cn ee ae ee oe oe 
MF 0-8 SOM BAT Bt LO ho Dg he BM hy ek te Bods 
hela id Roe a ee ee ee 

Bee BO St SM oie * ἂκ νη. ΔΑ in 
ee ee ar a ee ee et Ht GAB wo rtetene ν Muaee 
OF FRAPPR EPL Ae WTAE Ade OS nme 
ΨΩ 


ae DP EH towed 
Bot για hee ee ὦ 


ον νων ς 
wh ον be 4 
Se ta ὦ ες a 


AAs RA 
at One _— 
triste otek ote 


rr oe 
ΨΥ ΨΕ. 
᾿οσονν 


ρῶν. “Δ. σας. ee ee) 


VP A Oise ee 
a eee 
tira: 


18a. + tele 
Pate oe Pan ee Me Byes ate 
ee  δο ese 
Vat OM bie “. OS 


a  atnln ee ee ἐἕς 
SA se ς δ. > 
. - - - 
- — 
: ae ΄ 
het - . . 
“.- ° ΄ - - βε » a δ» - ᾿ 
«, ὃ - 4 — A μ᾿ ᾿ ᾿ 
. ban ΨυΑξ ace ᾿ " “Ων ν Ν 
. ,ν.ρ.. « - 
on ew » ᾽ . F : . aa ἢ Β 
“ δ οδιἢ δ, ρος 2.4 . - . « . 
OOF DM & bod et mt tf : μ i ; 
2 oe « 4 ΡΥΑ, 7 : : - 
- Ψ ; 
- ee ee oe 5 — 


Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
University of Toronto 


http://www.archive.org/details/apocryphalgospel00edin 


Ἣ «Δ. Lee. Ἂς ᾿ κ , “ZZ 
T. and T. Clark's Publications. 


In one vol. 8vo, price 15s., 


A TREATISE ON THE GRAMMAR OF NEW TESTAMENT GREEK, 


REGARDED AS THE BASIS OF NEW TESTAMENT EXEGESIS. 


By DR. G B. WINER. 


Translated from the German, with large additions and full Indices, by Rev. 
W. F. Moutron, M.A., Classical Tutor, Wesleyan Theological College, 
Richmond, and Prizeman in Hebrew and New Testament Greek in the 
University of London. 


The additions by the Editor are very large, and will tend to make this 
great work far more useful and available for English students than it has 
hitherto been. The Indices have been greatly enlarged; and, as all 
students will admit, this is of vast importance. Altogether, the Pub- 
lishers do not doubt that this will be the Standard Grammar of New 
Testament Greek. 


ΕἸ trust and believe it will have an extensive sale.—The Right Rev. Dr. ELLIcoTt, 
Bishop of Gloucester and Bristol. 


ΕἼ have seen enough already to judge of its merits, and shall have great pleasure in 
recommending it to my pupils. —Professor LIGHTFoor. 


‘Tt seems to me to be extremely well done, and I shall have much pleasure in recom- 
mending it to my students and others.-—Professor PEROWNE. 


‘I deem it a most valuable addition to our New Testament helps. —Professor ANGUS, 
Regent's Park College. 


‘Most admirably done. Mr. Moulton’s own additions are introduced with great 
judgment, and show a most extensive acquaintance with his topic. —Professor GREEN, 
Leeds. 


‘A noble product of learning, judgment, and literary labour. —Professor GEDEN, 
Didsbury College. 4 


‘It is a treat to open a book that has been completed in so thorough and scholarly a 
manner.’—Professor PLUMPTRE. 


‘The New Translation of Wrner’s Grammar, prepared by Mr. Moulton, is a thoroughly 
good book. I have compared the translation with the original in a number of passages 
presenting more or less difficulty; and I could desire nothing more accurate or faithful 
than the rendering. The book in its new form is, in various respects, superior to the latest 
German edition. It embodies much additional matter, involving a great amount of careful 
and patient research, from the most recent and best works, English and German, whence 
such accessions could be obtained. The convenience of the reader has been consulted 
by the transference of numerous references which previously encumbered the text to the 
foot of the pages. But perhaps the most valuable part of Mr. Moulton’s work is the 
great enlargement of the Jndices—a labour specially deserving of grateful recognition ; 
for the process is as irksome as the result is precious. I do not hesitate to say, that in 
such a work of reference the extension of the Jndices has doubled the value of the book. 
In a chapter to which I referred at random, I find thirteen references indexed in the new 
English edition, against only four in the recent German edition of Dr. Liinemann.’— 
Rey. WiiitAm P. Dickson, Professor of Biblical Criticism, Glasgow College. 


‘We believe that there will be but one opinion as to the manner in which the Editor 
has executed his task, and that he has laid the students of New Testament Greek under 
an obligation which for years to come will be widely felt and freely acknowledged. ... 
We cannot close our notice of the book without observing that it is one more monument 
of that patient and skilful industry which has been so largely employed upon the Holy 
Scriptures.’ — Watchman. 


‘Mr. Moulton’s work, for which every accessible source of help has been freely resorted 
to, is a translation and adaptation to his countrymen’s wants of Winer’s latest labours, 
to be pronounced altogether worthy of the great original. A more satisfactory piece of 
theological scholarship has not been brought under our notice for some time. .. . This 
commentary for the commentators ought to become the cherished and useful guide of 
many of our guides in sacred truth.’— Cowrant. 


‘A volume enriched with notes and indices, which will supersede all former editions, 
and prove a great boon to Biblical students.’—/reeman. 


a 


T. and T. Clark's Publications. 


In royal 8vo, price 18s., 


DICTIONARY AND GONCORDANGE 


OF THE NAMES OF PERSONS AND PLACES, AND OF SOME OF THE MORE REMARKABLE 
TERMS WHICH OCCUR IN THE SCRIPTURES OF THE OLD AND NEW TESTAMENTS. 


Compiled by WILLIAM HENDERSON, M.D. 


‘ We believe that this is the first thoroughly complete work of its kind—we mean, that 
it is the first to combine the office of a Dictionary of Names and Terms with that of 
a Concordance of all places where those words occur. Dr. Henderson has done his 
work with much care; and altogether the book is well planned and well executed.’— 
Literary Churchman. 

‘We warmly welcome this volume. The Jack of such a work has been widely felt. 
«νον We tender Dr. Henderson our hearty thanks for this most satisfactory result of his 
devout and learned labours. So far as we have examined, his Concordance is as correct 
as it is complete. Heartily commending this volume, we may add—what is of no small 
ss ye in a book of reference—that it is well printed in clear type on good paper.’ 
—Record. 


In demy 8vo, price 9s., 


AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF FRIEDRICH WILHELM KRUMMACHER. 


EDITED BY HIS DAUGHTER, AND 


Translated by Rev. M. G. EASTON, M.A. 


‘Dr. Krummacher of Potsdam, so well known by his “Elisha,” and “ Elijah,” and 
“ David,” died on the 10th of December last. Among his papers was found an autobio- 
graphy extending down to the year 1848. This autobiography, with a portrait and 
various additions, bringing it down to the day of his death, has now been published, and 
we are sure that all who know anything of its subject—and who does not ?—will eagerly 
secure the book, and not lay it down till they have finished it.-—Bibliotheca Sacra, 


New Edition, in crown 8vo, price 6s., 


THE METAPHYSICS OF ETHICS. 


By EMMANUEL KANT. 


TRANSLATED BY J. W. SEMPLE, ApvocaTEr, witH 


Prerace By H. CALDERWOOD, D.D., Proressor or Morat ΡΗΠΙΟΒΟΡΗΥ, 
UNIVERSITY OF EDINBURGH. 


‘A translation of Kant into intelligible English may be supposed to be as difficult as a 
translation of Carlyle into Ciceronian Latin. But Mr. Semple’s translation has been 
accepted by scholars as a real success. Some real knowledge of Kant is indispensable in 
order to comprehension of the learned thought of our time, and because the study of Kant 
is, on the whole, the best preliminary discipline for independent study of philosophy pro- 
per, as distinguished from mere science.’—Contemporary Review. 

‘All metaphysicians, writers and students of moral philosophy and political economy, 
will welcome this new edition of one of the best works of the famous philosopher of 
Konigsberg.’—New York Observer. 


In 8vo, price 10s. 6d., 


COMMENTARY ON THE GREEK TEXT OF 
THE EPISTLE OF PAUL TO THE GALATIANS. 


By PROFESSOR EADIE. 


‘A full and elaborate commentary on the Epistle to the Galatians. Dr. Eadie has had 
no common task before him, but he has done the work remarkably well.-—Contemporary 
Review. 


T. and T. Clark's Publications. 


Just published, in Two Volumes, demy 8vo, price 21s., 


COMMENTARY, EXEGETICAL AND CRITICAL, ON THE 
ACTS OF THE APOSTLES. 


By the Rev. PATON GLOAG, D.D., Minister of Blantyre. 


‘Dr. Gloag’s aim has been to supply a good exegetical commentary, and in this he has 
thoroughly succeeded. . . . We cannot be expected in all points to accept his conclusions, 
but we must do justice to the care and thoughtfulness with which they have been formed, 
and the ability by which they are supported. . . . To the careful student of the Acts the 
book will be a most important help. —English Independent. 

‘His expositions are generally sound and judicious. His work will greatly assist 
ministers in studying this most interesting book of Scripture with a view to its exposition 
from the pulpit. We cordially recommend it to them. —L£vangelical Witness. 

‘This commentary is a model; we could not name any writer, certainly not any 
exegetical writer, who gives his meaning with so little effort. It is extremely interesting 
to read ; quite devoid of mannerism or affectation, simple, strong, and to the point. We 
know of no commentary on the Acts which we could so confidently recommend to ja 
minister proposing to lecture through that book.’—Presbyterian. 


Just published, Fifth Edition, in Two Volumes, demy 8vo, price 21s., 


ΡΟ Or UAE. AU HE, 


VIEWED IN CONNECTION WITH THE WHOLE SERIES OF THE DIVINE 
DISPENSATIONS. 


By Principal FAIRBAIRN. 


‘One of the most sober, profound, and thorough treatises which we possess on a subject 
of great importance in its bearing on Christian doctrine.—ARcHDEACON DENISON’s 
Church and State Review. 

ΕἸ now say, no Biblical student should be without Professor Fairbairn’s ‘“ Typology.” ’ 
—Dr. 8. Len, in his ‘ Events and Times of the Visions of Daniel.’ 

‘The elaborate scope of Dr. Fairbairn’s work can only be fairly estimated by a close 
personal examination of it, which it fairly merits both for its subject’s sake, and its own. 
It has had the repeated revision of the writer, and his friends, and may be taken as an 
authoritative treatise. —Literary Churchman. 


Just published, Third Edition, in crown 8vo, price 6s., 


THE SINLESSNESS OF JESUS: 


AN EVIDENCE FOR CHRISTIANITY. 
By Dr. C. ULLMANN. 


‘We welcome it in English as one of the most beautiful productions of Germany, as 
not only readable for an English public, but as possessing, along with not a few defects, 
many distinguished excellencies. . ... We warmly recommend this beautiful work as 
eminently fitted to diffuse, among those who peruse it, a higher appreciation of the sin- 
lessness and moral eminence of Christ. The work has been blessed already; and may 
have its use also to an English public. —British and Foreign Evangelical Review. 


In Three Volumes, royal 8vo, price 36s., 


HISTORY OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH, 


By PHILIP SCHAFF, D.D., 


AvutTHor oF ‘THE History oF THE APOSTOLIC CHURCH.’ 


From the Birth of Christ to Gregory the Great, A.D. 1—600. 


‘We can heartily commend this work, as learned, scholar-like, and thorough... . 
There is throughout a breadth of view, a calmness of spirit, an occasional beauty of 
reflection, and above all a religiousness of tone, which prove that the writer has not lost 
his vigour in mere minuteness; nor has his heart become cold or dull through what may 
have been found to be a soul-hardening study. —Freeman. 


NOTICE TO SUBSCRIBERS. 


MESSRS. CLARK have much pleasure in forwarding to their 
Subscribers the second issue of Fourth Year (or Vols. 15 and 
16) of the Ante-Nicene Christian Library. 


THE Works OF TERTULLIAN (vol. 2), and 
THE APOCRYPHAL WRITINGS OF THE PERIOD. 


The Series has extended somewhat beyond their calculations ; 
but as this has arisen mainly from additions which add greatly 
to its value, they are satisfied the Subscribers will not find fault. 


It now seems certain that five, or at most, six volumes more 


will include all the writings of the Ante-Nicene period. 


The Publishers beg respectfully to invite attention to the 
Prospectus of 


THE WRITINGS OF ST. AUGUSTINE, 


and to solicit Subscribers’ names. 


May they also request an early remittance of the Subscription 
for Fifth Year (or Vols. 17-20) of the present Series. 


They again express their thankfulness for the support they 
have received. 


ANTE-NICENE 


CHRISTIAN LIBRARY: 


TRANSLATIONS OF 
THE WRITINGS OF THE FATHERS 


DOWN TO A.D. 325. 


EDITED BY THE 


REV. ALEXANDER ROBERTS, D.D., 


AND 


JAMES DONALDSON, LL.D. 


VOL. XVI. 


APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS, ACTS, AND 
REVELATIONS. 


EDINBURGH: 
T & T. CLARK, 38, GEORGE STREET. 
MDCCCLXX, 


PRINTED BY MURRAY AND GIBB, 


FOR 


T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH. 


LONDON, s 2» « » »* * HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND GG: 
DUBLIN, oe « » νεῖ 4. SOHN ROBERTSON AND CO, 


NEW YORK, » 2 « « » SORIBNER AND CO, 


APOCRYPHAL 


GOSPELS, ACTS, AND REVELATIONS. 


TRANSLATED BY 


ALEXANDER WALKER, Esq, 


ONE OF 
HER MAJESTY’S INSPECTORS OF SCHOOLS FOR SCOTLAND. 


EDINBURGH: 
T. & T. CLARK, 38, GEORGE STREET. 


MDCCCLXX. 


Hc yre_OF τε OF MED 4g 
Ἂν ‘Yay 


ewes μὴ 


. 


LIBRARY 


19947 


CONTENTS. 


came 
PAGE 
INTRODUCTION, : : P ᾿ : ἢ : vii 
THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES, . ; ς ᾿ F 1 
THE GOSPEL OF PsEUDO-MATTHEW, . : : : 16 
THE GOSPEL OF THE NATIVITY OF MARY, : : : 53 
THE History OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER, . ἱ ὃ : 62 
THE GOSPEL oF THOMAS— 
First Greek Form: The Infancy of the Lord, . ‘ 78 
Second Greek Form: The Childhood of the Lord, . ‘ 86 
Latin Form: The Boyhood of Jesus, . : : ν 90 
THE ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE INFANCY OF THE SAVIOUR, ᾿ ν 100 
THE GOSPEL ΟΕ NICODEMUS— 
The Acts of Pilate— 
First Greek Form, ‘ ; : : , 125 
Second Greek Form, ; : ¥ ; ; 149 
The Descent of Christ into Hell— 
Greek Form, : : : ἃ : ε 169 
The Acts of Pilate— 
Latin Form, ‘ ; : ‘ ‘ t 177 
The Descent of Christ into Hell— 
First Latin Version, ; ‘ : : : 198 
Second Latin Version, . ; ; ’ ; 213 


THE LETTER OF PoNTIUS PILATE, WHICH HE WROTE TO THE ROMAN 
EMPEROR CONCERNING OUR LorpD JESUS CHRIST, ; ‘ 223 
Tue Report oF PILATE THE PROCURATOR CONCERNING OUR LORD 
JESUS CHRIST, SENT TO RoME TO TIBERIUS CaSAR— 
First Greek Form, ; , F 4 ; 224 
Second Greek Form, . P j : : 228 


V1 CONTENTS. 


THE GIVING UP ΟΕ Pontius PILATE, 

Tue Deata OF PILATE, ; 

THe NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA, 

THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR, . ; : 


THe Acts or THE Hoty APOSTLES PETER AND PAUL, 

The Story of Perpetua, ‘ 4 Ἄ 
THE ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA, . ; 
THE Acts OF BARNABAS, . τ ; 
THE Acts oF PHILIP, : : - : 


Tue Acts ΟΕ PHILIP WHEN HE WENT TO UPPER HELLAS, . 
Tue Acts AND MARTYRDOM OF THE HoLy APOSTLE ANDREW, 


Tue Acts oF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS IN THE CITY OF THE MAN- 


EATERS, ; : i 


. . . 


Tue Acts OF PETER AND ANDREW, , : 
THE ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF MATTHEW THE APOSTLE, 
Tue Acts OF THE HoLy APposTLe THOMAs, 


THE CONSUMMATION OF THOMAS THE APOSTLE, 


THe MARTYRDOM OF THE HOLY AND GLORIOUS APOSTLE BARTHOLOMEW, 


Tue Acts or THE HoLy APosTLE THADDZUS, 3 


Tue Acts ΟΕ THE HOLY APOSTLE AND EVANGELIST JOHN, 
THE REVELATION OF MOSEs, . : : : 
THE REVELATION OF EspRAs, : 

THE REVELATION OF PAUL, . Σ 


THE REVELATION OF JOHN, . ‘ . 


. . 


THE Book OF JOHN CONCERNING THE FALLING ASLEEP OF Mary, 
THe Passinc or MARY— 

First Latin Form, ‘ 

Second Latin Form, 


INDEXES— 
Texts of Scripture quoted or referred to, 
Principal Matters, : ‘ ; 


PAGE 
231 
234 
237 
245 
256 
276 
279 
293 
301 
317 
335 


948 
908 
373 
389 
423 
429 
440 
444 
454 
468 
477 
493 
504 


515 
522 


531 
534 


ἘΌΝ a Pm Ma ΦΙΝ 9. 


INTRODUCTION. 


aw UR aim in these translations has been to give a 
ἢ rendering of the original as literal as possible; and 
to this we have adhered even in cases—and they 
are not a few—in which the Latin or the Greek is 
not in strict accordance with grammatical rule. It was thought 
advisable in all cases to give the reader the means of forming 
an accurate estimate of the style as well as the substance of 
these curious documents. 


PART I—APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


The first part of the volume, extending to page 255, com- 
prising the Apocryphal Gospels properly so called, consists of 
twenty-two separate documents, of which ten are written in 
Greek and twelve in Latin. These twenty-two may be classed 
under three heads: (a) those relating to the history of Joseph 
and of the Virgin Mary, previous to the birth of Christ; (0) 
those relating to the infancy of the Saviour; and (6) those 
relating to the history of Pilate. The origines of the traditions 
are the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, and 
the Acts of Pilate. All or most of the others can be referred 
to these three, as compilations, modifications, or amplifications. 

There is abundant evidence of the existence of many of these 
traditions in the second century, though it cannot be made out 
that any of the books were then in existence in their present 
form, The greater number of the authorities on the subject, 


B5 


ρ ὧν ee ἢ ὁ 


vil INTRODUCTION. 


however, seem to agree in assigning to the first four cen- 
turies of the Christian era, the following five books: 1. The 
Protevangelium of James; 2. The Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew ; 
4, The History of Joseph the Carpenter; 5. The Gospel of 
Thomas; 9. The Gospel of Nicodemus. 

We proceed to give a very brief notice of each of them. 


I. The Protevangelium of James.—The name of Protevan- 
gelium was first given to it by Postel, whose Latin version 
was published in 1552. The James is usually referred to St. 
James the Less, the Lord’s brother; but the titles vary very 
much. Origen, in the end of the second century, mentions a 
book of James, but it 15 by no means clear that he refers to 
the book in question. Justin Martyr, in two passages, refers 
to the cave in which Christ was born; and from the end of the 
fourth century down, there are numerous allusions in ecclesias- 
tical writings to statements made in the Protevangelium. 

For his edition Tischendorf made use of seventeen MSS., one 
of them belonging to the ninth century. The Greek is good of 
the kind, and free from errors and corruptions. There are trans- 
lations of it into English by Jones (1722) and Cowper (1867). 


II. Zhe Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew—The majority of the mss. 
attribute this book to Matthew, though the titles vary much. 
The letters prefixed, professing to be written to and by St. 
Jerome, exist in several of the MSs.; but no one who is ac- 
quainted with the style of Jerome’s letters will think this one 
authentic. There are, however, in his works many allusions to 
some of the legends mentioned in this book. Chapters 1.--χχῖν. 
were edited by Thilo, chapters xxv. to the end are edited for 
the first time by Tischendorf. It is not very clear whether the 
Latin be original, or a direct translation from the Greek. In 
most part it seems to be original. The list of epithets, how- 
ever, applied to the triangles of the Alpha in chapter xxxi. 
are pretty obviously mistranslations of Greek technical terms, 
which it might not be difficult to reproduce. 


IIL. Gospel of the Nativity of Mary.—This work, which is in 
substance the same as the earlier part of the preceding, yet 


INTRODUCTION. ix 


differs from it in several important points, indicating a later 
date and a different author. It has acquired great celebrity 
from having been transferred almost entire to the Historia 
Lombardica or Legenda Aurea in the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury. Medieval poetry and sacred art have been very much 
indebted to its pages. 

The original is in Latin, and is not a direct translation from 
the Greek. In many passages it follows very closely the Vul- 
gate translation. 


IV. The History of Joseph the Carpenter—The original lan- 
guage of this history is Coptic. From the Coptic it was trans- 
lated into Arabic. The Arabic was published by Wallin in 
1722, with a Latin translation and copious notes. Wallin’s 
version has been republished by Fabricius, and later in a some- 
what amended form by Thilo. This amended form of Wallin’s 
version is the text adopted by Tischendorf. Chapters xiv.—xxiii. 
have been published in the Sahidic text by Zoega in 1810 with 
a Latin translation, and more correctly by Dulaurier in 1835 
with a French translation. 

Tischendorf employs various arguments in support of his 
opinion that the work belongs to the fourth century. It is 
found, he says, in both dialects of the Coptic: the eschatology 
of it is not inconsistent with an early date: the feast of the 
thousand years of chapter xxvi. had become part of heretical 
opinion after the third century. The death of the Virgin 
Mary in chapter v. is inconsistent with the doctrine of the 
assumption, which began to prevail in the fifth century. 


V., VL, VIL. Zhe Gospel of Thomas.—Like the Protevange- 
lium of James, the Gospel of Thomas is of undoubted anti- 
quity. It is mentioned by name by Origen, quoted by Irenzeus 
and the author of the Philosophumena, who says that it was 
used by the Nachashenes, a Gnostic sect of the second cen- 
tury. Cyril of Jerusalem (+ 386) attributes the authorship 
not to the apostle, but to a Thomas who was one of the three 
disciples of Manes. This fact, of course, indicates that Cyril 
knew nothing of the antiquity of the book he was speaking of. 
This Manichzan origin has been adopted by many writers, 


x INTRODUCTION. 


of whom the best known are in recent times R. Simon and 
Mingarelli. | 

The text of the first Greek form is obtained from a Bologna 
Ms. published by Mingarelli with a Latin translation in 1764, 
a Dresden ms. of the sixteenth century edited by Thilo, a 
Viennese fragment edited by Lambecius, and a Parisian fragment 
first brought to light by Coteler in his edition of the Aposto- 
1104] Constitutions, and translated into English by Jones. 

The second Greek form is published for the first time by 
Tischendorf, who got the Ms., which is on paper, of the four- 
teenth or fifteenth century, from one of the monasteries on 
Mount Sinai. 

The Latin form is also published for the first time, from a 
Vatican Ms. There is another Latin text existing in a palimpsest, 
which Tischendorf assigns to the fifth century, and asserts to be 
much nearer the ancient Greek copy than any of the other Mss. 

It seems pretty clear, from the contents of the book, that its 
author was a Gnostic, a Docetist, and a Marcosian; and it was 
held in estimation by the Nachashenes and the Manicheans. 
Its bearing upon Christian art, and to some extent Christian 
dogma, is well known. 

The Greek of the original is by no means good, and the 
Latin translator has in many cases mistaken the meaning of 
common Greek words. 


VIII. Arabic Gospel of the Saviour’s Infancy.—Chapters 
i—ix. are founded on the Gospels of Luke and Matthew, and 
on the Protevangelium of James; chapters xxxvi. to the end 
are compiled from the Gospel of Thomas; the rest of the book, 
chapters x. to xxxv., is thoroughly Oriental in its character, 
reminding one of the tales of the Arabian Nights, or of the 
episodes in the Golden Ass of Apuleius. 

It is evident that-the work is a compilation, and that the 
compiler was an Oriental. Various arguments are adduced to 
prove that the original language of it was Syriac. 

It was first published, with a Latin translation and copious 
notes, by Professor Sike of Cambridge in 1697, afterwards by 
Fabricius, Jones, Schmid, and Thilo. Tischendorf’s text is 
Sike’s Latin version amended by Fleischer. 


INTRODUCTION. > al 


There are not sufficient data for fixing with any accuracy 
the time at which it was composed or compiled. 


IX—XIV. The Gospel of Nicodemus—tThe six documents in- 
serted under this name are various forms of two books—two 
in Greek and one in Latin of the Acts of Pilate; one in Greek 
and two in Latin of the Descent of Christ to the world below. 
Of twelve Mss., only two or three give the second part con- 
secutively with the first, nor does it so appear in the Coptic 
translation. The title of Gospel of Nicodemus does not appear 
before the thirteenth century. 

Justin Martyr mentions a book called the Acts of Pilate, 
and Eusebius informs us that the Emperor Maximin allowed 
or ordered a book, composed by the pagans under this title, 
to be published in a certain portion of the empire, and even 
to be taught in the schools; but neither of these could have 
been the work under consideration. 

Tischendorf attributes it to the second century, which is pro- 
‘bably too early, though without doubt the legend was formed by 
the end of the second century. Maury (Mém. de la Société des 
Antiq. de France, Ὁ. xx.) places it in the beginning of the fifth 
century, from 405 to 420; and Renan (Htudes d’ Hist. Relig. p. 
177) concurs in this opinion. An able writer in the Quarterly 
Review (vol. cxvi.) assigns it to 439; the author of the article 
Pilate, in Smith’s bible Dictionary, gives the end of the third 
century as the probable date. 

The author was probably a Hellenistic Jew converted to 
Christianity, or, as Tischendorf and Maury conclude, a Chris- 
tian imbued with Judaic and Gnostic beliefs. The original 
language was most probably Greek, though, as in the case of 
Pseudo-Matthew, the History of Joseph the Carpenter, etc., 
the original language is, in many of the prefaces, stated’ to 
have been Hebrew. Some think that Latin was the original 
language, on the ground that Pilate would make his report to 
the Emperor in that, the official, language. The Latin text we 
have, however, is obviously a translation, made, moreover, by 
a man to whom Greek was not very familiar, as is obvious 
from several instances specified in our notes to the text. 

The editio princeps of the Latin text is without place or date, 


ΧΙ INTRODUCTION. 


and it has been re-edited by Jones, Birch, Fabricius, Thilo, and 
others. The Greek text of Part I., and of a portion of Part IL., 
was first published by Birch, and afterwards in a much im- 
proved form, with the addition of copious notes and prolego- 
mena, by Thilo. The latter part of his prolegomena contains 
a full account of the English, French, Italian, and German 
translations. For his edition Tischendorf consulted thirty-nine 
ancient documents, of which a full account is given in his pro- 
legomena, pp. Ixxi.—lxxvi. 

For an interesting account of these documents, see the in- 
troduction to Mr. B. H. Cowper’s translation of the Apocryphal 
Gospels, pp. Ixxxv.—cil. 


XV. The Letter of Pontius Pilate—The text is formed from 
four authorities, none of them ancient. A translation of the 
Greek text of the same letter will be found at p. 264. 


XVI, XVII. Zhe Report of Pilate——The first of these docu- 
ments was first published by Fabricius with a Latin transla- 
tion; the second by Birch, and then by Thilo. Tischendorf 
has made use of five Mss., the earliest of the twelfth century. 
It does not seem possible to assign the date. 


XVIII. The Paradosis of Pilate—It has been well remarked 
by the author of the article in the Quarterly Review above 
referred to, that the early church looked on Pilate with no 
unfavourable eye; that he is favourably shown in the cata- 
combs ; that the early fathers interpreted him as a figure of 
the early church, and held him to be guiltless of Christ’s 
death; that the creeds do not condemn him, and the Coptic 
Church has even made him a saint. He remarks also that 
Dante finds punishments for Caiaphas and Annas, but not for 
Pilate. 

The text was first edited by Birch, and afterwards by Thilo. 
Tischendorf makes use of five Mss., of which the earliest belongs 
to the twelfth century. 


XIX. The Death of Pilate—This is published for the first 
time by Tischendorf from a Latin Ms. of the fourteenth cen- 


INTRODUCTION. xii 


tury. The language shows it to be of a late date. It appears 
almost entire in the Legenda Aurea. 


XX. The Narrative of Joseph—This history seems to have 
been popular in the middle ages, if we may judge from the 
number of the Greek mss. of it which remain. 

It was first published by Birch, and after him by Thilo. 
For his edition Tischendorf made use of three Mss., of which 
the oldest belongs to the twelfth century. 


XXI. The Avenging of the Saviowr—This version of the 
Legend of Veronica is written in very barbarous Latin, pro- 
bably of the seventh or eighth century. An Anglo-Saxon 
version, which Tischendorf concludes to be derived from the 
Latin, was edited and translated for the Cambridge Antiquarian 
Society, by C. W. Goodwin, in 1851. The Anglo-Saxon text 
is from a MS. in the Cambridge Library, one of a number 
presented to the Cathedral of Exeter by Bishop Leofric in 
the beginning of the eleventh century. 

The reader will observe that there are in this document two 
distinct legends, somewhat clumsily joined together—that of 
Nathan’s embassy, and that of Veronica. 


PART II —THE APOCRYPHAL ACTS OF THE 
APOSTLES. 


This portion of the volume, extending from page 256 to page 
454, presents us with documents written in a style consider- 
ably different from that of the Apocryphal Gospels properly 
so called. There we have without stint the signs that the 
Jews desired; here we begin to have some glimpses of the 
wisdom which the Greeks sought after, along with a consider- 
able share of 


Quidquid Grecia mendax 
Audet in historia. 


We have less of miracle, more of elaborate discourse. The 


Apocryphal Gospels were suited to the vilis plebecula, from 
b 


ΧΙΥ͂ INTRODUCTION. 


which, as Jerome said, the church originated; the Apocryphal 
Acts appeal more to the Academia. 

We have in ancient literature, especially Greek literature, a 
long series of fabulous histories attached to the names of men 
who made themselves famous either in arts or arms. This 
taste for the marvellous became general after the expedition 
of Alexander; and from that time down we have numerous 
examples of it in the lives of Alexander, of Pythagoras, of 
Apollonius of Tyana, of Homer, of Virgil, and others without 
number; and we all know how much fabulous matter is apt 
to gather round the names of popular heroes even in modern 
times. 

It is not to be wondered at, then, that round the names 
of Christ and His apostles, who had brought about social 
changes greater than those effected by the exploits of any 
hero of old, there should gather, as the result of the wondering 
awe of simple-minded men, a growth of the romantic and the 
fabulous. 

These stories came at length to form a sort of apostolic cycle, 
of which the documents following are portions. They exist 
also in a Latin form in the ten books of the Acts of the 
Apostles, compiled probably in the sixth century, and falsely 
attributed to Abdias, the first bishop of Babylon, by whom it 
was, of course, written in Hebrew. 

We shall now give a brief account of each of the thirteen 
documents which make up this part of the volume. 


I. The Acts of Peter and Paul—This book was first pub- 
lished in a complete form by Thilo in 1837 and 1838. A 
portion of it had already been translated into Latin by the 
famous Greek scholar Constantine Lascaris in 1490, and had 
been made use of in the celebrated controversy as to the situa- 
tion of the island Melita, wpon which St. Paul was shipwrecked. 
For his edition Tischendorf collated six Mss., the oldest of the 
end of the ninth century. 

Some portions at least of the book are of an early date. The 
Domine quo vadis story, p. 275, is referred to by Origen, and 
others after him. A book called the Acts of Peter is con- 
demned in the decree of Pope Gelasius. 


INTRODUCTION. XV 


Il. Acts of Paul and Thecla—This book is of undoubted 
antiquity. There seems reason to accept the account of it 
given by Tertullian, that it was written by an Asiatic pres- 
byter in glorification of St. Paul (who, however, unquestion- 
ably occupies only a secondary place in it), and in support of 
the heretical opinion that women may teach and baptize. It 
is expressly mentioned and quoted by a long line of Latin and 
Greek fathers. The quotations are inserted in Tischendorf’s 
Prolegomena, p. XX1v. 

The text was first edited in 1698 by Grabe from a Bodleian 
MS., republished by Jones in 1726. A blank in the Bodleian 
MS. was supplied in 1715 by Thomas Hearne from another 
Oxford ms. Tischendorf’s text is from a recension of three 
Paris Mss., each of the eleventh century. 


III. Acts of Barnabas——This book has more an air of truth 
about it than any of the others. There is not much extrava- 
. gance in the details, and the geography is correct, showing that 
the writer knew Cyprus well. It seems to have been written 
at all events before 478, in which year the body of Barnabas is 
said to have been found in Cyprus. 

Papebroche first edited the book in the Acta Sanctorum in 
1698, with a Latin translation. The Vatican ms. which he 
used was an imperfect one. Tischendorf’s text is from a 
Parisian MS. of the end of the ninth century. 


IV. Acts of Philip.—A book under this name was condemned 
in the decree of Pope Gelasius; and that the traditions about 
Philip were well known from an early date, is evident from 
the abundant references to them in ancient documents. The 
writings of the Hagiographers also, both Greek and Latin, con- 
tain epitomes of Philip’s life. 

The Greek text, now first published, is a recension of two 
MSS.,—a Parisian one of the eleventh century, and a Venetian 
one. The latter is noticeable, from being superscribed Hrom 
the Fifteenth Act to the end, leaving us to infer that we have 
only a portion of the book. | 


V. Acts of Philip in Hellas——This also is published for the 


xvi INTRODUCTION. 


first time by Tischendorf. It is obviously a later document 
than the preceding, though composed in the same style. It is 
from a Parisian Ms. of the eleventh century. 


VI. Acts of Andrew—In the decree of Pope Gelasius 
(t 496), a book under this name is condemned as apocryphal. 
Epiphanius (f 403) states that the Acts of Andrew were in 
favour with the Encratites, the Apostolics, and the Origenians ; 
Augustine (f 430) mentions that the Acts of the Apostles 
written by Leucius Charinus— discipulus diaboli, as Pope 
Gelasius calls him—were held in estimation by the Manicheeans. 
The authorship generally is attributed to Leucius by early 
writers; Innocentius I. (t 417), however, says that the Acts of 
Andrew were composed by the philosophers Nexocharis and 
Leonidas. This book is much the same in substance with the 
celebrated Presbyterorum et Diaconorum <Achaice de martyrio 
S. Andree apostoli epistola encyclica, first edited in Greek by 
Woog in 1749, and by him considered to be a genuine writing 
of the apostolic age, composed about A.D. 80. Thilo, while 
dissenting from this opinion of Woog’s, concludes that it is a 
fragment from the Acts of Leucius, expurgated of most of its 
heresy, and put into its present shape by an orthodox writer. 
Cardinals Baronius and Bellarmine assign the epistle to the 
apostolic age; Fabricius thinks it much later. 

The probability is that the book was written by Leucius, 
following earlier traditions, and that it was afterwards revised 
and fitted for general reading by an orthodox hand. 

Though some of the traditions mentioned in the book are 
referred to by authors of the beginning of the fifth century, 
there does not seem to be any undoubted quotation of it before 
the eighth and the tenth centuries. Some portions of Pseudo- 
Abdias, however, are almost in the words of our Greek Acts. 

The text is edited chiefly from two Mss.,—the one of the 
eleventh, the other of the fourteenth century. 

The Greek of the original is good of the kind, and exhibits 
considerable rhetorical skill, 


VII. Acts of Andrew and Matthias.— Thilo assigns the 
authorship of these Acts also to Leucius, and the use of them 


INTRODUCTION. XVil 


to the Gnostics, Manichzans, and other heretics. Pseudo- 
Abdias seems to have derived his account of Andrew and 
Matthias from the same source. Epiphanius the monk, who 
wrote in the tenth century, gives extracts from the history. 
There is, besides, an old English—commonly called Anglo- 
Saxon—poem, Andrew and Helene, published by Jacob Grimm 
in 1840, the argument of which in great part coincides with 
that of the Acts of Andrew and Matthias. 

There is considerable doubt as to whether it is Matthias or 
Matthew that is spoken of. Pseudo-Abdias, followed by all 
the Latin writers on the subject, calls him Matthew. The 
Greek texts hesitate between the two. Tischendorf edits 
Matthias, on the authority of his oldest ms. There is also 
some discrepancy as to the name of the town. Some MSs. 
say Sinope, others Myrmene or Myrna: they generally, how- 
ever, coincide in calling it a town of Aithiopia. 

Thilo, and Tischendorf after him, made use chiefly of three 
Mss., only one of which, of the fifteenth century, contains the 
whole book. The oldest is an uncial Ms. of about the eighth 
century. 

The Acts of Peter and Andrew, from the Bodleian MS., are 
inserted as an appendix to the Acts of Andrew and Matthias. 


VIII. Acts of Matthew—This book is edited by Tischendorf 
for the first time. It is a much later production than the last, 
written in bad Greek, and in a style rendered very cumbrous 
by the use of participial phrases. 

On the authority of the oldest ms., Matthew, not Matthias, 
is the name here. It is probably owing to this confusion 
between the names, that there is much uncertainty in the 
traditions regarding St. Matthew. 

Tischendorf gives, in his Prolegomena, a long extract from 
Nicephorus, which shows that he was acquainted with this 
book, or something very like it. 

The text is edited from two Mss.,—a Parisian of the eleventh 
_ century, and a Viennese of a later date. 


IX. Acts of Thomas.—The substance of this book is of great 
antiquity, and in its original form it was held in great estima- 


ἐν INTRODUCTION. 


tion by the heretics of the first and second centuries. The 
main heresy which it contained was that the Apostle Thomas 
baptized, not with water, but with oil only. It is mentioned 
by Epiphanius, Turribius, and Nicephorus, condemned in the 
decree of Gelasius, and in the Synopsis of Scripture ascribed to 
Athanasius, in which it is placed, along with the Acts of Peter, 
Acts of John, and other books, among the Antilegomena. St. 
Augustine in three passages refers to the book in such a way as 
to show that he had it in something very like its present form. 
Two centuries later, Pseudo-Abdias made a recension of the 
book, rejecting the more heretical portions, and adapting it 
generally to orthodox use. Photius attributes the authorship 
of this document, as of many other apocryphal Acts, to Leucius 
Charinus. 

The Greek text was first edited, with copious notes and pro- 
legomena, by Thilo in 1823. The text from which the present 
translation is made is a recension of five Mss., the oldest of the 
tenth century. . 


X. Consummation of Thomas.—This is properly a portion of 
the preceding book. Pseudo-Abdias follows it very closely, 
but the Greek of some chapters of his translation or compilation 
has not yet been discovered. 

The text, edited by Tischendorf for the first time, is from a 
MS. of the eleventh century. 


XI. Martyrdom of Bartholomew—This Greek text, now for 
the first time edited by Tischendorf, is very similar to the 
account of Bartholomew in Pseudo-Abdias. The editor is 
inclined to believe, not that the Greek text is a translation of 
Abdias, which it probably is, but that both it and Abdias are 
derived from the same source. Tischendorf seems inclined to 
lay some weight upon the mention made by Abdias of a certain 
Crato, said to be a disciple of the Apostles Simon and Judas, 
having written a voluminous history of the apostles, which 
was translated into Latin by Julius Africanus. The whole | 
story, however, is absurd. It is very improbable that Julius 
Africanus knew any Latin; it is possible, however, that he may 
have compiled some stories of the apostles, that these may have 


INTRODUCTION. xix 


been translated into Latin, and that Pseudo-Crato and Pseudo- 
Abdias may have derived some of their materials from this 
source. 

The Greek text is edited from a Venetian MS. of the thir- 
teenth century. 


XII. Acts of Thaddeus.—This document, of which our text 
is the editio princeps, is of some consequence, as giving in 
another form the famous letters of Christ to Abgarus. Eusebius 
(7. £. i. 13) says he found in the archives of Edessa the letters 
written by their own hands, and that he translated them from 
the Syriac. The story of the portrait was a later invention. 
It is found in Pseudo-Abdias (x. 1), and with great detail in 
Nicephorus (H. #. ii. 7). There is considerable variety in the 
texts of the letters. They were, probably written in Syriac in 
the third century by some native of Edessa, who wished to add 
to the importance of his city and the antiquity of his church. 
See the whole subject discussed in Dr. Cureton’s Ancient Syriac 
Documents relative to the earliest establishment of Christianity in 
Edessa. 

The Greek text, which is probably of the sixth or seventh 
century, seems, from allusions to the synagogue, the hours of 
prayer, the Sabbath-day, οἷο, to have been written by a Jew. 
It is edited from a Paris Ms. of the eleventh century, and a 
Vienna one of a later date. 


XIII. Acts of John—A book under this title is mentioned by 
Eusebius, Epiphanius, Photius, among Greek writers; Augus- 
tine, Philastrius, Innocent 1., and Turribius among Latin writers. 
The two last named and Photius ascribe the authorship to 
Leucius, discipulus diaboli, who got the credit of all these here- 
tical brochures. It is not named in the decree of Gelasius. » 

Augustine (Zractat. 124 in Johannem) relates at length the 
story of John going down alive into his grave, and of the fact 
of his being alive being shown by his breath stirring about the 
dust on the tomb. This story, which has some resemblance to 
the Teutonic legend of Barbarossa, is repeated by Photius. 

There is a Latin document published by Fabricius, Pseudo- 
Melitonis liber de Passione δ. Johannis Evangeliste, which the 


xx INTRODUCTION. 


author professed to write with the original of Leucius before 
his eyes. It has considerable resemblances in some passages 
to the present text. The only passages in Pseudo-Abdias that 
appear to have any connection with the present document are 
those which refer to the apostle’s burial. 

The text is edited from a Paris Ms. of the eleventh century, 
and a Vienna one, to which no date is assigned. 

It is doubtful whether the narrative part of the Acts of 
John be by the same hand as the discourses. 


PART IIL—APOCRYPHAL APOCALYPSES. 


This portion of the volume, extending from page 454 to the 
end, consists of seven documents, four of which are called 
Apocalypses by their authors. Of these, the Greek text of 
the first three is edited for the first time; the fourth, the 
Apocalypse of John, has appeared before. The fifth, The 
Falling Asleep of Mary, appears for the first time in its Greek 
form, and in the first Latin recension of it. 

The mss. of these documents are characterized by extreme 
variety of readings ; and in some of them, especially the earlier 
portion of the Apocalypse of Esdras, the text is in a very 
corrupt state. 


I. The Apocalypse of Moses—This document belongs to the 
Apocrypha of the Old Testament rather than to that of the 
New. We have been unable to find in it any reference to any 
Christian writing. In its form, too, it appears to be a portion 
of some larger work. Parts of it at least are of an ancient 
date, as it is very likely from this source that the writer of 
the Gospel of Nicodemus took the celebrated legend of the 
Tree of Life and the Oil of Mercy. An account of this legend 
will be found in Cowper’s Apocryphal Gospels, xcix.—cii. ; in 
Maury, Croyances et Légendes de l Antiquité, p. 294; in Renan’s 
commentary to the Syriac text of the Penitence of Adam, edited 
and translated by Renan in the Journal Asiatique for 1853. 
There appeared a poetical rendering of the legend in Black- 
- wood’s Magazine ten or twelve years ago. 


INTRODUCTION. xxl 


Tischendorf’s text is made from four Mss.: A, a Venice MS. 
of the thirteenth century ; B and C, Vienna mss. of the thir- 
teenth and twelfth centuries respectively ; and 1), a Milan Ms. 
of about the eleventh century. 


Il. The Apocalypse of Esdras—This book is a weak imita- 
tion of the apocryphal fourth book of Esdras. Thilo, in his 
prolegomena to the Acts of Thomas, p. lxxxi., mentions it, 
and doubts whether it be the fourth book of Esdras or not. 
Portions of it were published by Dr. Hase of the Paris Library, 
and it was then seen that it was a different production. The 
Ms. is of about the fifteenth century, and in the earlier portions 
very difficult to read. 


Ill. Zhe Apocalypse of Paul_—There are two apocryphal 
books bearing the name of Paul mentioned by ancient writers : 
The Ascension of Paul, adopted by the Cainites and the 
Gnostics ; and the Apocalypse of Paul, spoken of by Augus- 
tine and Sozomen. There seems to be no doubt that the pre- 
sent text, discovered by Tischendorf in 1843, and published by 
him in 1866, is the book mentioned by Augustine and Sozo- 
men. It is referred to by numerous authorities, one of whom, 
however, ascribes it to the heretic Paul of Samosata, the founder 
of the sect of the Paulicians. 

There appear to be versions of it in Coptic, Syriac, and 
Arabic. One of the Syriac versions, from an Urumiyeh Ms., 
was translated into English by an American missionary in 
1864. This translation, or the greater portion of it, is printed 
by Tischendorf along with his edition of the text. 

Tischendorf, upon what seems to be pretty good evidence, 
ascribes it to the year 380. It is from a Milan ms. of not 
earlier than the fifteenth century. There is another Ms. two 
centuries older; but they both seem to be copied from the same 
original. The Syriac seems to be later than the Greek, and, 
according to Eastern fashion, fuller in details. 


IV. The Apocalypse of John.—In the scholia to the Grammar 
of Dionysius the Thracian, ascribed to the ninth century, im- 
mediately after the ascription of the Apocalypse of Paul to 


xxl INTRODUCTION. 


Paul of Samosata, there occurs the following statement: ‘And 
there is another called the Apocalypse of John the Theologian. 
We do not speak of that in the island of Patmos, God forbid, 
for it is most true; but of a supposititious and spurious one.’ 
This is the oldest reference to this Apocalypse. Asseman says 
he found the book in Arabic in three Mss. 

The document was first edited by Birch in 1804, from a 
Vatican Ms., collated with a Vienna ms. For his edition 
Tischendorf collated other five Mss., two of Paris, three of 
Vienna, of from the fourteenth to the sixteenth century. 

Of other Apocalypses, Tischendorf in his Prolegomena gives 
an abstract of the Apocalypse of Peter, the Apocalypse of 
Bartholomew, the Apocalypse of Mary, and the Apocalypse of 
Daniel. The Apocalypse of Peter professes to be written by 
Clement. There is an Arabic Ms. of it in the Bodleian Library. 
It is called the Perfect Book, or the Book of Perfection, and 
consists of eighty-nine chapters, comprising a history of the 
world as revealed to Peter, from the foundation of the world to 
the appearing of Antichrist. 

The Apocalypse of Bartholomew, from a Ms. in the Paris 
Library, was edited and translated by Dulaurier in 1835. The 
translation appears in Tischendorf’s Prolegomena. 

The Apocalypse of Mary, containing her descent to the 
lower world, appears in several Greek Mss. It is of a late date, 
the work of some monk of the middle ages. 

The Apocalypse of Daniel, otherwise called the Revelation 
of the Prophet Daniel about the consummation of the world, is 
also of a late date. About the half of the Greek text is given 
in the Prolegomena. We have not thought it necessary to 
translate it. 


V., VIL, VII. The Assumption of Mary—It is somewhat 
strange that the Greek text of this book, which has been trans- 
lated into several languages both of the East and the West, 
is edited by Tischendorf for the first time. He assigns it to 
a date not later than the fourth century. A book under this 
title is condemned in the decree of Gelasius. The author of 
the Second Latin Form (see p. 522, note), writing under the 
name of Melito, ascribes the authorship of a treatise on the 


ee 


INTRODUCTION. XXlil 


same subject to Leucius. This, however, cannot be the book 
so ascribed to Leucius, as Pseudo-Melito affirms that his book, 
which is in substance the same as the Greek text, was written 
to condemn Leucius’ heresies. 

There are translations or recensions of our text in Syriac, 
Sahidic, and Arabic. The Syriac was edited and translated 
by Wright in. 1865, in his Contributions to the Apocryphal 
Literature of the New Testament. Another recension of it was 
published in the Journal of Sacred Literature for January and 
April 1864. An Arabic version of it, resembling more the 
Syriac than the Greek or Latin, was edited and translated by 
Enger in 1854. The Sahidic recension, published and trans- 
lated by Zoega and Dulaurier, is considerably different from 
our present texts. The numerous Latin recensions also differ 
considerably from each other, as will be seen from a comparison 
of the First Latin Form with the Second. They are all, how- 
ever, from the same source, and that probably the Greek text 
which we have translated. The Greek texts, again, exhibit 
considerable variations, especially in the latter portions. 

In the end of the seventh century, John Archbishop of 
Thessalonica wrote a discourse on the falling asleep of Mary, 
mainly derived from the book of Pseudo-John; and in some 
Mss. this treatise of John of Thessalonica is ascribed to John 
the Apostle. Epiphanius, however, makes distinctive mention 
of both treatises. 

For his edition of the Greek text, Tischendorf made use of 
five Mss., the oldest of the eleventh century. 

The First Latin Form is edited from three Italian mss., the 
oldest of the thirteenth century. 

The Second Latin Form, which has been previously published 
elsewhere, is from a Venetian Ms. of the fourteenth century. 


We have now concluded our notices, compiled chiefly from 
Tischendorf’s Prolegomena, of the Apocryphal Literature of the 
New Testament. 

While these documents are of considerable interest and 
value, as giving evidence of a widespread feeling in early 
times of the importance of the events which form the basis of 
our belief, and as affording us curious glimpses of the state of 


XX1V INTRODUCTION. 


the Christian conscience, and of modes of Christian thought, 
in the first centuries of our era, the predominant impression 
which they leave on our minds is a profound sense of the 
immeasurable superiority, the unapproachable simplicity and 
majesty, of the Canonical Writings. 


St. ANDREWS, 26th March 1870. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 


THE BIRTH OF MARY THE HOLY MOTHER OF GOD, AND VERY 
GLORIOUS MOTHER OF JESUS CHRIST. 


“aN the records of the twelve tribes of Israel was 
Joachim, a man rich exceedingly; and he brought 
his offerings double,’ saying: There shall be of my 
superabundance to all the people, and there shall be 
the offering for my forgiveness? to the Lord for a propitiation 
for me.* For the great day of the Lord was at hand, and the 
sons of Israel were bringing their offerings. And there stood 
over against him Rubim, saying: It is not meet for thee first 
to bring thine offerings, because thou hast not made seed in 
Israel.4 And Joachim was exceedingly grieved, and went away 
to the registers of the twelve tribes of the people, saying: I 
shall see the registers of the twelve tribes of Israel, as to 
whether I alone have not made seed in Israel. And he searched, 
and found that all the righteous had raised up seed in Israel. 
And he called to mind the patriarch Abraham, that in the last 
day° God gave him a son Isaac. And Joachim was exceedingly 
grieved, and did not come into the presence of his wife; but he 


? Susanna i. 4. 

2 The readings vary, and the sense is doubtful. Thilo thinks that the sense 
is: What I offer over and above what the law requires is for the benefit of the 
whole people ; but the offering I make for my own forgiveness (according to 
the law’s requirements) shall be to the Lord, that He may be rendered merciful 
to me. 

3 The Church of Rome appoints March 20 as the Feast of St. Joachim. His 
liberality is commemorated in the prayers, and the lessons to be read are Wisd. 
xxxi. and Matt. i. 

#1 Sam. i. 6, 7; Hos. ix. 14. 

5 Another reading is: In his last days. 


A 


2 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


retired to the desert,’ and there pitched his tent, and fasted forty 
days and forty nights,’ saying in himself: I will not go down 
either for food or for drink until the Lord my God shall look 
upon me, and prayer shall be my food and drink. 

2. And his wife Anna® mourned in two mournings, and 
lamented in two lamentations, saying: I shall bewail my widow- 
hood; I shall bewail my childlessness. And the great day of 
the Lord was at hand; and Judith* her maid-servant said : 
How long dost thou humiliate thy soul? Behold, the great 
day of the Lord is at hand, and it is unlawful for thee to 
mourn. But take this head-band, which the woman that made 
it gave to me; for it is not proper that I should wear it, because 
I am a maid-servant, and it has a royal appearance. And 
Anna said: Depart from me; for I have not done such things, 
and the Lord has brought me very low. I fear that some 
wicked person has given it to thee, and thou hast come to make 
me a sharer in thy sin. And Judith said: Why should I curse 
thee, seeing that® the Lord hath shut thy womb, so as not to 
cive thee fruit in Israel? And Anna was grieved exceedingly, 
and put off her garments of mourning, and cleaned her head, 
and put on her wedding garments, and about the ninth hour 
went down to the garden to walk. And she saw a laurel, and 
sat under it, and prayed to the Lord, saying: O God of our 
fathers, bless me and hear my prayer, as Thou didst bless the 
womb of Sarah, and didst give her a son Isaac.’ 

3. And gazing towards the heaven, she saw a sparrow’s nest 
in the laurel,® and made a lamentation in herself, saying: Alas ! 
who begot me? and what womb produced me? because I have 
become a curse in the presence of the sons of Israel, and I have 
been reproached, and they have driven me in derision out of 
the temple of the Lord. Alas! to what have I been likened ? 


1 Another reading is: Into the hill-country. 

* Moses: Ex. xxiv. 18, xxxiv. 28; Deut. ix. 9. Elijah: 1 Kings xix. 8. 
Christ: Matt. iv. 2. 

8 The 26th of July is the Feast of St. Anna in the Church of Rome. 

4 Other forms of the name are Juth, Juthin. 

5 Some mss. have: For I am thy maid-servant, and thou hast a regal appear- 
ance. 

ὁ Several mss. insert: Thou hast not listened to my voice ; for. 

7 Cf. 1 Sam. i. 9-18. ὃ Tobit ii. 10. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 3 


T am not like the fowls of the heaven, because even the fowls 
of the heaven are productive before Thee, O Lord. Alas! to 
what have I been likened? I am not like the beasts of the 
earth, because even the beasts of the earth are productive be- 
fore Thee, O Lord. Alas! to what have I been likened? I 
am not like these waters, because even these waters are pro- 
ductive before Thee, O Lord. Alas! to what have I been 
likened ?° I am not like this earth, because even the earth 
bringeth forth its fruits in season, and blesseth Thee, O Lord.* 

4, And, behold, an angel of the Lord stood by, saying: Anna, 
Anna, the Lord hath heard thy prayer, and thou shalt conceive, 
and shalt bring forth; and thy seed shall be spoken of in all the 
world. And Anna said: As the Lord my God liveth, if I beget 
either male or female, I will bring it as a gift to the Lord my 
God; and it shall minister to Him in holy things all the days 
of its life” And, behold, two angels came, saying to her: Be- 
hold, Joachim thy husband is coming with his flocks.* For an 
angel of the Lord went down to him, saying: Joachim, Joachim, 
the Lord God hath heard thy prayer. Go down hence; for, be- 
hold, thy wife Anna shall conceive. And Joachim went down 
and called his shepherds, saying: Bring me hither ten she-lambs 
without spot or blemish, and they shall be for the Lord my God; 
and bring me twelve tender calves, and they shall be for the 
priests and the elders ; and a hundred goats for all the people. 
And, behold, Joachim came with his flocks; and Anna stood 
by the gate, and saw Joachim coming, and she ran and hung 
upon his neck, saying: Now I know that the Lord God hath 
blessed me exceedingly ; for, behold, the widow no longer a 
widow, and I the childless shall conceive. And Joachim 
rested the first day in his house. 

5. And on the following day he brought his offerings, saying 
in himself: If the Lord God has been rendered gracious to me, 
the plate* on the priest’s forehead will make it manifest to me. 


1 Many of the mss. here add: Alas! to what have I been likened? I am 
not like the waves of the sea, because even the waves of the sea, in calm and 
storm, and the fishes in them, bless Thee, O Lord. 

=) Sam. 1. 11. 

3 One of the mss.: With his shepherds, and sheep, and goats, and oxen. 

4 Ex. xxvili. 32. For traditions about the petalon, see Euseb. H. EL. ii. 23, 
iii. 31, v. 24; Epiph. Her. 78. 


4 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


And Joachim brought his offerings, and observed attentively 
the priest’s plate when he went up to the altar of the Lord, and 
he saw no sin in himself. And Joachim said: Now I know 
that the Lord has been gracious unto me, and has remitted all 
my sins. And he went down from the temple of the Lord 
justified, and departed to his own house. And her months 
were fulfilled, and in the ninth’ month Anna brought forth. 
And she said to the midwife: What have I brought forth ? and 
she said: A girl. And said Anna: My soul has been magnified 
this day. And she laid her down. And the days having been 
fulfilled, Anna was purified, and gave the breast to the child, 
and? called her name Mary. 

6. And the child grew strong day by day; and when she 
was six® months old, her mother set her on the ground to try 
whether she could stand, and she walked seven steps and came 
into her bosom; and she snatched her up, saying: As the Lord 
my God liveth, thou shalt not walk on this earth until I bring 
thee into the temple of the Lord. And she made a sanctuary 
in her bed-chamber, and allowed nothing common or unclean 
to pass through her. And she called the undefiled daughters 
of the Hebrews, and they led her astray.* And when she was 
a year old, Joachim made a great feast, and invited the priests, 
and the scribes, and the elders, and all the people of Israel. 
And Joachim brought the child to the priests ; and they blessed 
her, saying: O God of our fathers, bless this child, and give 
her an everlasting name to be named in all generations. And 
all the people said: So be it, so be it, amen. And he brought 
her to the chief priests ; and they blessed her, saying: O God 
most high, look upon this child, and bless her with the utmost 
blessing, which shall be for ever. And her mother snatched 
her up, and took her into the sanctuary of her bed-chamber, 
and gave her the breast. And Anna made a song to the Lord 
God, saying: I will sing a song to the Lord my God, for He 
hath looked upon me, and hath taken away the reproach of 
mine enemies; and the Lord hath given me the fruit of His 


1 Various readings are: Sixth, seventh, eighth. 

? One of the mss. inserts: On the eighth day. 

3 One of the mss. has nine. 

4 This is the reading of most Mss.; but it is difficult to see any sense in it. 
One Ms. reads: They attended on her. Fabricius proposed: They bathed her. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 5 


righteousness, singular in its kind, and richly endowed before 
Him. Who will tell the sons of Rubim that Anna gives suck ? 
Hear, hear, ye twelve tribes of Israel, that Anna gives suck. 
And she laid her to rest in the bed-chamber of her sanctuary, 
and went out and ministered unto them. And when the supper 
was ended, they went down rejoicing, and glorifying the God 
of Israel." 

7. And her months were added to the child. And the child 
was two years old, and Joachim said: Let us take her up to 
the temple of the Lord, that we may pay the vow that we have 
vowed, lest perchance the Lord send to us,? and our offering 
be not received. And Anna said: Let us wait for the third 
year, in order that the child may not seek for father or mother. 
And Joachim said: So let us wait. And the child was three 
years old, and Joachim said: Invite the daughters of the 
Hebrews that are undefiled, and let them take each a lamp, 
and let them stand with the lamps burning, that the child may 
not turn back, and her heart be captivated from the temple of 
the Lord. And they did so until they went up into the temple 
of the Lord. And the priest received her, and kissed her, and 
blessed her, saying: The Lord has magnified thy name in all 
generations. In thee, on the last of the days, the Lord will 
manifest His redemption to the sons of Israel. And he set her 
down upon the third step of the altar, and the Lord God sent 
erace upon her; and she danced with her feet, and all the house 
of Israel loved her. 

8. And her parents went down marvelling, and praising the 
Lord God, because the child had not turned back. And Mary 
was in the temple of the Lord as if she were a dove that dwelt 
there, and she received food from the hand of an angel. And 
when she was twelve ὅ years old there was held a council of the 
priests, saying: Behold, Mary has reached the age of twelve 
years in the temple of the Lord. What then shall we do with 

1 Two of the mss. add: And they gave her the name of Mary, because her 
name shall not fade for ever. This derivation of the name—from the root mar, 
fade—is one of a dozen or so. 

2 This is taken to mean: Send some one to us to warn us that we have been 
too long in paying our vow. One ms. reads, lest the Lord depart from us; 


another, lest the Lord move away from us. 
3 Or, fourteen. Postel’s Latin version has ten, 


6 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


her, lest perchance she defile the sanctuary of the Lord? And 
they said to the high priest: Thou standest by the altar of the 
Lord ; go in, and pray concerning her; and whatever the Lord 
shall manifest unto thee, that also will we do. And the high 
priest went in, taking the robe* with the twelve bells into the 
holy of holies ; and he prayed concerning her. And behold an 
angel of the Lord stood by him, saying unto him: Zacharias, 
Zacharias, go out and assemble the widowers of the people, and 
let them bring each his rod ; and to whomsoever the Lord shall 
show a sign, his wife shall she be. And the heralds went out 
through all the circuit of Judea, and the trumpet of the Lord 
sounded, and all ran. 

9. And Joseph, throwing away his axe, went out to meet 
them ; and when they had assembled, they went away to the 
high priest, taking with them their rods. And he, taking the 
rods of all of them, entered into the temple, and prayed ; and 
having ended his prayer, he took the rods and came out, and 
gave them to them: but there was no sign in them, and Joseph 
took his rod last ; and, behold, a dove came out of the rod, and 
flew upon Joseph’s head. And the priest said to Joseph, Thou 
hast been chosen by lot to take into thy keeping the virgin of 
the Lord. But Joseph refused, saying: I have children, and I 
am an old man, and she isa young girl. I am afraid lest I 
become a laughing-stock to the sons of Israel. And the priest 
said to Joseph: Fear the Lord thy God, and remember what 
the Lord did to Dathan, and Abiram, and Korah;? how the 
earth opened, and they were swallowed up on account of their 
contradiction, And now fear, O Joseph, lest the same things 
happen in thy house. And Joseph was afraid, and took her 
into his keeping. And Joseph said to Mary: Behold, I have 
received thee from the temple of the Lord; and now I leave 
thee in my house, and go away to build my buildings, and I 
shall come to thee. The Lord will protect thee. 

10. And there was a council of the priests, saying: Let us 
make a veil for the temple of the Lord. And the priest said: 
Call to me undefiled virgins of the family of David. And the 
officers went away, and sought, and found seven virgins. And 
the priest remembered the child Mary, that she was of the 


1 Ex. xxviii. 28; Sirach xlv. 9; Justin, Zryph. xiii. 2? Num. xvi. 81. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 7 


family of David, and undefiled before God. And the officers 
went away and brought her. And they brought them into the 
temple of the Lord. And the priest said: Choose for me by 
lot who shall spin the gold, and the white,’ and the fine linen, 
and the silk, and the blue,? and the scarlet, and the true 
purple.® And the true purple and the scarlet fell to the lot of 
Mary, and she took them, and went away to her house. And 
at that time Zacharias was dumb, and Samuel was in his place 
until the time that Zacharias spake. And Mary took the 
scarlet, and span it. 

11. And she took the pitcher, and went out to fill it with 
water. And, behold, a voice saying: Hail, thou who hast re- 
ceived grace; the Lord is with thee; blessed art thou among 
women !* And she looked round, on the right hand and on 
the left, to see whence this voice came. And she went away, 
trembling, to her house, and put down the pitcher; and taking 
the purple, she sat down on her seat, and drew it out. And, 
behold, an angel of the Lord stood before her, saying: Fear not, 
Mary ; tor thou hast found grace before the Lord of all, and 
thou shalt conceive, according to His word. And she hearing, 
reasoned with herself, saying: Shall I conceive by the Lord, the 
living God? and shall I bring forth as every woman brings 
forth? And the angel of the Lord said: Not so, Mary; for 
the power of the Lord shall overshadow thee : wherefore also 
that holy thing which shall be born of thee shall be called the 
Son of the Most High. And thou shalt call His name Jesus, 
for He shall save His people from their sins. And Mary said: 
Behold, the servant of the Lord before His face: let it be unto 
me according to thy word. 

12. And she made the purple and the scarlet, and took them 
to the priest. And the priest blessed her, and said: Mary, the 
Lord God hath magnified thy name, and thou shalt be blessed 
in all the generations of the earth. And Mary, with great joy, 
went away to Elizabeth her kinswoman,’ and knocked at the 
door. And when Elizabeth heard her, she threw away the 


1 Lit., undefiled. It is difficult to say what colour is meant, or if it is a 
colour at all. The word is once used to mean the sea, but with no reference to 
colour. It is also the name of a stone of a greenish hue. 

2 Lit., hyacinth. 3 Ex. xxv. 4. 4 Tuke i. 28. 5 Luke i. 39. 


8 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


scarlet,) and ran to the door, and opened it; and seeing Mary, 
she blessed her, and said: Whence is this to me, that the mother 
of my Lord should come to me? for, behold, that which is in 
me leaped and blessed thee.* But Mary had forgotten the 
mysteries of which the archangel Gabriel had spoken, and 
gazed up into heaven, and said: Who am I, O Lord, that all 
the generations of the earth should bless me?* And she re- 
mained three months with Elizabeth ; and day by day she grew 
bigger. And Mary being afraid, went away to her own house, 
and hid herself from the sons of Israel. And she was sixteen* 
years old when these mysteries happened. 

13. And she was in her sixth month; and, behold, Joseph 
came back from his building, and, entering into his house, he 
discovered that she was big with child. And he smote?® his 
face,® and threw himself on the ground upon the sackcloth, and 
wept bitterly, saying: With what face shall I look upon the 
Lord my God? and what prayer shall I make about this 
maiden ? because I received her a virgin out of the temple of 
the Lord, and I have not watched over her. Who is it that 
has hunted me’ down? Who has done this evil thing in my 
house, and defiled the virgin? Has not the history of Adam 
been repeated in me? For just as Adam was in the hour of his 
singing praise,* and the serpent came, and found Eve alone, 
and completely deceived her, so it has happened to me also. 
And Joseph stood up from the sackcloth, and called Mary, 
and said to her: O thou who hast been cared for by God, 
why hast thou done this, and forgotten the Lord thy God ? 
Why hast thou brought low thy soul, thou that wast brought 
up in the holy of holies, and that didst receive food from 
the hand of an angel? And she wept bitterly, saying: I 
am innocent, and have known no man. And Joseph said to 
her: Whence then is that which is in thy womb? And she 


1 Other readings are : the wool—what she had in her hand. 

2 Luke i. 43. : 3 Luke i. 56. 

4 Six Mss. have sixtcen ; one, fourteen; two, fifteen ; and one, seventeen. 

5 The Latin translation has hung down, 

6 Ezek. xxi. 12; Jer. xxxi. 19. 

7 Two ss. : her. 

8 Another reading is: As Adam was in Paradise, and in the hour of the sing- 
ing of praise (doxology) to God was with the angels, the serpent, etc. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 9 


said: As the Lord my God liveth, I do not know whence it is 
to me. 

14. And Joseph was greatly afraid, and retired from her, and 
considered what he should do in regard to her." And Joseph 
said: If I conceal her sin, I find myself fighting against the 
law of the Lord ; and if I expose her to the sons of Israel, I am 
afraid lest that which is in her be from an angel,’ and I shall 
be found giving up innocent blood to the doom of death. What 
then shall I do with her? I will put her away from me 
secretly. And night came upon him; and, behold, an angel of 
the Lord appears to him in a dream, saying: Be not afraid for 
this maiden, for that which is in her is of the Holy Spirit ; and 
she will bring forth a Son, and thou shalt call His name Jesus, 
for He will save His people from their sins. And Joseph 
arose from sleep, and glorified the God of Israel, who had given 
him this grace ; and he kept her. 

15. And Annas the scribe came to him, and said: Why hast 
thou not appeared in our assembly? And Joseph said to him: 
Because I was weary from my journey, and rested the first day. 
And he turned, and saw that Mary was with child. And he 
ran away to the priest,‘ and said to him: Joseph, whom thou 
didst vouch for, has committed a grievous crime. And the 
priest said: How so? And he said: He has defiled the virgin 
whom he received out of the temple of the Lord, and has 
married her by stealth, and has not revealed it to the sons of 
Israel. And the priest answering, said: Has Joseph done this ? 
Then said Annas the scribe: Send officers, and thou wilt find 
the virgin with child. And the officers went away, and found 
it as he had said; and they brought her along with Joseph to 
the tribunal. And the priest said: Mary, why hast thou done 
this ? and why hast thou brought thy soul low, and forgotten 
the Lord thy God? Thou that wast reared in the holy of 
holies, and that didst receive food from the hand of an angel, 
and didst hear the hymns, and didst dance before Him, why 
hast thou done this? And she wept bitterly, saying: As the 


1 Matt. i. 18. 

2 Lit., angelic ; one Ms. has holy ; the Latin translation, following a slightly 
different reading, that it would not be fair to her. 

3 Matt. i. 20. 4 Three mss. have high priest. 


10 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Lord my God liveth, I am pure before Him, and know not a 
man. And the priest said to Joseph: Why hast thou done 
this? And Joseph said: As the Lord liveth, I am pure con- 
cerning her. Then said the priest: Bear not false witness, but 
speak the truth. Thou hast married her by stealth, and hast 
not revealed it to the sons of Israel, and hast not bowed thy 
head under the strong hand, that thy seed might be blessed. 
And Joseph was silent. 

16. And the priest said: Give up the virgin whom thou didst 
receive out of the temple of the Lord. And Joseph burst into 
tears. And the priest said: I will give you to drink of the 
water of the ordeal of the Lord,’ and He shall make manifest 
your sins in your eyes. And the priest took the water, and 
gave Joseph to drink, and sent him away to the hill-country ; 
and he returned unhurt. And he gave to Mary also to drink, 
and sent her away to the hill-country ; and she returned unhurt. 
And all the people wondered that sin did not appear in them. 
And the priest said: If the Lord God has not made manifest 
your sins, neither do I judge you. And he sent them away. 
And Joseph took Mary, and went away to his own house, re- 
joicing and glorifying the God of Israel. 

17. And there was an order from the Emperor Augustus, that 
all in Bethlehem of Judea should be enrolled.? And Joseph 
said: I shall enrol my sons, but what shall I do with this 
maiden? How shall I enrol her? As my wife? I am ashamed. 
As my daughter then? But all the sons of Israel know that 
she is not my daughter. The day of the Lord shall itself bring 
it to pass® as the Lord will. And he saddled the ass, and set 
her upon it; and his son led it, and Joseph followed.* And 
when they had come within three miles, Joseph turned and 
saw her sorrowful; and he said to himself: Likely that which 
is in her distresses her. And again Joseph turned and saw her 
laughing. And he said to her: Mary, how is it that I see in 
thy tace at one time laughter, at another sorrow? And Mary 
said to Joseph: Because I see two peoples with my eyes; the 


1 Num. vy. 11. 2 Luke ii. 1. 
3 Or: On this day of the Lord I will do, ete. 


4 Another reading is: And his son Samuel led it, and James and Simon 
followed. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 11 


one weeping and lamenting, and the other rejoicing and exult- 
ing. And they came into the middle of the road, and Mary 
said to him: Take me down from off the ass, for that which is 
in me presses to come forth. And he took her down from off 
the ass, and said to her: Whither shall I lead thee, and cover 
thy disgrace ? for the place is desert. 

18. And he found a cave’ there, and led her into it; and 
leaving his two sons beside her, he went out to seek a midwife 
in the district of Bethlehem. 

And I Joseph was walking, and was not walking; and I 
looked up into the sky, and saw the sky astonished; and I 
looked up to the pole of the heavens, and saw it standing, and 
the birds of the air keeping still. And I looked down upon 
the earth, and saw a trough lying, and work-people reclining : 
and their hands were in the trough. And those that were 
eating did not eat, and those that were rising did not carry it 
up, and those that were conveying anything to their mouths 
did not convey it; but the faces of all were looking upwards. 
And I saw the sheep walking, and the sheep stood still; and 
the shepherd raised his hand to strike them, and his hand re- 
mained up. And 1 looked upon the current of the river, and 
I saw the mouths of the kids resting on the water and not 
drinking, and all things in a moment were driven from their 
course. 

19. And I saw a woman coming down from the hill-country, 
and she said to me: O man, whither art thou going? And I 
said: 1 am seeking an Hebrew midwife. And she answered 
and said unto me: Art thou of Israel? And I said to her: Yes. 
And she said: And who is it that is bringing forth in the cave? 
And I said: A woman betrothed tome. And she said to me: 
Is she not thy wife? And I said to her: It is Mary that was 
reared in the temple of the Lord, and I obtained her by lot as 


1 Bethlehem . . . used to be overshadowed by a grove of Thammuy, i.e. 
Adonis ; and in the cave where Christ formerly wailed as an infant, they used 
to mourn for the beloved of Venus (Jerome to Paulinus). In his letter to 
Sabinianus the cave is repeatedly mentioned: ‘‘ That cave in which the Son of 
God was born ;” ‘‘that venerable cave,” etc., ‘‘ within the door of what was 
once the Lord’s manger, now the altar.” ‘Then you run to the place of the 
shepherds.” There appears also to have been above the altar the figure of an 
angel, or angels. See also Justin, Zryph. 78. 


12 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


my wife. And yet she is not my wife, but has conceived of 
the Holy Spirit. 

And the midwife said to him: Is this true? And Joseph 
said to her: Come and see. And the midwife went away with 
him. And they stood in the place of the cave, and behold a 
luminous cloud overshadowed the cave. And the midwife said: 
My soul has been magnified this day, because mine eyes have 
seen strange things—because salvation has been brought forth 
to Israel. And immediately the cloud disappeared out of the 
cave, and a great light shone in the cave, so that the eyes could 
not bear it. And ina little that ight gradually decreased, until 
the infant appeared, and went and took the breast from his 
mother Mary. And the midwife cried out, and said: This is a 
ereat day to me, because I have seen this strange sight. And 
the midwife went forth out of the cave, and Salome met her. 
And she said to her: Salome, Salome, I have a strange sight to 
relate to thee: a virgin has brought forth—a thing which her 
nature admits not of. Then said Salome: As the Lord my 
God liveth, unless I thrust in my finger, and search the parts, 
I will not believe that a virgin has brought forth. 

20. And the midwife went in, and said to Mary: Show thy- 
self; for no small controversy has arisen about thee. And 
Salome putin her finger, and cried out, and said: Woe is me 
for mine iniquity and mine unbelief, because I have tempted 
the living God; and, behold, my hand is dropping off as if 
burned with fire. And she bent her knees before the Lord, 
saying: O God of my fathers, remember that I am the seed of 
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob; do not make a show of me to 
the sons of Israel, but restore me to the poor; for Thou knowest, 
O Lord, that in Thy name I have performed my services, and 
that I have received my reward at Thy hand. And, behold, an 
angel of the Lord stood by her, saying to her: Salome, Salome, 
the Lord hath heard thee. Put thy hand to the infant, and 
carry it, and thou wilt have safety and joy. And Salome went 
and carried it, saying: I will worship Him, because a great King 
has been born to Israel. And, behold, Salome was immediately 
cured, and she went forth out of the cave justified. And be- 
hold a voice saying: Salome, Salome, tell not the strange things 
thou hast seen, until the child has come into Jerusalem. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 13 


21. And, behold, Joseph was ready to go into Judea. And 
there was a great commotion in Bethlehem of Judea, for Magi 
came, saying: Where is he that is born king of the Jews? for 
we have seen his star in the east, and have come to worship 
him. And when Herod heard, he was much disturbed, and 
sent officers to the Magi. And he sent for the priests, and 
examined them, saying: How is it written about the Christ ? 
where is He to be born? And they said: In Bethlehem of 
Judea, for so it is written." And he sent them away. And he 
examined the Magi, saying to them: What sign have you seen 
in reference to the king that has been born? And the Magi 
said: We have seen a star of great size shining among these 
stars, and obscuring their light, so that the stars did not appear; 
and we thus knew that a king has been born to Israel, and we 
have come to worship him. And Herod said: Go and seek 
him; and if you find him, let me know, in order that I also 
may go and worship him. And the Magi went out. And, 
behold, the star which they had seen in the east went before 
them until they came to the cave, and it stood over the top 
of the cave. And the Magi saw the infant with His mother 
Mary ; and they brought forth from their bag gold, and frank- 
incense, and myrrh. And having been warned by the angel 
not to go into Judea, they went into their own country by 
another road.’ 

22. And when Herod knew that he had been mocked by the 
Magi, in a rage he sent murderers, saying to them: Slay the 
children* from two years old and under. And Mary, having 
heard that the children were being killed, was afraid, and took 
the infant and swaddled Him, and put Him into an ox-stall. 
And Elizabeth, having heard that they were searching for John, 
took him and went up into the hill-country, and kept looking 
where to conceal him. And there was no place of conceal- 
ment. And Elizabeth, groaning with a loud voice, says: O 
mountain of God, receive mother and child. And imme- 
diately the mountain was cleft, and received her. And a light 


I Two mss. here add: And thou Bethlehem, etc., from Mic. v. 2. 

? Matt. ii. 1-12. One of the mss. here adds Matt. ii. 13-15, with two or 
three slight variations. 

3 Four mss. have all the male children, as in Matt. ii. 16. 


14 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


shone about them, for an angel of the Lord was with them, 
watching over them. 

23. And Herod searched for John, and sent officers to Zacha- 
rias, saying: Where hast thou hid thy son? And he, answer- 
ing, said to them: I am the servant of God in holy things, and 
I sit constantly in the temple of the Lord: I do not know 
where my son is. And the officers went away, and reported 
all these things to Herod. And Herod was enraged, and said : 
His son is destined to be king over Israel. And he sent to 
him again, saying: Tell the truth; where is thy son ? for thou 
knowest that thy life is in my hand. And Zacharias said: I 
am God’s martyr, if thou sheddest my blood; for the Lord will 
receive my spirit, because thou sheddest innocent blood at the 
vestibule of the temple of the Lord. And Zacharias was 
murdered about daybreak. And the sons of Israel did not 
know that he had been murdered.* 

24. But at the hour of the salutation the priests went away, 
and Zacharias did not come forth to meet them with a blessing, 
according to his custom.? And the priests stood waiting for 
Zacharias to salute him at the prayer,’ and to glorify the Most 
High. And he still delaying, they were all afraid. But one of 
them ventured to go in, and he saw clotted blood beside the 
altar; and he heard a voice saying: Zacharias has been mur- 
dered, and his blood shall not be wiped up until his avenger 
come. And hearing this saying, he was afraid, and went out 
and told it to the priests. And they ventured in, and saw what 
had happened; and the fretwork of the temple made a wailing 
noise, and they rent their clothes* from the top even to the 
bottom. And they found not his body, but they found his 
blood turned into stone. And they were afraid, and went out 
and reported to the people that Zacharias had been murdered. 
And all the tribes of the people heard, and mourned, and 
lamented for him three days and three nights. And after the 
three days, the priests consulted as to whom they should put 

1 Another reading is: And Herod, enraged at this, ordered him to be slain 


in the midst of the altar before the dawn, that the slaying of him might not be 
prevented by the people. 

2. Lit., the blessing of Zacharias did not come forth, ete. 

3 Or, with prayer. 

4 Another reading is: And was rent from the top, ete.. 


THE PROTEVANGELIUM OF JAMES. 15 


in his place; and the lot fell upon Simeon. For it was he who 
had been warned by the Holy Spirit that he should not see 
death until he should see the Christ in the flesh.* 

25. And I James that wrote this history in Jerusalem, a 
commotion having arisen when Herod died, withdrew myself 
to the wilderness until the commotion in Jerusalem ceased, 
clorifying the Lord God, who had given me the gift and the 
wisdom to write this history. And grace shall be with them 
that fear our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory to ages of 
ages. Amen.” 


1 Luke ii. 26. One of the mss. here adds Matt. ii. 19-23, with two or three 
verbal changes. 


2 The mss. vary much in the doxology. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 


ao 


=e σαὶ [0 Π Εἰ beginneth the book of the Birth of the Blessed 
ΠΕΡΙ Rf ΜΟΥ and the Infancy of the Saviour. Written 
in Hebrew by the Blessed Evangelist Matthew, 
and translated into Latin by the Blessed Pres- 
byter Jerome. 


To their well-beloved brother Jerome the Presbyter, Bishops 
Cromatius and Heliodorus in the Lord, greeting. 

The birth of the Virgin Mary, and the nativity and. infancy 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, we find in apocryphal books. But 
considering that in them many things contrary to our faith are 
written, we have believed that they ought all to be rejected, 
lest perchance we should transfer the joy of Christ to Anti- 
christ. While, therefore, we were considering these things, 
there came holy men, Parmenius and Varinus, who said that 
your Holiness had found a Hebrew volume, written by the 
hand of the most blessed Evangelist Matthew, in which also 
the birth of the virgin mother herself, and the infancy of our 
Saviour, were written. And accordingly we entreat your affec- 
tion by our Lord Jesus Christ Himself, to render it from the 
Hebrew into Latin,’ not so much for the attainment of those 
things which are the insignia of Christ, as for the exclusion 
of the craft of heretics, who, in order to teach bad doctrine, 
have mingled their own lies with the excellent nativity of 
Christ, that by the sweetness of life they might hide the bitter- 
ness of death. It will therefore become your purest piety, 
either to listen to us as your brethren entreating, or to let us 
have as bishops exacting, the debt of affection which you may 
deem due. 


1 Lit., to Latin ears. 
16 


THE GOSPEL Of PSEUDO-MATTHE WW. 17 


Reply to their Letter by Jerome. 


To my lords the holy and most blessed Bishops Cromatius 
and Heliodorus, Jerome, a humble servant of Christ, in the 
Lord greeting. 

He who digs in ground where he knows that there is gold,’ 
does not instantly snatch at whatever the uptorn trench may 
pour forth ; but, before the stroke of the quivering spade raises 
aloft the glittering mass, he meanwhile lingers over the sods to 
turn them over and lift them up, and especially he who has not 
added to his gains. An arduous task is enjoined upon me, since 
what your Blessedness has commanded me, the holy Apostle 
and Evangelist Matthew himself did not write for the purpose 
of publishing. For if he had not done it somewhat secretly, 
he would have added it also to his Gospel which he published. 
But he composed this book in Hebrew; and so little did he 
publish it, that at this day the book written in Hebrew by his 
own hand is in the possession of very religious men, to whom 
in successive periods of time it has been handed down by those 
that were before them. And this book they never at any time 
gave to any one to translate. And so it came to pass, that when 
it was published by a disciple of Manicheus named Leucius, 
who also wrote the falsely styled Acts of the Apostles, this 
book afforded matter, not of edification, but of perdition; and 
the opinion of the Synod in regard to it was according to its 
deserts, that the ears of the church should not be open to it. 
Let the snapping of those that bark against us now cease; for 
we do not add this little book to the canonical writings, but we 
translate what was written by an apostle and evangelist, that 
we may disclose the falsehood of heresy. In this work, then, 
we obey the commands of pious bishops as well as oppose im- 
pious heretics. It is the love of Christ, therefore, which we 
fulfil, believing that they will assist us by their prayers, who 
through our obedience attain to a knowledge of the holy 
infancy of our Saviour. 


There is extant another letter to the same bishops, attributed 
to Jerome :— | 


1 Lit., conscious of gold, 
B 


18 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


You ask me to let you know what I think of a book held by 
some to be about the nativity of St. Mary. And so I wish you 
to know that there is much in it that is false. For one Seleucus, 
who wrote the Sufferings of the Apostles, composed this book. 
But, just as he wrote what was true about their powers, and 
the miracles they worked, but said a great deal that was false 
about their doctrine; so here too he has invented many un- 
truths out of his own head. I shall take care to render it word 
for word, exactly as it is in the Hebrew, since it is asserted 
that it was composed by the holy Evangelist Matthew, and 
written in Hebrew, and set at the head of his Gospel. Whether 
this be true or not, I leave to the author of the preface and the 
trustworthiness of the writer: as for myself, I pronounce them 
doubtful ; I do not affirm that they are clearly false. But this 
I say freely—and I think none of the faithful will deny it— 
that, whether these stories be true or inventions, the sacred 
nativity of St. Mary was preceded by great miracles, and suc- 
ceeded by the greatest ; and so by those who believe that God 
an do these things, they can be believed and read without 
damaging their faith or imperilling their souls. In short, so 
far as I can, following the sense rather than the words of the 
writer, and sometimes walking in the same path, though not in 
the same footsteps, sometimes digressing a little, but still keep- 
ing the same road, I shall in this way keep by the style of the 
narrative, and shall say nothing that is not either written 
there, or might, following the same train of thought, have been 
written. 


Cuap. 1.1.—In those days there was a man in Jerusalem, 
Joachim by name, of the tribe of Judah. He was the shepherd 
of his own sheep, fearing the Lord in integrity and singleness 
of heart. He had no other care than that of his herds, from 
the produce of which he supplied with food all that feared God, 
offering double gifts in the fear of God to all who laboured in 


1 Two of the mss. have this prologue: I James, the son of Joseph, living in the 
fear of God, have written all that with my own eyes I saw coming to pass in the 
time of the nativity of the holy virgin Mary, or of the Lord the Saviour ; giving 
thanks to God, who has given me wisdom in the accounts of His Advent, show- 
ing His abounding grace to the twelve tribes of Israel. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 19 


doctrine, and who ministered unto Him. Therefore his lambs, 
and his sheep, and his wool, and all things whatsoever he pos- 
sessed, he used to divide into three portions: one he gave to the 
orphans, the widows, the strangers, and the poor ; the second to 
those that worshipped God; and the third he kept for himself 
and all his house." And as he did so, the Lord multiplied to 
him his herds, so that there was no man like him in the people 
of Israel. This now he began to do when he was fifteen years old. 
And at the age of twenty he took to wife Anna, the daughter 
of Achar, of his own tribe, that is, of the tribe of Judah, of 
the family of David. And though they had lived together for 
twenty years, he had by her neither sons nor daughters.” 


Cuap. 2.—And it happened that, in the time of the feast, 
among those who were offering incense to the Lord, Joachim 
stood getting ready his gifts in the sight of the Lord. And 
the priest, Ruben by name, coming to him, said: It is not law- 
ful for thee to stand among those who are doing sacrifice to 
God, because God has not blessed thee so as to give thee seed 
in Israel. Being therefore put to shame in the sight of the 
people, he retired from the temple of the Lord weeping, and 
did not return to his house, but went to his flocks, taking with 
him his shepherds into the mountains to a far country, so that 
for five months his wife Anna could hear no tidings of him. 
And she prayed with tears, saying: O Lord, most mighty God 
of Israel, why hast Thou, seeing that already Thou hast not 
given me children, taken from me my husband also? Behold, 
now five months that I have not seen my husband; and I 
know not where he is tarrying ;* nor, if I knew him to be dead, 
could I bury him. And while she wept excessively, she entered 
into the court of His house ; and she fell on her face in prayer, 
and poured out her supplcations before the Lord. After this, 
rising from her prayer, and lifting her eyes to God, she saw a 
sparrow’s nest in a laurel tree,‘ and uttered her voice to the 

1 Tobit i. 7. 

2 One of the mss. has: Only they vowed that, if God should give them off- 
spring, they would devote it to the service of the temple ; and because of this, 
they were wont to go to the temple of the Lord at each of the yearly festivals. 


3 Another reading is : Where he has died—reading mortuus for moratus. 
4 Cf. Tobit ii. 10. 


20 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Lord with groaning, and said: Lord God Almighty, who hast 
given offspring to every creature, to beasts wild and tame, to 
serpents, and birds, and fishes, and they all rejoice over their 
young ones, Thou hast shut out me alone from the gift of Thy 
benignity. For Thou, O God, knowest my heart, that from the 
beginning of my married life I have vowed that, if Thou, O 
God, shouldst give me son or daughter, I would offer them to 
Thee in Thy holy temple. And while she was thus speaking, 
suddenly an angel of the Lord appeared before her, saying: Be 
not afraid, Anna, for there is seed for thee in the decree of God; 
and all generations even to the end shall wonder at that which 
shall be born of thee. And when he had thus spoken, he 
vanished out of her sight. But she, in fear and dread because 
she had seen such a sight, and heard such words, at length went 
into her bed-chamber, and threw herself on the bed as if dead. 
And for a whole day and night she remained in great trembling 
and in prayer. And after these things she called to her her 
servant, and said to her: Dost thou see me deceived in my 
widowhood and in great perplexity, and hast thou been ‘unwill- 
ing to come in to me? Then she, with a sight murmur, thus 
answered and said: If God hath shut up thy womb, and hath 
taken away thy husband from thee, what can I do for thee? 
And when Anna heard this, she lifted up her voice, and wept 
aloud. 


Cuap. 3.—At the same time there appeared a young man on 
the mountains to Joachim while he was feeding his flocks, and 
said to him: Why dost thou not return to thy wife? And 
Joachim said: I have had her for twenty years, and it has not 
been the will of God to give me children by her. I have been 
driven with shame and reproach from the temple of the Lord: 
why should I go back to her, when I have been once cast off 
and utterly despised? Here then will I remain with my sheep; 
and so long as in this life God is willing to grant me light, 
I shall willingly, by the hands of my servants, bestow their 
portions upon the poor, and the orphans, and those that fear 
God. And when he had thus spoken, the young man said to 
him: 1 am an angel of the Lord, and I have to-day appeared to 
thy wife when she was weeping and praying, and have consoled 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 21 


her; and know that she has conceived a daughter from thy seed, 
and thou in thy ignorance of this hast left her. She will be in 
the temple of God, and the Holy Spirit shall abide in her; and 
her blessedness shall be greater than that of all the holy women, 
so that no one can say that any before her has been like her, or 
that any after her in this world will be so. Therefore go down 
from the mountains, and return to thy wife, whom thou wilt 
find with child. For God hath raised up seed in her, and for 
this thou wilt give God thanks; and her seed shall be blessed, 
and she herself shall be blessed, and shall be made the mother 
of eternal blessing. Then Joachim adored the angel, and said 
to him: If I have found favour in thy sight, sit for a little in 
my tent, and bless thy servant. And the angel said to him: 
Do not say servant, but fellow-servant; for we are the servants 
of one Master. But my food is invisible, and my drink can- 
not be seen by a mortal. Therefore thou oughtest not to ask 
me to enter thy tent; but if thou wast about to give me any- 
thing,’ offer it as a burnt-offering to the Lord. Then Joachim 
took a lamb without spot, and said to the angel: I should not 
have dared to offer a burnt-offering to the Lord, unless thy 
command had given me the priest’s right of offering.* And 
the angel said to him: I should not have invited thee to offer 
unless I had known the will of the Lord. And when Joachim 
was offering the sacrifice to God, the angel and the odour of the 
sacrifice went together straight up to heaven with the smoke.* 
Then Joachim, throwing himself on his face, lay in prayer 
from the sixth hour of the day even until evening. And his 
lads and hired servants who were with him saw him, and not 
knowing why he was lying down, thought that he was dead; 
and they came to him, and with difficulty raised him from the 
ground. And when he recounted to them the vision of the 
angel, they were struck with great fear and wonder, and ad- 
vised him to accomplish the vision of the angel without delay, 
and to go back with all haste to his wife. And when Joachim 
was turning over in his mind whether he should go back or 


1 Gen. xviii. 3. 2) Revs xix: 10: 3 Judg. xiii. 16. 

4 Faustus the Manichean said that Joachim was of the tribe of Levi (August. 
xxill. 4, Contra Faustum). As belonging to the tribe of Judah, he had not the 
right of sacrifice. 

° Cf. Judg. xiii. 20. 


22 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


not, it happened that he was overpowered by a deep sleep; 
and, behold, the angel who had already appeared to him when 
awake, appeared to him in his sleep, saying: I am the angel 
appointed by God as thy guardian: go down with confidence, 
and return to Anna, because the deeds of mercy which thou 
and thy wife Anna have done have been told in the presence 
of the Most High ; and to you will God give such fruit as no 
prophet or saint has ever had from the beginning, or ever will 
have. And when Joachim awoke out of his sleep, he called 
all his herdsmen to him, and told them his dream. And they 
worshipped the Lord, and said to him: See that thou no further 
despise the words of the angel. But rise and let us go hence, 
and return at a quiet pace, feeding our flocks. 

And when, after thirty days occupied in going back, they 
were now near at hand, behold, the angel of the Lord appeared 
to Anna, who was standing and praying, and said :* Go to the 
gate which is called Golden,? and meet thy husband in the 
way, for to-day he will come to thee. She therefore went 
towards him in haste with her maidens, and, praying to the 
Lord, she stood a long time in the gate waiting for him. And 
when she was wearied with long waiting, she lifted up her 
eyes and saw Joachim afar off coming with his flocks; and she 
ran to him and hung on his neck, giving thanks to God, and 
saying: I was a widow, and behold now I am not so: I was 
barren, and behold I have now conceived. And so they wor- 
shipped the Lord, and went into their own house. And when 
this was heard of, there was great joy among all their neigh- 
bours and acquaintances, so that the whole land of Israel 
congratulated them. 


Cuap. 4.—After these things, her nine months being fulfilled, 
Anna brought forth a daughter, and called her Mary. And 
having weaned her in her third year, Joachim, and Anna his 
wife, went together to the temple of the Lord to offer sacrifices 
to God, and placed the infant, Mary by name, in the community 
of virgins, in which the virgins remained day and night praising 


1 Ct. Acts ix. 11. 
2 This is the Beautiful gate of Acts iii. 2, to which, according to Josephus, 
there was an ascent by many steps from the valley of Kedron. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 23 


God. And when she was put down before the doors of the 
temple, she went up the fifteen steps’ so swiftly, that she did 
not look back at all; nor did she, as children are wont to do, 
seek for her parents. Whereupon her parents, each of them 
anxiously seeking for the child, were both alike astonished, 
until they found her in the temple, and the priests of the 
temple themselves wondered. 


Cuap. 5.—Then Anna, filled with the Holy Spirit, said before 
them all: The Lord Almighty, the God of Hosts, being mindtul 
of His word, hath visited His people with a good and holy 
visitation, to bring down the hearts of the Gentiles who were 
rising against us, and turn them to Himself. He hath opened 
His ears to our prayers: He hath kept away from us the exult- 
ing of all our enemies. The barren hath become a mother, and 
hath brought forth exultation and gladness to Israel. Behold 
the gifts which I have brought to offer to my Lord, and mine 
enemies have not been able to hinder me. For God hath 
turned their hearts to me, and Himself hath given me ever- 
lasting joy. 


Cuap. 6.—And Mary was held in admiration by all the 
people of Israel; and when she was three years old, she walked 
with a step so mature, she spoke so perfectly, and spent her 
time so assiduously in the praises of God, that all were 
astonished at her, and wondered; and she was not reckoned 
a young infant, but as it were a grown-up person of thirty 
years old. She was so constant in prayer, and her appearance 
was so beautiful and glorious, that scarcely any one could look 
into her face. And she occupied herself constantly with her 
wool-work, so that she in her tender years could do all that 
old women were not able to do. And this was the order that 
she had set for herself:? From the morning to the third hour 


1 Corresponding with the fifteen Songs of Degrees, Ps. exx.-cxxxiv. See 
Smith’s Dict.—art. Songs of Degrees. Another reading is: And there were 
about the temple, according to the fifteen Psalms of Degrees, fifteen steps of 
ascent: the temple was on a mountain, and there had been there built the altar 
of burnt-offering, which could not be reached but by steps, 

2 For the hours of prayer, see Apost. Const. ch. xl. ; Jerome’s letters to Leta, 
Demetrias, etc. 


24 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


she remained in prayer; from the third to the ninth she was 
occupied with her weaving; and from the ninth she again 
applied herself to prayer. She did not retire from praying 
until there appeared to her the angel of the Lord, from whose 
hand she used to receive food; and thus she became more and 
more perfect in the work of God. Then, when the older virgins 
rested from the praises of God, she did not rest at all; so that 
in the praises and vigils of God none were found before her, 
no one more learned in the wisdom of the law of God, more 
lowly in humility, more elegant in singing, more perfect in all 
virtue. She was indeed stedfast, immoveable, unchangeable, 
and daily advancing to perfection. No one saw her angry, nor 
heard her speaking evil. All her speech was so full of grace, 
that her God was acknowledged to be in her tongue. She was 
always engaged in prayer and in searching the law, and she 
was anxious lest by any word of hers she should sin with 
regard to her companions. Then she was afraid lest in her 
laughter, or the sound of her beautiful voice, she should 
commit any fault, or lest, being elated, she should display any 
wrong-doing or haughtiness to one of her equals." She blessed 
God without intermission; and lest perchance, even in her 
salutation, she might cease from praising God; if any one 
saluted her, she used to answer by way of salutation: Thanks 
be to God. And from her the custom first began of men say- 
ing, Thanks be to God, when they saluted each other. She 
refreshed herself only with the food which she daily received 
from the hand of the angel; but the food which she obtained 
from the priests she divided among the poor. The angels of 
God were often seen speaking with her, and they most dili- 
gently obeyed her. If any one who was unwell touched her, 
the same hour he went home cured. 


Cuap. 7.—Then Abiathar the priest offered gifts without 
end to the high priests, in order that he might obtain her as 
wife to his son. But Mary forbade them, saying: It cannot 


1 One of the mss. has: She was anxious about her companions, lest any of 
them should sin even in one word, lest any of them should raise her voice in 
laughing, lest any of them should be in the wrong, or proud to her father or her 
mother, 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 25 


be that I should know a man, or that a man should know me. 
For all the priests and all her relations kept saying to her: 
God is worshipped in children and adored in posterity, as has 
always happened among the sons of Israel. But Mary answered 
and said unto them: God is worshipped in chastity, as is proved 
first of 411} For before Abel there was none righteous among 
men, and he by his offerings pleased God, and was without 
mercy slain by him who displeased Him. Two crowns, there- 
fore, he received—of oblation and of virginity, because in his 
flesh there was no pollution. Elias also, when he was in the 
flesh, was taken up in the flesh, because he kept his flesh un- 
spotted. Now I, from my infancy in the temple of God, have 
learned that virginity can be sufficiently dear to God. And so, 
because I can offer what is dear to God, I have resolved in my 
heart that I should not know a man at all. 


CuaAp. 8.—Now it came to pass, when she was fourteen? years 
old, and on this account there was occasion for the Pharisees’ 
saying that it was now a custom that no woman of that age 
should abide in the temple of God, they fell upon the plan of 
sending a herald through all the tribes of Israel, that on the 
third day all should come together into the temple of the Lord. 
And when all the people had come together, Abiathar the high 
priest rose, and mounted on a higher step, that he might be 
seen and heard by all the people ; and when great silence had 
been obtained, he said: Hear me, O sons of Israel, and receive 
my words into your ears. ver since this temple was built by 
Solomon, there have been in it virgins, the daughters of kings 
and the daughters of prophets, and of high priests and priests ; 
and they were great, and worthy of admiration. But when 
they came to the proper age they were given in marriage, and 
followed the course of their mothers before them, and were 
pleasing to God. But anew order of life has been found out 
by Mary alone, who promises that she will remain a virein to 
God. Wherefore it seems to me, that through our inquiry and 
the answer of God we should try to ascertain to whose keeping 
she ought to be entrusted. Then these words found favour with 
all the synagogue. And the lot was cast by the priests upon 

1 Or, by the first of all. 2 Or, twelve. 


26 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


the twelve tribes, and the lot fell upon the tribe of Judah. 
And the priest said: To-morrow let every one who has no wife 
come, and bring his rod in his hand. Whence it happened 
that Joseph! brought his rod along with the young men. 
And the rods having been handed over to the high priest, he 
offered a sacrifice to the Lord God, and inquired of the Lord. 
And the Lord said to him: Put all their rods into the holy 
of holies of God, and let them remain there, and order them 
to come to thee on the morrow to get back their rods; and 
the man from the point of whose rod a dove shall come forth, 
and fly towards heaven, and in whose hand the rod, when 
given back, shall exhibit this sign, to him let Mary be deli- 
vered to be kept. 

On the following day, then, all having assembled early, and 
an incense-offering having been made, the high priest went into 
the holy of holies, and brought forth the rods. And when he 
had distributed the rods,? and the dove came forth out of none 
of them, the high priest put on the twelve bells*® and the sacer- 
dotal robe ; and entering into the holy of holies, he there made 
a burnt-offering, and poured forth a prayer. And the angel of 
the Lord appeared to him, saying: There is here the shortest 
rod, of which thou hast made no account: thou didst bring it 
in with the rest, but didst not take it out with them. When 
thou hast taken it out, and hast given it him whose it is, in it 
will appear the sign of which I spoke to thee. Now that was 
Joseph’s rod; and because he was an old man, he had been cast 
off, as it were, that he might not receive her, but neither did he 
himself wish to ask back his rod.* And when he was humbly 
standing last of all, the high priest cried out to him with a loud 
voice, saying: Come, Joseph, and receive thy rod; for we are 
waiting for thee. And Joseph came up trembling, because the 
high priest had called him with a very loud voice. But as soon 
as he stretched forth his hand, and laid hold of his rod, imme- 


1 One of the mss. adds: Seeing that he had not a wife, and not wishing to 
slight the order of the high priest. 

2 One of the mss. inserts : To the number of three thousand. 

5 See Protev. James 8. 

4 Another and more probable reading is: And this was Joseph’s rod; and he 
was of an abject appearance, seeing that he was old, and he would not ask back 
his rod, lest perchance he might be forced to receive her. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 27 


diately from the top of it came forth a dove whiter than snow, 
beautiful exceedingly, which, after long flying about the roofs 
of the temple, at length flew towards the heavens. Then all 
the people congratulated the old man, saying: Thou hast been 
made blessed in thine old age, O father Joseph, seeing that God 
hath shown thee to be fit to receive Mary. And the priests 
having said to him, Take her, because of all the tribe of Judah 
thou alone hast been chosen by God; Joseph began bashfully 
to address them, saying: I am an old man, and have children ; 
why do you hand over to me this infant, who is younger than 
my grandsons? Then Abiathar the high priest said to him: 
Remember, Joseph, how Dathan and Abiron and Core perished, 
because they despised the will of God. So will it happen to 
thee, if thou despise this which is commanded thee by God. 
Joseph answered him: I indeed do not despise the will of God; 
but I shall be her guardian until I can ascertain concerning 
the will of God, as to which of my sons can have her as his 
wife. Let some virgins of her companions, with whom she 
may meanwhile spend her time, be given for a consolation 
to her. Abiathar the high priest answered and said: Five 
virgins indeed shall be given her for consolation, until the 
appointed day come in which thou mayst receive her; for to 
no other can she be joined in marriage. 

Then Joseph received Mary, with the other five virgins who 
were to be with her in Joseph’s house. These virgins were 
Rebecca, Sephora, Susanna, Abigea, and Cael; to whom the 
high priest gave the silk, and the blue,’ and the fine linen, and 
the scarlet, and the purple, and the fine flax. For they cast 
lots among themselves what each virgin should do, and the 
purple for the veil of the temple of the Lord fell to the lot of 
Mary. And when she had got it, those virgins said to her: 
Since thou art the last, and humble, and younger than all, thou 
hast deserved to receive and obtain the purple. And thus 
saying, as it were in words of annoyance, they began to call 
her queen of virgins. While, however, they were so doing, 
the angel of the Lord appeared in the midst of them, saying: 
These words shall not have been uttered by way of annoyance, 
but prophesied as a prophecy most true. They trembled, 

1 Or, hyacinth. 


28 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


therefore, at the sight of the angel, and at his words, and asked 
her to pardon them, and pray for them. 


Cuap. 9.—And on the second day, while Mary was at the 
fountain to fill her pitcher, the angel of the Lord appeared to 
her, saying: Blessed art thou, Mary; for in thy womb thou 
hast prepared an habitation for the Lord. For, lo, the light 
from heaven shall come and dwell in thee, and by means of 
thee will shine over the whole world. 

Again, on the third day, while she was working at the purple 
with her fingers, there entered a young man of ineffable beauty. 
And when Mary saw him, she exceedingly feared and trembled. 
And he said to her: Hail, Mary, full of grace; the Lord is 
with thee: blessed art thou among women, and blessed is the 
fruit of thy womb.t. And when she heard these words, she 
trembled, and was exceedingly afraid. Then the angel of the 
Lord added: Fear not, Mary; for thou hast found favour with 
God: Behold, thou shalt conceive in thy womb, and shalt bring 
forth a King, who fills not only the earth, but the heaven, and 
who reigns from generation to generation. 


CHAP. 10.—While these things were doing, Joseph was occu- 
pied with his work, house-building, in the districts by the sea- 
shore; for he was a carpenter. And after nine months he 
came back to his house, and found Mary pregnant. Where- 
fore, being in the utmost distress, he trembled and cried out, 
saying: O Lord God, receive my spirit; for it is better for me 
to die than to live any longer. And the virgins who were with 
Mary said to him: Joseph, what art thou saying? We know 
that no man has touched her; we can testify that she is still 
@ virgin, and untouched. We have watched over her; always 
has she continued with us in prayer; daily do the angels of 
God speak with her; daily does she receive food from the hand 
of the Lord. We know not how it is possible that there can 
be any sin in her. But if thou wishest us to tell thee what 
we suspect, nobody but the angel of the Lord? has made her 
pregnant. Then said Joseph: Why do you mislead me, to 
believe that an angel of the Lord has made her pregnant ? 

1 Luke 1. 28. 2 Another reading is : The Holy Spirit. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 29 


But it is possible that some one has pretended to be an angel 
of the Lord, and has beguiled her. And thus speaking, he 
wept, and said: With what face shall I look at the temple of 
the Lord, or with what face shall I see the priests of God? 
What am I todo? And thus saying, he thought that he would 
flee, and send her away 


Cap. 11—And when he was thinking of rising up and 
hiding himself, and dwelling in secret, behold, on that very 
night, the angel of the Lord appeared to him in sleep, saying : 
Joseph, thou son of David, fear not; receive Mary as thy wife: 
for that which is in her womb is of the Holy Spirit. And she 
shall bring forth a son, and His name shall be called Jesus, for 
He will save His people from their sins. And Joseph, rising 
from his sleep, gave thanks to God, and spoke to Mary and 
the virgins who were with her, and told them his vision. And 
he was comforted about Mary, saying: I have sinned, in that 
I suspected thee at all. 


Cuap. 12.—After these things there arose a great report that 
Mary was with child. And Joseph was seized by the officers 
of the temple, and brought along with Mary to the high priest. 
And he with the priests began to reproach him, and to say: 
Why hast thou beguiled so great and so glorious a virgin, who 
was fed like a dove in the temple by the angels of God, who 
never wished either to see or to have a man, who had the most 
excellent knowledge of the law of God? If thou hadst not 
done violence to her, she would still have remained in her 
virginity. And Joseph vowed, and swore that he had never 
touched her at all. And Abiathar the high priest answered 
him: As the Lord liveth, I will give thee to drink of the water 
of drinking of the Lord, and immediately thy sin will appear. 

Then was assembled a multitude of people which could not 
be numbered, and Mary was brought to the temple. And the 
priests, and her relatives, and her parents wept, and said to 
Mary: Confess to the priests thy sin, thou that wast like a 
dove in the temple of God, and didst receive food from the 
hands of an angel. And again Joseph was summoned to the 
altar, and the water of drinking of the Lord was given him to 


30 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


drink. And when any one that had lied drank this water, and 
walked seven times round the altar, God used to show some 
sign in his face. When, therefore, Joseph had drunk in safety, 
and had walked round the altar seven times, no sign of sin 
appeared in him. Then all the priests, and the officers, and 
the people justified him, saying: Blessed art thou, seeing that 
no charge has been found good against thee. And they sum- 
moned Mary, and said: And what excuse canst thou have? or 
what greater sign can appear in thee than the conception of 
thy womb, which betrays thee? This only we require of thee, 
that since Joseph is pure regarding thee, thou confess who it 
is that has beguiled thee. For it is better that thy confession 
should betray thee, than that the wrath of God should set a 
mark on thy face, and expose thee in the midst of the people. 
Then Mary said, stedfastly and without trembling: O Lord 
God, King over all, who knowest all secrets, if there be any 
pollution in me, or any sin, or any evil desires, or unchastity, 
expose me in the sight of all the people, and make me an 
example of punishment to all. Thus saying, she went up to 
the altar of the Lord boldly, and drank the water of drinking, 
and walked round the altar seven times, and no spot was found 
in her. 

And when all the people were in the utmost astonishment, 
seeing that she was with child, and that no sign had appeared 
in her face, they began to be disturbed among themselves by con- 
flicting statements: some said that she was holy and unspotted, 
others that she was wicked and defiled. Then Mary, seeing 
that she was still suspected by the people, and that on that 
account she did not seem to them to be wholly cleared, said in 
the hearing of all, with a loud voice, As the Lord Adonai liveth, 
the Lord of Hosts before whom I stand, I have not known 
man; but I am known by Him to whom from my earliest 
years I have devoted myself. And this vow I made to my 
God from my infancy, that I should remain unspotted in Him 
who created me, and I trust that I shall so live to Him alone, 
and serve Him alone; and in Him, as long as I shall live, 
will I remain unpolluted. Then they all began to kiss her feet 
and to embrace her knees, asking her to pardon them for their 
wicked suspicions. And she was led down to her house with 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEYW. 31 


exultation and joy by the people, and the priests, and all the 
virgins. And they cried out, and said: Blessed be the name of 
the Lord for ever, because He hath manifested thy holiness to 
all His people Israel. 


Cuap. 13.— And it came to pass some little time after, 
that an enrolment was made according to the edict of Cesar 
Augustus, that all the world was to be enrolled, each man in 
his native place. This enrolment was made by Cyrinus, the 
governor of Syria." It was necessary, therefore, that Joseph 
should enrol with the blessed Mary in Bethlehem, because to 
it they belonged, being of the tribe of Judah, and of the house 
and family of David. When, therefore, Joseph and the blessed 
Mary were going along the road which leads to Bethlehem, 
Mary said to Joseph: I see two peoples before me, the one 
weeping, and the other rejoicing. And Joseph answered: Sit 
still on thy beast, and do not speak superfluous words. Then 
there appeared before them a beautiful boy, clothed in white 
raiment, who said to Joseph: Why didst thou say that the words 
which Mary spoke about the two peoples were superfluous ? 
For she saw the people of the Jews weeping, because they 
have departed from their God; and the people of the Gentiles 
rejoicing, because they have now been added and made near to 
the Lord, according to that which He promised to our fathers 
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob: for the time is at hand when in 
the seed of Abraham all nations shall be blessed.? 

And when he had thus said, the angel ordered the beast to 
stand, for the time when she should bring forth was at hand; 
and he commanded the blessed Mary to come down off the 
animal, and go into a recess under a cavern, in which there 
never was light, but always darkness, because the light of day 
could not reach it. And when the blessed Mary had gone into 
it, it began to shine with as much brightness as if it were the 
sixth hour of the day. The light from God so shone in the 
cave, that neither by day nor night was light wanting as long 
as the blessed Mary was there. And there she brought forth a 
son, and the angels surrounded Him when He was being born. 
And as soon as He was born, He stood upon His feet, and the 

1 Luke ii. 1-6. 2 Gen. xii. 3. 


32 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


angels adored Him, saying: Glory to God in the highest, and 
on earth peace to men of good pleasure. Now, when the birth 
of the Lord was at hand, Joseph had gone away to seek mid- 
wives. And when he had found them, he returned to the cave, 
and found with Mary the infant which she had brought forth. 
And Joseph said to the blessed Mary: I have brought thee two 
midwives—Zelomi? and Salome; and they are standing outside 
before the entrance to the cave, not daring to come in hither, be- 
cause of the exceeding brightness. And when the blessed Mary 
heard this, she smiled; and Joseph said to her: Do not smile ; 
but prudently allow them to visit thee, in case thou shouldst 
require them for thy cure. Then she ordered them to enter. 
And when Zelomi had come in, Salome having stayed without, 
Zelomi said to Mary: Allow me to touch thee. And when she 
had permitted her to make an examination, the midwife cried 
out with a loud voice, and said: Lord, Lord Almighty, mercy 
on us! It has never been heard or thought of, that any one 
should have her breasts full of milk, and that the birth of a son 
should show his mother to be a virgin. But there has been no 
spilling of blood in his birth, no pain in bringing him forth. A 
virgin has conceived, a virgin has brought forth, and a virgin 
she remains. And hearing these words, Salome said: Allow: 
me to handle thee, and prove whether Zelomi have spoken the 
truth. And the blessed Mary allowed her to handle her. And 
when she had withdrawn her hand from handling her, it dried 
up, and through excess of pain she began to weep bitterly, and 
to be in great distress, crying out, and saying: O Lord God, 
Thou knowest that I have always feared Thee, and that with- 
out recompense I have cared for all the poor; I have taken 
nothing from the widow and the orphan, and the needy have 
I not sent empty away. And, behold, I am made wretched 
because of mine unbelief, since without a cause I wished to try 
Thy virgin. 

And while she was thus speaking, there stood by her a 
young man in shining garments, saying: Go to the child, and 
adore Him, and touch Him with thy hand, and He will heal 
thee, because He is the Saviour of the world, and of all that 
hope in Him. And she went to the child with haste, and 

1See Alford’s Greek Testament on Luke ii. 14. ? Or Zelemi. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 33 


adored Him, and touched the fringe of the cloths in which He 
was wrapped, and instantly her hand was cured. And going 
forth, she began to cry aloud, and to tell the wonderful things 
which she had seen, and which she had suffered, and how she 
had been cured; so that many through her statements believed. 

And some shepherds also affirmed that they had seen angels 
singing a hymn at midnight, praising and blessing the God 
of heaven, and saying: There has been born the Saviour of 
all, who is Christ the Lord, in whom salvation shall be brought 
back to Israel.* 

Moreover, a great star, larger than any that had been seen 
since the beginning of the world, shone over the cave from 
the evening till the morning. And the prophets who were in 
Jerusalem said that this star pointed out the birth of Christ, 
who should restore the promise not only to Israel, but to all 
nations. 


Cuap. 14.—And on the third day after the birth of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, the most blessed Mary went forth out of the cave, 
and entering a stable, placed the child in the stall, and the ox 
and the ass adored Him. Then was fulfilled that which was 
said by Isaiah the prophet, saying: The ox knoweth his owner, 
and the ass his master’s crib. The very animals, therefore, the 
ox and the ass, having Him in their midst, incessantly adored 
Him. Then was fulfilled that which was said by Abacuc the 
prophet, saying :* Between two animals thou art made manifest. 
In the same place Joseph remained with Mary three days. 


CHAP. 15.—And on the sixth day they entered Bethlehem, 
where they spent the seventh day. And on the eighth day 
they circumcised the child, and called His name Jesus; for so 
He was called by the angel before He was conceived in the 
womb.* Now, after the days of the purification of Mary were 
fulfilled according to the law of Moses, then Joseph took the 
infant to the temple of the Lord. And when the infant had re- 

1 Luke ii. 8-12. 2188. 1. 3, 

* Hab. iii. 2, according to the LXX. reading, ON pw two living crea- 
tures, for ἡ" Dw, years make alive. 

3 Luke ii. 21-24, 

C 


94 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


ceived parhithomus '—parhithomus, that is, circeumcision—they 
offered for Him a pair of turtle-doves, or two young pigeons.” 

Now there was in the temple a man of God, perfect and 
just, whose name was Symeon, a hundred and twelve years old. 
He had received the answer from the Lord, that he should not 
taste of death till he had seen Christ, the Son of God, living in 
the flesh. And having seen the child, he cried out with a loud 
voice, saying: God hath visited His people, and the Lord hath 
fulfilled His promise. And he made haste, and adored Him. 
And after this he took Him up into his cloak and kissed His 
feet, and said: Lord, now lettest Thou Thy servant depart in 
peace, according to Thy word: for mine eyes have seen Thy 
salvation, which Thou hast prepared before the face of all 
peoples, to be a light to lighten the Gentiles, and the glory of 
Thy people Israel.* 

There was also in the temple of the Lord, Anna, a prophetess, 
the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher, who had lived 
with her husband seven years from her virginity; and she had 
now been a widow eighty-four years. And she never left the 
temple of the Lord, but spent her time in fasting and prayer. 
She also likewise adored the child, saying: In Him is the 
redemption of the world.* 


CHAP. 16.—And when the second year was past,> magi came 
from the east to Jerusalem, bringing great gifts. And they 
made strict inquiry of the Jews, saying: Where is the king 
who has been born to you? for we have seen his star in the 
east, and have come to worship him. And word of this came 
to King Herod, and so alarmed him that he called together the 
scribes and the Pharisees, and the teachers of the people, 
asking of them where the prophets had foretold that Christ 
should be born. And they said: In Bethlehem of Judah. For 
it is written: And thou Bethlehem, in the land of Judah, art 
by no means the least among the princes of Judah; for out of 
thee shall come forth a Leader who shall rule my people Israel.® 


1 This shows the extent of the writer’s, or transcriber’s, knowledge of Greek. 
2 Lev. xii. 8. 3 Luke ii. 22-85. * Luke ii. 36-38. 

5 One ms. has: When two days were past. Another: On the thirteenth day. 
6 Mic. v. 2. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 35 


Then King Herod summoned the magi to him, and strictly 
inquired of them when the star appeared to them. Then, 
sending them to Bethlehem, he said: Go and make strict 
inquiry about the child; and when ye have found him, bring 
me word again, that I may come and worship him also. And 
while the magi were going on their way, there appeared to 
them the star, which was, as it were, a guide to them, going 
before them until they came to where the child was. And 
when the magi saw the star, they rejoiced with great joy; and 
going into the house, they saw the child Jesus sitting in His 
mother’s lap. Then they opened their treasures, and presented 
great gifts to the blessed Mary and Joseph. And to the child 
Himself they offered each of them a piece of gold.* And like- 
wise one gave gold, another frankincense, and the third myrrh.’ 
And when they were going to return to King Herod, they were 
warned by an angel in their sleep not to go back to Herod ; 
and they returned to their own country by another road.° 


_ Cap. 17.—And when Herod* saw that he had been made 
sport of by the magi, his heart swelled with rage, and he sent 
through all the roads, wishing to seize them and put them to 
death. But when he could not find them at all, he sent anew 
to Bethlehem and all its borders, and slew all the male children 
whom he found of two years old and under, according to the 
time that he had ascertained from the magi.° 

Now the day before this was done Joseph was warned in his 
sleep by the angel of the Lord, who said to him: Take Mary 
and the child, and go into Egypt by the way of the desert. 
And Joseph went according to the saying of the angel.® 


CuAp. 18.—And having come to a certain cave, and wishing 
to rest in it, the blessed’ Mary dismounted from her beast, and 
sat down with the child Jesus in her bosom. And there were 


1 The siclus aureus, or gold shekel, was worth £1, 16s. 6d. 

2 One Ms. has: Gaspar gave myrrh, Melchior frankincense, Balthusar gold. 

3 Matt. 11. 1-12. 

* One ms, has: And when Herod, coming back from Rome the year after, saw. 

5 Matt. ii. 16. 6 Matt. ii. 14. 

7 One of the mss. has: Then Joseph put the blessed virgin and the boy upon a 
beast, and himself mounted another, and took the road through the hill country 


36 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


with Joseph three boys, and with Mary a girl, going on the 
journey along with them. And, lo, suddenly there came forth 
from the cave many dragons ; and when the children saw them, 
they cried out in great terror. Then Jesus went down from 
the bosom of His mother, and stood on His feet before the 
dragons ; and they adored Jesus, and thereafter retired. Then 
was fulfilled that which was said by David the prophet, saying: 
Praise the Lord from the earth, ye dragons ; ye dragons, and all 
ye deeps." And the young child Jesus, walking before them, 
commanded them to hurt no man. But Mary and Joseph were 
very much afraid lest the child should be hurt by the dragons. 
And Jesus said to them: Do not be afraid, and do not consider 
me to be a little child; for I am and always have been perfect ; 
and all the beasts of the forest must needs be tame before me. 


Cuap. 19.—Lions and panthers adored Him likewise, and 
accompanied them in the desert. Wherever Joseph and the 
blessed Mary went, they went before them showing them the 
way, and bowing their heads; and showing their submission 
by wagging their tails, they adored Him with great reverence. 
Now at first, when Mary saw the lions and the panthers, and 
various kinds of wild beasts, coming about them, she was very 
much afraid. But the infant Jesus looked into her face with a 
joyful countenance, and said: Be not afraid, mother; for they 
come not to do thee harm, but they make haste to serve both 
thee and me. With these words He drove all fear from her 
heart. And the lions kept walking with them, and with the 
oxen, and the asses, and the beasts of burden which carried 
their baggage, and did not hurt a single one of them, though 
they kept beside them ; but they were tame among the sheep 
and the rams which they had brought with them from Judea, 
and which they had with them. They walked among wolves, 
and feared nothing ; and no one of them was hurt by another. 
Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by the prophet : 
Wolves shall feed with lambs; the lion and the ox shall eat 
straw together? There were together two oxen drawing a 


and the desert, that he might get safe to Egypt ; for they did not want to go by 
the shore, for fear of being waylaid. 
Ps, cxlviii. 7. 2 Isa, Ixv. 25. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 7 


waggon with provision for the journey, and the lions directed 
them in their path. 


Cuap. 20.—And it came to pass on the third day of their 
journey, while they were walking, that the blessed Mary was 
fatigued by the excessive heat of the sun in the desert; and 
seeing a palm tree, she said to Joseph: Let me rest a little 
under the shade of this tree. Joseph therefore made haste, and 
led her to the palm, and made her come down from her beast. 
And as the blessed Mary was sitting there, she looked up to the 
foliage of the palm, and saw it full of fruit, and said to Joseph: 
I wish it were possible to get some of the fruit of this palm. 
And Joseph said to her: I wonder that thou sayest this, when 
thou seest how high the palm tree is; and that thou thinkest of 
eating of its fruit. I am thinking more of the want of water, 
because the skins are now empty, and we have none where- 
with to refresh ourselves and our cattle. Then the child Jesus, 
with a joyful countenance, reposing in the bosom of His mother, 
said to the palm: O tree, bend thy branches, and refresh my 
mother with thy fruit. And immediately at these words the 
palm bent its top down to the very feet of the blessed Mary ; 
and they gathered from it fruit, with which they were all re- 
freshed. And after they had gathered all its fruit, it remained 
bent down, waiting the order to rise from Him who had com- 
manded it to stoop. Then Jesus said to it: Raise thyself, O 
palm tree, and be strong, and be the companion of my trees, 
which are in the paradise of my Father; and open from thy 
roots a vein of water which has been hid in the earth, and let 
the waters flow, so that we may be satisfied from thee. And it 
rose up immediately, and at its root there began to come forth 
a spring of water exceedingly clear and cool and sparkling. 
And when they saw the spring of water, they rejoiced with 
great joy, and were satisfied, themselves and all their cattle 
and their beasts. Wherefore they gave thanks to God. 


Cuap. 21.—And on the day after, when they were setting 
out thence, and in the hour in which they began their journey, 
Jesus turned to the palm, and said: This privilege I give thee, 
O palm tree, that one of thy branches be carried away by my 


38 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


angels, and planted in the paradise of my Father. And this 
blessing I will confer upon thee, that it shall be said of all 
who conquer in any contest, You have attained the palm of 
victory. And while He was thus speaking, behold, an angel of 
the Lord appeared, and stood upon the palm tree; and taking 
off one of its branches, flew to heaven with the branch in his 
hand. And when they saw this, they fell on their faces, and 
became as it were dead. And Jesus said to them: Why are 
your hearts possessed with fear? Do you not know that this 
palm, which I have caused to be transferred to paradise, shall 
be prepared for all the saints in the place of delights, as it has 
been prepared for us in this place of the wilderness? And they 
were filled with joy; and being strengthened, they all rose up. 


Cuap. 22.— After this, while they were going on their 
journey, Joseph said to Jesus: Lord, it is a boiling heat; if 
it please Thee, let us go by the sea-shore, that we may be able 
to rest in the cities on the coast. Jesus said to him: Fear 
not, Joseph; I will shorten the way for you, so that what you 
would have taken thirty days to go over, you shall accom- 
plish in this one day. And while they were thus speaking, 
behold, they looked forward, and began to see the mountains 
and cities of Egypt. 

And rejoicing and exulting, they came into the regions of 
Hermopolis, and entered into a certain city of Egypt which is 
called Sotinen;* and because they knew no one there from 
whom they could ask hospitality, they went into a temple 
which was called the Capitol of Egypt. And in this temple 
there had been set up three hundred and fifty-five idols,? to 
each of which on its own day divine honours and sacred rites 
were paid. For the Egyptians belonging to the same city 
entered the Capitol, in which the priests told them how 
many sacrifices were offered each day, sonra to the honour 
in which the god was held. 


Cuap. 23.—And it came to pass, when the most blessed 


1 Or Sotrina. 


* No nation was so given to idolatry, and worshipped such a countless num- 
ber of monsters, as the Egyptians.—Jerome on Isaiah. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 99 


Mary went into the temple with the little child, that all the 
idols prostrated themselves on the ground, so that all of them 
were lying on their faces shattered and broken to pieces ;* and 
thus they plainly showed that they were nothing. Then was 
fulfilled that which was said by the prophet Isaiah: Behold, 
the Lord will come upon a swift cloud, and will enter Egypt, 
and all the handiwork of the Egyptians shall be moved at His 
presence.” 


CuaAp. 24.—Then Affrodosius, that governor of the city, when 
news of this was brought to him, went to the temple with 
all his army. And the priests of the temple, when they saw 
Affrodosius with all his army coming into the temple, thought 
that he was making haste only to see vengeance taken on those 
on whose account the gods had fallen down. But when he 
came into the temple, and saw all the gods lying prostrate on 
their faces, he went up to the blessed Mary, who was carrying 
the Lord in her bosom, and adored Him, and said to all his 
army and all his friends: Unless this were the God of our gods, 
our gods would not have fallen on their faces before Him; nor 
would they be lying prostrate in His presence: wherefore they 
silently confess that He is their Lord. Unless we, therefore, 
take care to do what we have seen our gods doing, we may run 
the risk of His anger, and all come to destruction, even as it 
happened to Pharaoh king of the Egyptians, who, not believ- 
ing in powers so ‘mighty, was drowned in the sea, with all his 
army.* Then all the people of that same city believed in the 
Lord God through Jesus Christ. 


Cuar. 25.—After no long time the angel said to Joseph: 
Return to the land of Judah, for they are dead who sought the 
child’s life.* 


CuaAp. 26.—And it came to pass, after Jesus had returned out 


1 Cf. 1 Sam. v. 3. Ash. wi), 3 Ex. xv. 4. 

4 Matt. ii. 26. One of the mss. here has: And Joseph and Mary went to 
live in the house of a certain widow, and spent a year there ; and for the events 
of the year it gives a number of the miracles recorded in the early chapters of 
the Latin Gospel of Thomas. 


40 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


of Egypt, when He was in Galilee, and entering on the fourth 
year of His age, that on a Sabbath-day He was playing with 
some children at the bed of the Jordan. And as He sat there, 
Jesus made to Himself seven pools of clay, and to each of them 
He made passages, through which at His command He brought 
water from the torrent into the pool, and took it back again. 
Then one of those children, a son of the devil, moved with 
envy, shut the passages which supplied the pools with water, 
and overthrew what Jesus had built up. Then said Jesus to 
him: Woe unto thee, thou son of death, thou son of Satan ! 
Dost thou destroy the works which I have wrought ? And im- 
mediately he who had done this died. Then with great uproar 
the parents of the dead boy cried out against Mary and Joseph, 
saying to them: Your son has cursed our son, and he is dead. 
And when Joseph and Mary heard this, they came forthwith 
to Jesus, on account of the outcry of the parents of the boy, 
and the gathering together of the Jews. But Joseph said 
privately to Mary: I dare not speak to Him; but do thou 
admonish Him, and say: Why hast Thou raised against us the 
hatred of the people; and why must the troublesome hatred 
of men be borne by us? And His mother having come to Him, 
asked Him, saying: My Lord, what was it that he did to bying 
about his death? And He said: He deserved death, because he 
scattered the works that I had made. Then His mother asked 
Him, saying: Do not so, my Lord, because all men rise up 
against us. But He, not wishing to grieve His mother, with 
His right foot kicked the hinder parts of the dead boy, and said 
to him: Rise, thou son of iniquity; for thou art not worthy 
to enter into the rest of my Father, because thou didst destroy 
the works which I had made. Then he who had been dead rose 
up, and went away. And Jesus, by the word of His power, 
brought water into the pools by the aqueduct. 


Cuap. 27.—And it came to pass, after these things, that in 
the sight of all Jesus took clay from the pools which He had 
made, and of it made twelve sparrows. And it was the Sab- 
bath when Jesus did this, and there were very many children 
with Him. When, therefore, one of the Jews had seen Him 
doing this, he said to Joseph: Joseph, dost thou not see the 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 41 


child Jesus working on the Sabbath at what it is not lawful 
for him to do? for he has made twelve sparrows of clay. 
And when Joseph heard this, he reproved him, saying: Where- 
fore doest thou on the Sabbath such things as are not lawful 
for us to do? And when Jesus heard Joseph, He struck His 
hands together, and said to His sparrows: Fly! And at the 
voice of His command they began to fly. And in the sight and 
hearing of all that stood by, He said to the birds: Go and fly 
through the earth, and through all the world, and live. And 
when those that were there saw such miracles, they were filled 
with great astonishment. And some praised and admired Him, 
but others reviled Him. And certain of them went away to 
the chief priests and the heads of the Pharisees, and reported 
to them that Jesus the son of Joseph had done great signs and 
miracles in the sight of all the people of Israel. And this was 
reported in the twelve tribes of Israel. 


Cuap. 28.—And again the son of Annas, a priest of the 
temple, who had come with Joseph, holding. his rod in his 
hand in the sight of all, with great fury broke down the dams 
which Jesus had made with His own hands, and let out the 
water which He had collected in them from the torrent. More- 
over, he shut the aqueduct by which the water came in, and 
then broke it down. And when Jesus saw this, He said to 
that boy who had destroyed His dams: O most wicked seed 
of iniquity! O son of death! O workshop of Satan! verily the 
fruit of thy seed shall be without strength, and thy roots without 
moisture, and thy branches withered, bearing no fruit. And 
immediately, in the sight of all, the boy withered away, and died. 


Cuap. 29.—Then Joseph trembled, and took hold of Jesus, 
and went with Him to his own house, and His mother with 
Him. And, behold, suddenly from the opposite direction a boy, 
also a worker of iniquity, ran up and came against the shoulder 
of Jesus, wishing to make sport of Him, or to hurt Him, if he 
could. And Jesus said to him: Thou shalt not go back safe 
and sound from the way that thou goest. And immediately he 
fell down, and died. And the parents of the dead boy, who had 
seen what happened, cried out, saying: Where does this child 


42 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


come from? It is manifest that every word that he says is 
true; and it is often accomplished before he speaks. And 
the parents of the dead boy came to Joseph, and said to him: 
Take away that Jesus from this place, for he cannot live with 
us in this town; or at least teach him to bless, and not to 
curse. And Joseph came up to Jesus, and admonished Him, 
saying: Why doest thou such things? For already many are 
in grief and against thee, and hate us on thy account, and we 
endure the reproaches of men because of thee. And Jesus 
answered and said unto Joseph: No one is a wise son but he 
whom his father hath taught, according to the knowledge of this 
time ; and a father’s curse can hurt none but evil-doers. Then 
they came together against Jesus, and accused him to Joseph. 
When Joseph saw this, he was in great terror, fearing the vio- 
lence and uproar of the people of Israel. And the same hour 
Jesus seized the dead boy by the ear, and lifted him up from 
the earth in the sight of all: and they saw Jesus speaking to 
him lke a father to his son. And his spirit came back to him, 
and he revived. And all of them wondered. 


Cuap. 30.— Now a certain Jewish schoolmaster named 
Zachyas * heard Jesus thus speaking ; and seeing that He could 
not be overcome, from knowing the power that was in Him,? 
he became angry, and began rudely and foolishly, and without 
fear, to speak against Joseph. And he said: Dost thou not 
wish to entrust me with thy son, that he may be instructed in 
human learning and in reverence? But I see that Mary and 
thyself have more regard for your son than for what the elders 
of the people of Israel say against him. You should have 
given more honour to us, the elders of the whole church of 
Israel, both that he might be on terms of mutual affection 
with the children, and that among us he might be instructed 
in Jewish learning. Joseph, on the other hand, said to him: 
And is there any one who can keep this child, and teach him ? 
But if thou canst keep him and teach him, we by no means 
hinder him from being taught by thee those things which are 
learned by all. And Jesus, having heard what Zachyas had 


1 Other forms of the name are: Zachias, Zachameus, Zacheus, Zachezus. 
2 Or, seeing that there was in Him an insuperable knowledge of virtue. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 43 


said, answered and said unto him: The precepts of the law 
which thou hast just spoken of, and all the things that thou 
hast named, must be kept by those who are instructed in 
human learning; but I am a stranger to your law-courts, 
because I have no father after the flesh. Thou who readest 
the law, and art learned in it, abidest in the law; but I was 
before the law. But since thou thinkest that no one is equal 
to thee in learning, thou shalt be taught by me, that no other 
can teach anything but those things which thou hast named. 
But he alone can who is worthy.’ For when I shall be exalted 
on earth, I will cause to cease all mention of your genealogy. 
For thou knowest not when thou wast born: I alone know 
when you were born, and how long your life on earth will be. | 
Then all who heard these words were struck with astonish- 
ment, and cried out: Oh! oh! oh! this marvellously great and 
wonderful mystery. Never have we heard the like! Never 
has it been heard from any one else, nor has it been said or at 
any time heard by the prophets, or the Pharisees, or the scribes. 
We know whence he is sprung, and he is scarcely five years 
old; and whence does he speak these words? The Pharisees 
answered: We have never heard such words spoken by any 
other child so young. And Jesus answered and said unto 
them: At this do ye wonder, that such things are said by 
a child? Why, then, do ye not believe me in those things 
which I have said to you? And you all wonder because I 
said to you that I know when you were born. I will tell you 
greater things, that you may wonder more. I have seen 
Abraham, whom you call your father, and have spoken with 
him; and he has seen me.” And when they heard this they 
held their tongues, nor did any of them dare to speak. And 
Jesus said to them: I have been among you with children, 
and you have not known me; I have spoken to you as to wise 
men, and you have not understood my words ; because you are 
younger than 1 am,° and of little faith. 


' Tischendorf thinks that the text is corrupt. But the meaning seems to be: 
You are not a whit better than your neighbours ; for all of you teach what you 
have named, and you can teach nothing else. But he alone (ipse, i.c. Christ) 
can teach more who is worthy. 

2 Cf. John viii. 56-58. 3 Or, literally, inferior to me. 


44 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Cuap. 31.—A second time the master Zachyas, doctor of the 
law, said to Joseph and Mary: Give me the boy, and I shall 
hand him over to Master Levi, who shall teach him his letters 
and instruct him. Then Joseph and Mary, soothing Jesus, 
took Him to the schools, that He might be taught His letters 
by old Levi. And as soon as He went in He held His tongue. 
And the master Levi said one letter to Jesus, and, beginning 
from the first letter Aleph, said to Him: Answer. But Jesus 
was silent, and answered nothing. Wherefore. the preceptor 
Levi was angry, and seized his storax-tree rod, and struck 
Him on the head. And Jesus said to the teacher Levi: Why 
dost thou strike me? Thou shalt know in truth, that He who 
is struck can teach him who strikes Him more than He can be 
taught by him. For I can teach you those very things that 
you are saying. But all these are blind who speak and hear, 
like sounding brass or tinkling cymbal, in which there is no 
perception of those things which are meant by their sound.’ 
And Jesus in addition said to Zachyas: Every letter from 
Aleph even to Thet’ is known by its arrangement. Say thou 
first, therefore, what Thet is, and I will tell thee what Aleph 
is. And again Jesus said to them: Those who do not know 
Aleph, how can they say Thet, the hypocrites? Tell me what 
the first one, Aleph, is; and I shall then believe you when you 
have said Beth. And Jesus began to ask the names of the 
letters one by one, and said: Let the master of the law tell us 
what the first letter is, or why it has many triangles, gradate, 
subacute, mediate, obduced, produced, erect, prostrate, curvi- 
strate? And when Levi heard this, he was thunderstruck at 
such an arrangement of the names of the letters. Then he 

"lL Gt with 1, kt. 7 

2 Tau, and not Teth, is the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet. 

3 The original—triangulos gradatos, subacutos, mediatos, obductos, productos, 
erectos, stratos, curvistratos—is hopelessly corrupt. Compare the passages in the 
following Apocrypha. It obviously, however, refers to the Pentalpha, Pentacle, 
or Solomon’s Seal, celebrated in the remains of the magical books that have come 
down to us under the names of Hermes and the Pythagoreans. The Pentalpha 
was formed by joining by straight lines the alternate angles of a regular penta- 
gon, and thus contained numerous triangles. The Pythagoreans called it the 
HHygiea or symbol of health, and it was frequently engraved on amulets and 


coins. It is still, if the books are to be trusted, a symbol of power in the higher 
grades of freemasonry. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 45 


began in the hearing of all to cry out, and say: Ought such 
a one to live on the earth? Yea, he ought to be hung on the 
great cross. For he can put out fire, and make sport of other 
modes of punishment. I think that he lived before the flood, 
and was born before the deluge. For what womb bore him ? 
or what mother brought him forth ? or what breasts gave him 
suck? I flee before him; I am not able to withstand the 
words from his mouth, but my heart is astounded to hear such 
words. I do not think that any man can understand what he 
says, except God were with him. Now I, unfortunate wretch, 
heve given myself up to be a laughing-stock to him. For 
when I thought I had a scholar, I, not knowing him, have 
found my master. What shall I say? I cannot withstand 
the words of this child: I shall now flee from this town, be- 
cause I cannot understand them. An old man like me has 
been beaten by a boy, because I can find neither beginning 
nor end of what he says. For it is no easy matter to find a 
beginning of himself.* I tell you of a certainty, I am not 
lying, that to my eyes the proceedings of this boy, the com- 
mencement of his conversation, and the upshot of his mten- 
tion, seem to have nothing in common with mortal man. 
Here then I do not know whether he be a wizard or a god; 
or at least an angel of God speaks in him. Whence he is, or 
where he comes from, or who he will turn out to be, I know 
not. Then Jesus, smiling at him with a joyful countenance, 
said in a commanding voice to all the sons of Israel standing 
by and hearing: Let the unfruitful bring forth fruit, and the 
blind see, and the lame walk right, and the poor enjoy the 
eood things of this life, and the dead live, that each may re- 
turn to his original state, and abide in Him who is the root of 
life and of perpetual sweetness. And when the child Jesus had 
said this, forthwith all who had fallen under malignant diseases 
were restored. And they did not dare to say anything more 
to Him, or to hear anything from Him. 


Cuap. 32.—After these things, Joseph and Mary departed 
thence with Jesus into the city of Nazareth; and He remained 


‘i.¢e., It is not wonderful that we do not understand what he says, for we do 
not know what he is. 


46 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


there with His parents. And on the first of the week, when 
Jesus was playing with the children on the roof of a certain 
house, it happened that one of the children pushed another 
down from the roof to the ground, and he was killed. And 
the parents of the dead boy, who had not seen this, cried out 
against Joseph and Mary, saying: Your son has thrown our 
son down to the ground, and he is dead. But Jesus was silent, 
and answered them nothing. And Joseph and Mary came in 
haste to Jesus; and His mother asked Him, saying: My lord, 
tell me if thou didst throw him down. And immediately 
Jesus went down from the roof to the ground, and called the 
boy by his name, Zeno, And he answered Him: My lord. 
And Jesus said to him: Was it I that threw thee down from 
the roof to the ground? And he said: No, my lord. And 
the parents of the boy who had been dead wondered, and 
honoured Jesus for the miracle that had been wrought. And 
Joseph and Mary departed thence with Jesus to Jericho. 


CHAP. 33.—Now Jesus was six years old, and His mother 
sent Him with a pitcher to the fountain to draw water with 
the children. And it came to pass, after He had drawn the 
water, that one of the children came against Him, and struck 
the pitcher, and broke it. But Jesus stretched out the cloak 
which He had on, and took up in His cloak as much water as 
there had been in the pitcher, and carried it to His mother. 
And when she saw it she wondered, and reflected within her- 
self, and laid up all these things in her heart.’ 


Cuap. 34.—Again, on a certain day, He went forth into the 
field, and took a little wheat from His mother’s barn, and sowed 
it Himself. And it sprang up, and grew, and multiplied exceed- 
ingly. And at last it came to pass that He Himself reaped it, 
and gathered as the produce of it three kors,’ and gave it to 
His numerous acquaintances.® 


CuAP. 35.—There is a road going out of Jericho and leading 


1 Luke ii. 19. 


* The kor or chomer was, according to Jahn, equal to 82 pecks 1 pint. 
5 Multiplicibus suis. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 47 


to the river Jordan, to the place where the children of Israel 
crossed: and there the ark of the covenant is said to have 
rested. And Jesus was eight years old, and He went out of 
Jericho, and went towards the Jordan. And there was beside 
the road, near the bank of the Jordan, a cave where a lioness 
was nursing her cubs; and no one was safe to walk that way. 
Jesus then, coming from Jericho, and knowing that in that 
cave the lioness had brought forth her young, went into it in 
the sight of all. And when the lions saw Jesus, they ran to 
meet Him, and adored Him. And Jesus was sitting in the 
cavern, and the lion’s cubs ran hither and thither round His 
feet, fawning upon Him, and sporting. And the older lions, 
with their heads bowed down, stood at a distance, and adored 
Him, and fawned upon Him with their tails. Then the people 
who were standing afar off, not seeing Jesus, said: Unless he 
or his parents had committed grievous sins, he would not of 
his own accord have offered himself up to the lons. And 
when the people were thus reflecting within themselves, and 
were lying under great sorrow, behold, on a sudden, in the 
sight of the people, Jesus came out of the cave, and the lions 
went before Him, and the lion’s cubs played with each other 
before His feet. And the parents of Jesus stood afar off, with 
their heads bowed down, and watched; likewise also the people 
stood at a distance, on account of the lions; for they did not 
dare to come close to them. Then Jesus began to say to the 
people: How much better are the beasts than you, seeing that 
they recognise their Lord, and glorify Him; while you men, 
who have been made after the image and lkeness of God, do 
not know Him! Beasts know me, and are tame; men see me, 
and do not acknowledge me. 


Cuap. 36.—After these things Jesus crossed the Jordan, in 
the sight of them all, with the lions; and the water of the 
Jordan was divided on the right hand and on the left." Then 
He said to the lions, in the hearing of all: Go in peace, and 
hurt no one; but neither let man injure you, until you return 
to the place whence you have come forth. And they, bidding 
Him farewell, not only with their gestures but with their 

1 Josh. iii. 16; 2 Kings ii. 8. 


48 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


voices, went to their own place. But Jesus returned to His 
mother. 


Cuap. 37.—Now Joseph’ was a carpenter, and used to make 
nothing else of wood but ox-yokes, and ploughs, and imple- 
ments of husbandry, and wooden beds. And it came to pass 
that a certain young man ordered him to make for him a couch 
six cubits long. And Joseph commanded his servant* to cut 
the wood with an iron saw, according to the measure which he 
had sent. But he did not keep to the prescribed measure, but 
made one piece of wood shorter than the other. And Joseph 
was in perplexity, and began to consider what he was to do 
about this. And when Jesus saw him in this state of cogita- 
tion, seeing that it was a matter of impossibility to him, He 
addresses him with words of comfort, saying: Come, let us take 
hold of the ends of the pieces of wood, and let us put them 
together, end to end, and let us fit them exactly to each other, 
and draw to us, for we shall be able to make them equal. 
Then Joseph did what he was bid, for he knew that He could 
do whatever He wished. And Joseph took hold of the ends of 
the pieces of wood, and brought them together against the wall 
next himself, and Jesus took hold of the other ends of the pieces 
of wood, and drew the shorter piece to Him, and made it of the 
same length as the longer one. And He said to Joseph: Go 
and work, and do what thou hast promised to do. And Joseph 
did what he had promised.® 


Cap. 38.—And it came to pass a second time, that Joseph 
and Mary were asked by the people that Jesus should be taught 
His letters in school. They did not refuse to do so; and 
according to the commandment of the elders, they took Him 
to a master to be instructed in human learning. Then the 
master began to teach Him in an imperious tone, saying: Say 

"One of the ss. tells the story, not of Joseph, but of a certain builder, a 
worker in wood. 

+ Lit., boy. 

3 One of the mss. here inserts: And when Jesus was with other children, He 
repeatedly went up and sat down upon a balcony, and many of them began to 


do likewise, and they fell down and broke their legs and arms. And the Lord 
Jesus healed them all. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHE W. 49 


Alpha. And Jesus said to him: Do thou tell me first what 
Betha is, and I will tell thee what Alpha is. And upon this 
the master got angry and struck Jesus; and no sooner had he 
struck Him, than he fell down dead. 

And Jesus went home again to His mother. And Joseph, 
being afraid, called Mary to him, and said to her: Know of a 
surety that my soul is sorrowful even unto death on account 
of this child. For it is very likely that at some time or other 
some one will strike him in malice, and he will die. But 
Mary answered and said: O man of God! do not believe that 
this is possible. You may believe to a certainty that He 
who has sent him to be born among men will Himself guard 
him from all mischief, and will in His own name preserve 
him from evil. 


Cuap. 39.—Again the Jews asked Mary and Joseph a third 
time to coax Him to go to another master to learn. And 
Joseph and Mary, fearing the people, and the overbearing of 
the princes, and the threats of the priests, led Him again to 
school, knowing that He could learn nothing from man, because 
He had perfect knowledge from God only. And when Jesus 
had entered the school, led by the Holy Spirit, He took the 
book out of the hand of the master who was teaching the law, 
and in the sight and hearing of all the people began to read, 
not indeed what was written in their book; but He spoke in 
the Spirit of the living God, as if a stream of water were 
cushing forth from a living fountain, and the fountain remained 
always full. And with such power He taught the people the 
ereat things of the living God, that the master himself fell to 
the ground and adored Him. And the heart of the people who 
sat and heard Him saying such things was turned into astonish- 
ment. And when Joseph heard of this, he came running to 
Jesus, fearing that the master himself was dead. And when 
the master saw him, he said to him: Thou hast given me not 
a scholar, but a master; and who can withstand his words ? 
Then was fulfilled that which was spoken by the Psalmist : 
The river of God is full of water: Thou hast prepared them 
corn, for so is the provision for it.? 


1 Note that the letters are Greek here. 2 Ps. Ixv. 9. 
D 


50 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Cuar. 40.—After these things Joseph departed thence with 
Mary and Jesus to go into Capernaum by the sea-shore, on 
account of the malice of his adversaries. And when Jesus was 
living in Capernaum, there was in the city a man named 
Joseph, exceedingly rich. But he had wasted away under his 
infirmity, and died, and was lying dead in his couch. And 
when Jesus heard them in the city mourning, and weeping, and 
lamenting over the dead man, He said to Joseph: Why dost 
thou not afford the benefit of thy favour to this man, seeing that 
he is called by thy name? And Joseph answered him: How 
have I any power or ability to afford him a benefit? And 
Jesus said to him: Take the handkerchief which is upon thy 
head, and go and put it on the face of the dead man, and say to 
him: Christ heal thee; and immediately the dead man will be 
healed, and will rise from his couch. And when Joseph heard 
this, he went away at the command of Jesus, and ran, and 
entered the house of the dead man, and put the handkerchief 
which he was wearing on his head upon the face of him who 
was lying in the couch, and said: Jesus heal thee. And forth- 
with the dead man rose from his bed, and asked who Jesus 
was." 


CuaAp. 41—And they went away from Capernaum into the 
city which is called Bethlehem; and Joseph lived with Mary 
in his own house, and Jesus with them. And on a certain day 
Joseph called to him his first-born son James,’ and sent him 
into the vegetable garden to gather vegetables for the purpose 
of making broth. And Jesus followed His brother James into 
the garden; but Joseph and Mary did not know this. And 
while James was collecting the vegetables, a viper suddenly 
came out of a hole and struck his hand,® and he began to cry 
out from excessive pain. And, becoming exhausted, he said, 
with a bitter cry: Alas! alas! an accursed viper has struck my 

‘In place of this chapter, one of the mss. has a number of miracles copied 
from the canonical Gospels—the walking on the sea, the feeding of the five 
thousand, the healing of a blind man, the raising of Lazarus, and the ates of 
a certain young man. 

* According to the tradition preserved by Hegesippus and Tertullian, James 


and Judas were husbandmen. See Const. Apost. ch. lxvii. 
8 Cf. Acts xxviii. 3. 


THE GOSPEL OF PSEUDO-MATTHEW. 51 


hand. And Jesus, who was standing opposite to him, at the 
bitter cry ran up to James, and took hold of his hand; and all 
that He did was to blow on the hand of James, and cool it: 
and immediately James was healed, and the serpent died. And 
Joseph and Mary did not know what had been done; but at 
the cry of James, and the command of Jesus, they ran to the 
garden, and found the serpent already dead, and James quite 
cured. 


Cuap. 42.—And Joseph having come to a feast with his sons, 
James, Joseph, and Judah, and Simeon and his two daughters, 
Jesus met them, with Mary His mother, along with her sister 
Mary of Cleophas, whom the Lord God had given to her father 
Cleophas and her mother Anna, because they had offered Mary 
the mother of Jesus to the Lord. And she was called by the 
same name, Mary, for the consolation of her parents.’ And 
when they had come together, Jesus sanctified and blessed 
them, and He was the first to begin to eat and drink; for none 
of them dared to eat or drink, or to sit at table, or to break 
bread, until He had sanctified them, and first done so. And 
if He happened to be absent, they used to wait until He should 
dothis. And when He did not wish to come for refreshment, 


‘One of the mss. has: And when Joseph, worn out with old age, died and 
was buried with his parents, the blessed Mary [lived] with her nephews, or with 
the children of her sisters ; for Anna and Emerina were sisters. Of Emerina 
was born Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist. And as Anna, the mother 
of the blessed Mary, was very beautiful, when Joachim was dead she was married 
to Cleophas, by whom she had a second daughter. She called her Mary, and 
gave her to Alpheus to wife ; and of her was born James the son of Alpheus, 
and Philip his brother. And her second husband having died, Anna was mar- 
ried to a third husband named Salome, by whom she had a third daughter. She 
called her Mary likewise, and gave her to Zebedee to wife; and of her were born 
James the son of Zebedee, and John the Evangelist. 

Another passage to the same effect is prefixed to the Gospel. It reads Emeria 
for Emerina, and Joseph for Philip. It ends with a quotation from Jerome’s 
sermon upon Easter :—We read in the Gospels that there were four Marys— 
first, the mother of the Lord the Saviour ; second, His maternal aunt, who was 
called Mary of Cleophas ; third, Mary the mother of James and Joseph ; fourth, 
Mary Magdalene—though some maintain that the mother of James and Joseph 
was His aunt. 

The same ms. thus concludes: The holy Apostle and Evangelist John with 
his own hand wrote this little book in Hebrew, and the learned doctor Jerome 
rendered it from Hebrew into Latin. 


52 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


neither Joseph nor Mary, nor the sons of Joseph, His brothers, 
came. And, indeed, these brothers, keeping His life as a lamp 
before their eyes, observed Him, and feared Him. And when 
Jesus slept, whether by day or by night, the brightness of God 
shone upon Him. To whom be all praise and ‘glory for ever 
and ever. Amen, amen. 


THE GOSPEL OF THE NATIVITY OF MARY. 


—- == 


CHAPTER I. 


=a HE blessed and glorious ever-virgin Mary, sprung 
Mm, from the royal stock and family of David, born 
ΡΝ ΡΘΕ in the city of Nazareth, was brought up at Jeru- 
== salem in the temple of the Lord. Her father was 
named Joachim, and her mother Anna. Her father’s house was 
from Galilee and the city of Nazareth, but her mother’s family 
from Bethlehem. Their life was guileless and right before the 
Lord, and irreproachable and pious before men. For they 
divided all their substance into three parts. One part they 
spent upon the temple and the temple servants ; another 
they distributed to strangers and the poor; the third they 
reserved for themselves and the necessities of their family. 
Thus, dear to God, kind to men, for about twenty years they 
lived in their own house, a chaste married life, without having 
any children. Nevertheless they vowed that, should the Lord 
happen to give them offspring, they would deliver it to the 
service of the Lord; on which account also they used to visit 
the temple of the Lord at each of the feasts during the year. 


Cuap. 2.—And it came to pass that the festival of the 
dedication’ was at hand; wherefore also Joachim went up to 
Jerusalem with some men of his own tribe. Now at that time 
Isaschar* was high priest there. And when he saw Joachim 


11 Mace. iv. 52-59; 2 Mace. x. 1-8; John x. 22; Josephus, Antig. xii. 7. 

* The spelling in the text is that in the Hebrew, the Samaritan Codex, the 
Targums, and the Textus Receptus. There is no Issachar in the list of high 
priests. 

53 


54 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


with his offering among his other fellow-citizens, he despised 
him, and spurned his gifts, asking why he, who had no off- 
spring, presumed to stand among those who had; saying that 
his gifts could not by any means be acceptable to God, since 
He had deemed him unworthy of offspring: for the Scripture 
said, Cursed is every one who has not begot a male or a female 
in Israel.t He said, therefore, that he ought first to be freed 
from this curse by the begetting of children; and then, and 
then only, that he should come into the presence of the Lord 
with his offerings. And Joachim, covered with shame from 
this reproach that was thrown in his teeth, retired to the shep- 
herds, who were in their pastures with the flocks; nor would 
he return home, lest perchance he might be branded with the 
same reproach by those of his own tribe, who were there at the 
time, and had heard this from the priest. 


Cuap. 3.—Now, when he had been there for some time, on 
a certain day when he was alone, an angel of the Lord stood 
by him in a great light. And when he was disturbed at his 
appearance, the angel who had appeared to him restrained his 
fear, saying: Fear not, Joachim, nor be disturbed by my appear- 
ing; for I am the angel of the Lord, sent by Him to thee to tell 
thee that thy prayers have been heard, and that thy charitable 
deeds have gone up into His presence.? For He hath seen thy 
shame, and hath heard the reproach of unfruitfulness which has 
been unjustly brought against thee. For God is the avenger 
of sin, not of nature: and, therefore, when He shuts up the 
womb of any one, He does so that He may miraculously open 
it again; so that that which is born may be acknowledged to 
be not of lust, but of the gift of God. For was it not the case 
that the first mother of your nation—Sarah—was barren up 
to her eightieth year?® And, nevertheless, in extreme old age 
she brought forth Isaac, to whom the promise was renewed of 
the blessing of all nations. Rachel also, so favoured by the 
Lord, and so beloved by holy Jacob, was long barren; and yet 
she brought forth Joseph, who was not only the lord of Egypt, 


1 This statement does not occur in Scripture in so many words ; but sterility 


was looked upon as a punishment from God. 
2 Compare Acts x. 4. 3 Gen. xvii. 17. Sarah was ninety years old. 


THE GOSPEL OF THE NATIVITY OF MARY. δ 


but the deliverer of many nations who were ready to perish 
of hunger. Who among the judges was either stronger than 
Sampson, or more holy than Samuel? And yet the mothers 
of both were barren. If, therefore, the reasonableness of my 
words does not persuade thee, believe in fact that conceptions 
very late in life, and births in the case of women that have 
been barren, are usually attended with something wonderful. 
Accordingly thy wife Anna will bring forth a daughter to thee, 
and thou shalt call her name Mary: she shall be, as you have 
vowed, consecrated to the Lord from her infancy, and she shall 
be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from her mother’s womb. 
She shall neither eat nor drink any unclean thing, nor shall 
she spend her life among the crowds of the people without, 
but in the temple of the Lord, that it may not be possible 
either to say, or so much as to suspect, any evil concerning 
her. Therefore, when she has grown up, just as she herself 
shall be miraculously born of a barren woman, so in an incom- 
parable manner she, a virgin, shall bring forth the Son of the 
Most High, who shall be called Jesus, and who, according to 
the etymology of His name, shall be the Saviour of all nations. 
And this shall be the sign to thee of those things which I 
announce: When thou shalt come to the Golden gate in Jeru- 
salem, thou shalt there meet Anna thy wife, who, lately anxious 
from the delay of thy return, will then rejoice at the sight of 
thee. Having thus spoken, the angel departed from him. 


Cuap. 4.—Thereafter he appeared to Anna his wife, saying: 
Fear not, Anna, nor think that it is a phantom which thou 
seest. For I am that angel who has presented your prayers 
and alms before God; and now have I been sent to you to 
announce to you that thou shalt bring forth a daughter, who 
shall be called Mary, and who shall be blessed above all women. 
She, full of the favour of the Lord even from her birth, shall 
remain three years in her father’s house until she be weaned. 
Thereafter, being delivered to the service of the Lord, she shall 
not depart from the temple until she reach the years of dis- 
cretion. There, in fine, serving God day and night in fastings 
and prayers, she shall abstain from every unclean thing ; she 
shall never know man, but alone, without example, immaculate, 


56 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


uncorrupted, without intercourse with man, she, a virgin, shall 
bring forth a son; she, His handmaiden, shall bring forth the 
Lord—both in grace, and in name, and in work, the Saviour 
of the world. Wherefore arise, and go up to Jerusalem; and 
when thou shalt come to the gate which, because it is plated 
with gold, is called Golden, there, for a sign, thou shalt meet 
thy husband, for whose safety thou hast been anxious. And 
when these things shall have so happened, know that what I 
announce shall without doubt be fulfilled. 


CuAP. 5.—Therefore, as the angel had commanded, both of 
them setting out from the place where they were, went up to 
Jerusalem; and when they had come to the place pointed out 
by the angel’s prophecy, there they met each other. Then, 
rejoicing αὖ seeing each other, and secure in the certainty of the 
promised offspring, they gave the thanks due to the Lord, who 
exalteth the humble. And so, having worshipped the Lord, 
they returned home, and awaited in certainty and in gladness 
the divine promise. Anna therefore conceived, and brought 
forth a daughter; and according to the command of the angel, 
her parents called her name Mary. 


Cuap. 6.—And when the circle of three years had rolled 
round, and the time of her weaning was fulfilled, they brought 
the virgin to the temple of the Lord with offerings. Now 
there were round the temple, according to the fifteen Psalms 
of Degrees,’ fifteen steps going up; for, on account of the 
temple having been built on a mountain, the altar of burnt- 
offering, which stood outside, could not be reached except by 
steps. On one of these, then, her parents placed the little 
girl, the blessed virgin Mary. And when they were putting 
off the clothes which they had worn on the journey, and were 
putting on, as was usual, others that were neater and cleaner, 
the virgin of the Lord went up all the steps, one after the 
other, without the help of any one leading her or lifting her, in 
such a manner that,in this respect at least, you would think 
that she had already attained full age. For already the Lord 


1 Ps, cxx.-cxxxiv. The fifteen steps led from the court of the women to that 
of the men. 


THE GOSPEL OF THE NATIVITY OF MARY. 57 


in the infancy of His virgin wrought a great thing, and by 
the indication of this miracle foreshowed how great she was to 
be. Therefore, a sacrifice having been offered according to the 
custom of the law, and their vow being perfected, they left the 
virgin within the enclosures of the temple, there to be educated 
with the other virgins, and themselves returned home. 


Cuap. 7.—But the virgin of the Lord advanced in age and in 
virtues ; and though, in the words of the Psalmist, her father 
and mother had forsaken her, the Lord took her up. For 
daily was she visited by angels, daily did she enjoy a divine 
vision, which preserved her from all evil, and made her to 
abound in all good. And so she reached her fourteenth year ; 
and not only were the wicked unable to charge her with any- 
thing worthy of reproach, but all the good, who knew her life 
and conversation, judged her to be worthy of admiration. 
Then the high priest publicly announced that the virgins who 
were publicly settled in the temple, and had reached this time 
of life, should return home and get married, according to the 
custom of the nation and the ripeness of their years. The 
others readily obeyed this command; but Mary alone, the virgin 
of the Lord, answered that she could not do this, saying both 
that her parents had devoted her to the service of the Lord, 
and that, moreover, she herself had made to the Lord a vow of 
virginity, which she would never violate by any intercourse 
with man. And the high priest, being placed in great per- 
plexity of mind, seeing that neither did he think that the vow 
should be broken contrary to the Scripture, which says, Vow 
and pay,’ nor did he dare to introduce a custom unknown to 
the nation, gave order that at the festival, which was at hand, 
all the chief persons from Jerusalem and the neighbourhood 
should be present, in order that from their advice he might 
know what was to be done in so doubtful a case. And when 
this took place, they resolved unanimously that the Lord should 
be consulted upon this matter. And when they all bowed them- 
selves in prayer, the high priest went to consult God in the usual 
way. Nor had they long to wait: in the hearing of all a voice 
issued from the oracle and from the mercy-seat, that, according 

1 Ps, xxvii. 10. + Pe ΙΧΣΥῚ 1]. 


58 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


to the prophecy of Isaiah, a man should be sought out to whom 
the virgin ought to be entrusted and espoused. For it is clear 
that Isaiah says: A rod shall come forth from the root of Jesse, 
and a flower shall ascend from his root; and the Spirit of the 
Lord shall rest upon him, the spirit of wisdom and under- 
standing, the spirit of counsel and strength, the spirit of wisdom 
and piety; and he shall be filled with the spirit of the fear of 
the Lord. According to this prophecy, therefore, he predicted 
that all of the house and family of David that were unmarried 
and fit for marriage should bring their rods to the altar; and 
that he whose rod after it was brought should produce a flower, 
and upon the end of whose rod the Spirit of the Lord should 
settle in the form of a dove, was the man to whom the virgin 
ought to be entrusted and espoused. 


Cuar. 8—Now there was among the rest Joseph, of the 
house and family of David, a man of great age: and when all 
brought their rods, according to the order, he alone withheld 
his. Wherefore, when nothing in conformity with the divine 
voice appeared, the high priest thought it necessary to consult 
God a second time; and He answered, that of those who had 
been designated, he alone to whom the virgin ought to be 
espoused had not brought his rod. Joseph, therefore, was found 
out. For when he had brought his rod, and the dove came 
from heaven and settled upon the top of it, it clearly appeared 
to all that he was the man to whom the virgin should be 
espoused. Therefore, the usual ceremonies of betrothal having 
been gone through, he went back to the city of Bethlehem to 
put his house in order, and to procure things necessary for the 
marriage. But Mary, the virgin of the.Lord, with seven other 
virgins of her own age, and who had been weaned at the same 
time, whom she had received from the priest, returned to the 
house of her parents in Galilee. 


Cup. 9.—And in those days, that is, atthe time of her first 
coming into Galilee, the angel Gabriel was sent to her by God, 
to announce to her the conception of the Lord, and to explain 
to her the manner and order of the conception. Accordingly, 

‘ Tees Εν 


THE GOSPEL OF THE NATIVITY OF MARY. 59 


going in, he filled the chamber where she was with a great 
light ; and most courteously saluting her, he said: Hail, Mary! 
O virgin highly favoured by the Lord, virgin full of grace, the 
Lord is with thee; blessed art thou above all women, blessed 
above all men that have been hitherto born.’ And the virgin, 
who was already well acquainted with angelic faces, and was 
not unused to the light from heaven, was neither terrified by 
the vision of the angel, nor astonished at the greatness of the 
light, but only perplexed by his words; and she began to 
consider of what nature a salutation so unusual could be, or 
what it could portend, or what end it could have. And the 
angel, divinely inspired, taking up this thought, says: Fear not, 
Mary, as if anything contrary to thy chastity were hid under 
this salutation. For in choosing chastity, thou hast found 
favour with the Lord; and therefore thou, a virgin, shalt conceive 
without sin, and shalt bring forth a son. He shall be great, 
because He shall rule from sea to sea, and from the river even 
to the ends of the earth ;? and He shall be called the Son of 
the Most High, because He who is born on earth in humilia- 
tion, reigns in heaven in exaltation; and the Lord God will 
give Him the throne of His father David, and He shall reign 
in the house of Jacob for ever, and of His kingdom there shall 
be no end;* forasmuch as He is King of kings and Lord of 
lords,* and His throne is from everlasting to everlasting. The 
virgin did not doubt these words of the angel; but wishing to 
know the manner of it, she answered: How can that come to 
pass? For while, according to my vow, I never know man, 
how can I bring forth without the addition of man’s seed? To 
this the angel says: Think not, Mary, that thou shalt conceive 
in the manner of mankind: for without anyintercourse with man, 
thou, a virgin, wilt conceive; thou, a virgin, wilt bring forth; 
thou, a virgin, wilt nurse: for the Holy Spirit shall come upon 
thee, and the power of the Most High shall overshadow thee,° 
without any of the heats of lust; and therefore that which 
shall be born of thee shall alone be holy, because it alone, being 
conceived and born without sin, shall be called the Son of God. 
Then Mary stretched forth her hands, and raised her eyes to 


1 Luke i. 26-38. 2 Ps:'Ixxii 8: ° Luke i. 32, 33. 
4 Rev. xix. 16. 5 Luke i. 88. 


60 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


heaven, and said: Behold the handmaiden of the Lord, for I 
am not worthy of the name of lady; let it be to me according 
to thy word. 

It will be long, and perhaps to some even tedious, if we in- 
sert in this little work everything which we read of as having 
preceded or followed the Lord’s nativity: wherefore, omitting 
those things which have been more fully written in the Gospel, 
let us come to those which are held to be less worthy of being 
narrated. 


Cuap. 10.—Joseph therefore came from Judea into Galilee, 
intending to marry the virgin who had been betrothed to him; 
for already three months had elapsed, and it was the beginning 
of the fourth since she had been betrothed to him. In the 
meantime, it was evident from her shape that she was pregnant, 
nor could she conceal this from Joseph. For in consequence 
of his being betrothed to her, coming to her more freely and 
speaking to her more familiarly, he found out that she was 
with child. He began then to be in great doubt and perplexity, 
because he did not know what was best for him to do. For, 
being a just man, he was not willing to expose her; nor, being 
a pious man, to injure her fair fame by a suspicion of fornica- 
tion. He came to the conclusion, therefore, privately to dis- 
solve their contract, and to send her away secretly. And 
while he thought on these things, behold, an angel of the Lord 
appeared to him in his sleep, saying: Joseph, thou son of 
David, fear not; that is, do not have any suspicion of fornica- 
tion in the virgin, or think any evil of her; and fear not to take 
her as thy wife: for that which is begotten in her, and which 
now vexes thy soul, is the work not of man, but of the Holy 
Spirit. For she alone of all virgins shall bring forth the Son 
of God, and thou shalt call His name Jesus, that is, Saviour ; 
for He shall save His people from their sins. Therefore Joseph, 
according to the command of the angel, took the virgin as his 
wife; nevertheless he knew her not, but took care of her, and 
kept her in chastity... And now the ninth month from her 
conception was at hand, when Joseph, taking with him his wife 
along with what things he needed, went to Bethlehem, the city 

1 Matt. i. 18-24. 


THE GOSPEL OF THE NATIVITY OF MARY. 61 


from which he came. And it came to pass, while they were 
there, that her days were fulfilled that she should bring forth ; 
and she brought forth her first-born son, as the holy evangelists 
have shown, our Lord Jesus Christ, who with the Father and 
the Son’ and the Holy Ghost lives and reigns God from ever- 
lasting to everlasting. 

*! Thus in the original. 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 


HN the name of God, of one essence and three persons. 

The History of the death of our father, the holy 
old man, Joseph the carpenter. 

May his blessings and prayers preserve us all, 
O brethren! Amen. 

His whole life was one hundred and eleven years, and his 
departure from this world happened on the twenty-sixth of the 
month Abib, which answers to the month Ab. May his prayer 
preserve us! Amen. And, indeed, it was our Lord Jesus Christ 
Himself who related this history to His holy disciples on the 
Mount of Olives, and all Joseph’s labour, and the end of his 
days. And the holy apostles have preserved this conversation, 
and have left it written down in the library at Jerusalem. 
May their prayers preserve us! Amen.’ 


1. It happened one day, when the Saviour, our Master, God, 
and Saviour Jesus Christ, was sitting along with His disciples, 
and they were all assembled on the Mount of Olives, that He 
said to them: O my brethren and friends, sons of the Father 
who has chosen you from all men, you know that I have often 
told you that I must be crucified, and must die for the salva- 
tion of Adam and his posterity, and that I shall rise from the 


1The Coptic has: The 26th day of Epep. This is the departure from the 
body of our father Joseph the carpenter, the father of Christ after the flesh, who 
was 111 years old. Our Saviour narrated all his life to His apostles on Mount 
Olivet ; and His apostles wrote it, and put it in the library which is in Jeru- 
salem. Also that the day on which the holy old man laid down his body was 
the 26th of the month Epep. In the peace of God, amen. 

His day is the 19th of March in the Roman calendar, 

62 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 63 


dead. Now I shall commit to you the doctrine of the holy 
gospel formerly announced to you, that you may declare it 
throughout the whole world. And I shall endow you with 
power from on high, and fill you with the Holy Spirit.* And 
you shall declare to all nations repentance and remission of 
sins. For a single cup of water,’ if a man shall find it in the 
world to come, is greater and better than all the wealth of this 
whole world. And as much ground as one foot can occupy in 
the house of my Father, is greater and more excellent than all 
the riches of the earth. Yea, a single hour in the joyful dwell- 
ing of the pious is more blessed and more precious than a thou- 
sand years among sinners:* inasmuch as their weeping and 
lamentation shall not come to an end, and their tears shall not 
cease, nor shall they find for themselves consolation and repose 
at any time for ever. And now, Ὁ my honoured members, go 
declare to all nations, tell them, and say to them: Verily the 
Saviour diligently inquires into the inheritance which is due, 
and is the administrator of justice. And the angels will cast 
down their enemies, and will fight for them in the day of con- 
flict. And He will examine every single foolish and idle word 
which men speak, and they shall give an account of it.’ For 
as no one shall escape death, so also the works of every man 
shall be laid open on the day of judgment, whether they have 
been good orevil.® Tell them also this word which I have said 
to you to-day: Let not the strong man glory in his strength, 
nor the rich man in his riches; but let him who wishes to 
glory, glory in the Lord.’ 

2. There was a man whose name was Joseph, sprung from a 
family of Bethlehem, a town of Judah, and the city of King 
David. This same man, being well furnished with wisdom and 
learning, was made a priest in the temple of the Lord. He 
was, besides, skilful in his trade, which was that of a carpenter ; 
and after the manner of all men, he married a wife. Moreover, 
he begot for himself sons and daughters, four sons, namely, and 
two daughters. Now these are their names—Judas, Justus, 
James, and Simon. The names of the two daughters were 

1 Luke xxiv. 49. 2 Luke xxiv. 47. 3 Cf. Matt. x. 42. 


4Cf.. Ps, lxxxiv. ΤΌ: 5 Matt. xii. 36. 6 2 Cor. v. 10. 
7 Jer. ix, 23, 245 1 Cor. 1, 81; 2 Cor. x. 17. 


64 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Assia and Lydia. At length the wife of righteous Joseph, a 
woman intent on the divine glory in all her works, departed 
this life. But Joseph, that righteous man, my father after the 
flesh, and the spouse of my mother Mary, went away with his 
sons to his trade, practising the art of a carpenter. 

3. Now when righteous Joseph became a widower, my 
mother Mary, blessed, holy, and pure, was already twelve years 
old. For her parents offered her in the temple when she was 
three years of age, and she remained in the temple of the Lord 
nine years. Then when the priests saw that the virgin, holy 
and God-fearing, was growing up, they spoke to each other, 
saying: Let us search out a man, righteous and pious, to whom 
Mary may be entrusted until the time of her marriage; lest, if 
she remain in the temple, it happen to her as is wont to happen 
to women, and lest on that account we sin, and God be angry 
with us. 

4. Therefore they immediately sent out, and assembled twelve 
old men of the tribe of Judah. And they wrote down the 
names of the twelve tribes of Israel. And the lot fell upon the 
pious old man, righteous Joseph. Then the priests answered, 
and said to my blessed mother: Go with Joseph, and be with 
him till the time of your marriage. Righteous Joseph there- 
fore received my mother, and led her away to his own house. 
And Mary found James the Less in his father’s house, broken- 
hearted and sad on account of the loss of his mother, and she 
brought him up. Hence Mary was called the mother of James.* 
Thereafter Joseph left her at home, and went away to the shop 
where he wrought at his trade of a carpenter. And after the 
holy virgin had spent two years in his house her age was 
exactly fourteen years, including the time at which he received 
her. 

5. And I chose her of my own will, with the concurrence of 
my Father, and the counsel of the Holy Spirit. And I was made 
flesh of her, by a mystery which transcends the grasp of ereated 
reason. And three months after her conception the righteous 
man Joseph returned from the place where he worked at his 
trade ; and when he found my virgin mother pregnant, he was 
greatly perplexed, and thought of sending her away secretly.’ 

1 Luke xxiv. 10, 2 Matt. i. 19. 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 65 


But from fear, and sorrow, and the anguish of his heart, he 
could endure neither to eat nor drink that day. 

6. But at mid-day there appeared to him in a dream the 
prince of the angels, the holy Gabriel, furnished with a com- 
mand from my Father; and he said to him: Joseph, son of 
David, fear not to take Mary as thy wife: for she has conceived 
of the Holy Spirit; and she will bring forth a son, whose name 
shall be called Jesus. He it is who shall rule all nations with 
a rod of iron.t Having thus spoken, the angel departed from 
him. And Joseph rose from his sleep, and did as the angel of 
the Lord had said to him; and Mary abode with him.’ 

7. Some time after that, there came forth an order from 
Augustus Cesar the king, that all the habitable world should 
be enrolled, each man in his own city. The old man therefore, 
righteous Joseph, rose up and took the virgin Mary and came 
to Bethlehem, because the time of her bringing forth was at 
hand. Joseph then inscribed his name in the list; for Joseph 
the son of David, whose spouse Mary was, was of the tribe of 
Judah. And indeed Mary, my mother, brought me forth in 
Bethlehem, in a cave near the tomb of Rachel the wife of the 
patriarch Jacob, the mother of Joseph and Benjamin. 

8. But Satan went and told this to Herod the Great, the 
father of Archelaus. And it was this same Herod*® who 
ordered my friend and relative John to be beheaded. Accord- 
ingly he searched for me diligently, thinking that my kingdom 
was to be of this world. But Joseph, that pious old man, 
was warned of this by a dream. Therefore he rose and took 
Mary my mother, and I lay in her bosom. Salome? also was 
their fellow-traveller. Having therefore set out from home, 
he retired into Egypt, and remained there the space of one 
whole year, until the hatred of Herod passed away. 

9. Now Herod died by the worst form of death, atoning for 
the shedding of the blood of the children whom he wickedly 
cut off, though there was no sin in them. And that impious 

1Ps. ii. 9; Rev. xii. 5, xix. 15. 2 Matt. i. 20-24. 

3 Τὸ was Herod Antipas who ordered John to be beheaded. 

4 John xviii. 36. 

5 The Salome here mentioned was, according to two of the mss. of Pseudo- 
Matthew, the third husband of Anna, Mary’s mother, and the father of Mary 


the wife of Zebedee. But compare Matt. xxvii. 56 with Mark xv. 40. 
E 


66 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


tyrant Herod being dead, they returned into the land of Israel, 
and lived in a city of Galilee which is called Nazareth. And 
Joseph, going back to his trade of a carpenter, earned his 
living by the work of his hands; for, as the law of Moses had 
commanded, he never sought to live for nothing by another's 
labour.* 

10. At length, by increasing years, the old man arrived at 
a very advanced age. He did not, however, labour under any 
bodily weakness, nor had his sight failed, nor had any tooth 
perished from his mouth. In mind also, for the whole time of 
his life, he never wandered; but like a boy he always in his 
business displayed youthful vigour, and his limbs remained 
unimpaired, and free from all pain. His life, then, in all, 
amounted to one hundred and eleven years, his old age being 
prolonged to the utmost limit. 

11. Now Justus and Simeon, the elder sons of Joseph, were 
married, and had families of their own. Both the daughters 
were likewise married, and lived in their own houses. So there 
remained in Joseph’s house, Judas and James the Less, and my 
virgin mother. I moreover dwelt along with them, not other- 
wise than if I had been one of his sons. But I passed all 
my life without fault. Mary I called my mother, and Joseph 
father, and I obeyed them in all that they said; nor did I ever 
contend against them, but complied with their commands, as 
other men whom earth produces are wont to do; nor did I 
at any time arouse their anger, or give any word or answer in 
opposition to them. On the contrary, I cherished them with 
great love, like the pupil of my eye. 

12. It came to pass, after these things, that the death of 
that old man, the pious Joseph, and his departure from this 
world, were approaching, as happens to other men who owe 
their origin to this earth. And as his body was verging on 
dissolution, an angel of the Lord informed him that his death 
was now close at hand. Therefore fear and great perplexity 
came upon him. So he rose up and went to Jerusalem; and 
going into the temple of the Lord, he poured out his prayers 
there before the sanctuary, and said: 

13. O God! author of all consolation, God of all compas- 


1 Gen, iii. 19. 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 67 


sion, and Lord of the whole human race; God of my soul, body, 
and spirit; with supplications I reverence thee, O Lord and 
my God. If now my days are ended, and the time draws near 
when I must leave this world, send me, I beseech Thee, the 
great Michael, the prince of Thy holy angels: let him remain 
with me, that my wretched soul may depart from this afflicted 
body without trouble, without terror and impatience. For 
great fear and intense sadness take hold of all bodies on the 
day of their death, whether it be man or woman, beast wild or 
tame, or whatever creeps on the ground or flies in the air. At 
the last all creatures under heaven in whom is the breath of 
life are struck with horror, and their souls depart from their 
bodies with strong fear and great depression. Now therefore, 
O Lord and my God, let Thy holy angel be present with his 
help to my soul and body, until they shall be dissevered from 
each other. And let not the face of the angel, appointed my 
guardian from the day of my birth,’ be turned away from me ; 
but may he be the companion of my journey even until he 
bring me to Thee: let his countenance be pleasant and glad- 
some to me, and let him accompany me in peace. And let not 
demons of frightful aspect come near me in the way in which 
I am to go, until I come to Thee in bliss. And let not the door- 
keepers hinder my soul from entering paradise. And do not 
uncover my sins, and expose me to condemnation before Thy 
terrible tribunal. Let not the lions rush in upon me; nor let 
the waves of the sea of fire overwhelm my soul—for this must 
every soul pass through *—before I have seen the glory of Thy 
Godhead. O God, most righteous Judge, who in justice and 
equity wilt judge mankind, and wilt render unto each one 
according to his works, O Lord and my God, I beseech Thee, be 
present to me in Thy compassion, and enlighten my path that 
I may come to Thee; for Thou art a fountain overflowing with 
all good things, and with glory for evermore. Amen. 

14. It came to pass thereafter, when he returned to his own 


1 On the subject of guardian angels, see Shepherd of Hermas, iii. 4; Justin, 
Apol. ii. 5, Tryph. 5 ; Athenagoras, Legat. 10, 20; Clem. Alex. Strom. vi. 17. 

2 This clause looks like an interpolation. But the doctrine of purgatory was 
held from an early date. Clem. Alex. Pedag. iii. 9 ; Strom. vii. 6 ; Origen 
agaimst Celsus, v. 14, 15. 


68 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


house in the city of Nazareth, that he was seized by disease, 
and had to keep his bed. And it was at this time that he died, 
according to the destiny of all mankind. For this disease was 
very heavy upon him, and he had never been ill, as he now 
was, from the day of his birth. And thus assuredly it pleased 
Christ? to order the destiny of righteous Joseph. He lived 
forty years unmarried; thereafter his wife remained under his 
care forty-nine years, and then died. And a year after her 
death, my mother, the blessed Mary, was entrusted to him by 
the priests, that he should keep her until the time of her 
marriage. She spent two years in his house; and in the third 
year of her stay with Joseph, in the fifteenth year of her age, 
she brought me forth on earth by a mystery which no creature 
can penetrate or understand, except myself, and my Father and 
the Holy Spirit, constituting one essence with myself.? 

15. The whole age of my father, therefore, that righteous old 
man, was one hundred and eleven years, my Father in heaven 
having so decreed. And the day on which his soul left his 
body was the twenty-sixth of the month Abib. For now the 
fine gold began to lose its splendour, and the silver to be worn 
down by use—I mean his understanding and his wisdom. He 
also loathed food and drink, and lost all his skill in his trade of 
carpentry, nor did he any more pay attention to it. It came to 
pass, then, in the early dawn of the twenty-sixth day of Abib, 
that Joseph, that righteous old man, lying in his bed, was 
giving up his unquiet soul. Wherefore he opened his mouth 
with many sighs, and struck his hands one against the other, 
and with a loud voice cried out, and spoke after the following 
manner :— 

16. Woe to the day on which I was born into the world! 
Woe to the womb which bare me! Woe to the bowels which 
admitted me! Woe to the breasts which suckled me! Woe 
to the feet upon which I sat and rested! Woe to the hands 


1 Note the change from the first person. 

* Here the Coptic has : This is the end of the life of my beloved father Joseph. 
When forty years old he married a wife, with whom he lived nine (? forty-nine) 
years. After her death he remained a widower one (or two) year; and my 
mother lived two years in his house before she was married to him, since he had 
been ordered by the priests to take charge of her until the time of her marriage. 
And my mother Mary brought me forth in the third year that she was in 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 69 


which carried me and reared me until I grew up!? For I was 
conceived in iniquity, and in sins did my mother desire me.’ 
Woe to my tongue and my lips, which have brought forth and 
spoken vanity, detraction, falsehood, ignorance, derision, idle 
tales, craft, and hypocrisy! Woe to mine eyes, which have 
looked upon scandalous things! Woe to mine ears, which 
have delighted in the words of slanderers! Woe to my hands, 
which have seized what did not of right belong to them! Woe 
to my belly and my bowels, which have lusted after food un- 
lawful to be eaten! Woe to my throat, which like a fire has 
consumed all that it found! Woe to my feet, which have too 
often walked in ways displeasing to God! Woe to my body; 
and woe to my miserable soul, which has already turned aside 
from God its Maker! What shall I do when 1 arrive at that 
place where I must stand before the most righteous Judge, and 
when He shall call me to account for the works which I have 
heaped up in my youth? Woe to every man dying in his 
sins! Assuredly that same dreadful hour, which came upon 
my father Jacob,’ when his soul was flying forth from his body, 
is now, behold, near at hand forme. Oh! how wretched I am 
this day, and worthy of lamentation! But God alone is the 
disposer of my soul and body; He also will deal with them 
after His own good pleasure. 

17. These are the words spoken by Joseph, that righteous 
old man. And 1, going in beside him, found his soul exceed- 
ingly troubled, for he was placed in great perplexity. And I 
said to him: Hail! my father Joseph, thou righteous man ; 
how is it with thee? And he answered me: All hail! my 
well-beloved son. Indeed, the agony and fear of death have 
already environed me; but as soon as I heard Thy voice, my 
soul was at rest. O Jesus of Nazareth! Jesus, my Saviour! 
Jesus, the deliverer of my soul! Jesus, my protector! Jesus! 
O sweetest name in my mouth, and in the mouth of all those 


Joseph’s house, in the fifteenth year of her age. My mother bore me in a cave 
(this seems a mistranslation for mystery), which it is unlawful either to name 
or seek, and there is not in the whole creation a man who knows it, except me 
and my Father and the Holy Spirit. It is to be noted that the last clause is 
omitted in the Coptic. The phrase one essence was first used in regard to the 
doctrine of the Trinity by Augustine. 

1 Cf. Job iii. Ot. Ps; li. 5. 3 Matt. i. 16. 


70 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


that love it! O eye which seest, and ear which hearest, hear 
me! JI am Thy servant; this day I most humbly reverence 
Thee, and before Thy face I pour out my tears. Thou art 
altogether my God; Thou art my Lord, as the angel has told 
me times without number, and especially on that day when 
my soul was driven about with perverse thoughts about the 
pure and blessed Mary, who was carrying Thee in her womb, 
and whom I was thinking of secretly sending away. And 
while I was thus meditating, behold, there appeared to me in 
my rest angels of the Lord, saying to me in a wonderful mys- 
tery: O Joseph, thou son of David, fear not to take Mary as 
thy wife; and do not.grieve thy soul, nor speak unbecoming 
words of her conception, because she is with child of the Holy 
Spirit, and shall bring forth a son, whose name shall be called 
Jesus, for He shall save His people from their sins. Do not 
for this cause wish me evil, O Lord! for I was ignorant of the 
mystery of Thy birth. I call to mind also, my Lord, that day 
when the boy died of the bite of the serpent. And his rela- 
tions wished to deliver Thee to Herod, saying that Thou hadst 
killed him; but Thou didst raise him from the dead, and restore 
him to them. Then I went up to Thee, and took hold of Thy 
hand, saying: My son, take care of thyself. But Thou didst 
say to me in reply: Art thou not my father after the flesh ? 
I shall teach thee who I am.t Now therefore, O Lord and 
my God, do not be angry with me, or condemn me on account 
of that hour. Jam Thy servant, and the son of Thine hand- 
maiden ;? but Thou art my Lord, my God and Saviour, most 
surely the Son of God. 

18. When my father Joseph had thus spoken, he was unable 
to weep more. And I saw that death now had dominion over 
him. And my mother, virgin undefiled, rose and came to me, 
saying: O my beloved son, this pious old man Joseph is now 
dying. And I answered: Oh, my dearest mother, assuredly 
upon all creatures produced in this world the same necessity 


1 The Sahidie has: Joseph entreats Jesus to pardon him likewise, because 
when, once upon a time, He had recalled to life a boy bitten by a cerastes, he 
(Joseph) had pulled His right ear, advising Him to refrain from works that 
brought hatred upon Him. See Second Gospel of Thomas, ch. 5. 

2 Ps, cxvi. 16, 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 71 


of death lies; for death holds sway over the whole human 
race. Even thou, O my virgin mother, must look for the same 
end of life as other mortals. And yet thy death, as also the 
death of this pious man, is not death, but life enduring to 
eternity. Nay more, even I must die, as concerns the body 
which I have received from thee. But rise, O my venerable 
mother, and go in to Joseph, that blessed old man, in order that 
thou mayst see what will happen as his soul ascends from his 
body. 

19. My undefiled mother Mary, therefore, went and entered 
the place where Joseph was. And I was sitting at his feet 
looking at him, for the signs of death already appeared in his 
countenance. And that blessed old man raised his head, and 
kept his eyes fixed on my face; but he had no power of speak- 
ing to me, on account of the agonies of death, which held him 
in their grasp. But he kept fetching many sighs. And I held 
his hands for a whole hour; and he turned his face to me, and 
made signs for me not to leave him. Thereafter I put my 
hand upon his breast, and perceived his soul now near his 
throat, preparing to depart from its receptacle. 

20. And when my virgin mother saw me touching his body, 
she also touched his feet. And finding them already dead and 
destitute of heat, she said to me: O my beloved son, assuredly 
his feet are already beginning to stiffen, and they are as cold 
as snow. Accordingly she summoned his sons and daughters, 
and said to them: Come, as many as there are of you, and go 
to your father; for assuredly he is now at the very point of 
death. And Assia, his daughter, answered and said: Woe’s 
me, O my brothers, this is certainly the same disease that my 
beloved mother died of. And she lamented and shed tears ; 
and all Joseph’s other children mourned along with her. I 
also, and my mother Mary, wept along with them.’ 

21. And turning my eyes towards the region of the south, I 
saw Death already approaching, and all Gehenna with him, 
closely attended by his army and his satellites; and their 
clothes, their faces, and their mouths poured forth flames. 


1 The argument of the Sahidic is: He sends for Joseph’s sons and daughters, 
of whom the oldest was Lysia the purple-seller. They all weep over their dying 
father. 


72 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


And when my father Joseph saw them coming straight to 
him, his eyes dissolved in tears, and at the same time he 
groaned after a strange manner. Accordingly, when I saw 
the vehemence of his sighs, I drove back Death and all the 
host of servants which accompanied him. And I called upon 
my good Father, saying :— 

22. O Father of all mercy, eye which seest, and ear which 
hearest, hearken to my prayers and supplications in behalf of 
the old man Joseph; and send Michael, the prince of Thine 
angels, and Gabriel, the herald of light, and all the light of 
Thine angels, and let their whole array walk with the soul of 
my father Joseph, until they shall have conducted it to Thee. 
This is the hour in which my father has need of compassion. 
And I say unto you, that all the saints, yea, as many men as 
are born in the world, whether they be just or whether they 
be perverse, must of necessity taste of death. 

23. Therefore Michael and Gabriel came to the soul of my 
father Joseph, and took it, and wrapped it in a shining wrapper. 
Thus he committed his spirit into the hands of my good Father, 
and He bestowed upon him peace. But as yet none of his 
children knew that he had fallen asleep. And the angels pre- 
served his soul from the demons of darkness which were in 
the way, and praised God even until they conducted it into 
the dwelling-place of the pious. 

24, Now his body was lying prostrate and bloodless ; where- 
fore I reached forth my hand, and put right his eyes and shut 
his mouth, and said to the virgin Mary: O my mother, where 
is the skill which he showed in all the time that he lived in 
this world? Lo! it has perished, as if it had never existed. 
And when his children heard me speaking with my mother, 
the pure virgin, they knew that he had already breathed his 
last, and they shed tears, and lamented. But I said to them: 
Assuredly the death of your father is not death, but life ever- 
lasting: for he has been freed from the troubles of this life, 
and has passed to perpetual and everlasting rest. When they 
heard these words, they rent their clothes, and wept. 

25, And, indeed, the inhabitants of Nazareth and of Galilee, 
having heard of their lamentation, flocked to them, and wept 
from the third hour even to the ninth. And at the ninth hour 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 78 


they all went together to Joseph’s bed. And they lifted his 
body, after they had anointed it with costly unguents. But I 
entreated my Father in the prayer of the celestials—that same 
prayer which with my own hand I made before I was carried 
in the womb of the virgin Mary, my mother. And as soon as 
I had finished it, and pronounced the amen, a great multitude 
of angels came up; and I ordered two of them to stretch out 
their shining garments, and to wrap in them the body of Joseph, 
the blessed old man. 

26. And I spoke to Joseph, and said: The smell or corrup- 
tion of death shall not have dominion over thee, nor shall a 
worm ever come forth from thy body. Not a single limb of 
it shall be broken, nor shall any hair on thy head be changed. 
Nothing of thy body shall perish, O my father Joseph, but it 
will remain entire and uncorrupted even until the banquet of 
the thousand years.1 And whosoever shall make an offering on 
the day of thy remembrance, him will I bless and recompense 
in the congregation of the virgins; and whosoever shall give 
food to the wretched, the poor, the widows, and orphans from 
the work of his hands, on the day on which thy memory shall 
be celebrated, and in thy name, shall not be in want of good 
things all the days of his life. And whosoever shall have 
given a cup of water, or of wine, to drink to the widow or 
orphan in thy name, I will give him to thee, that thou mayst 
go in with him to the banquet of the thousand years. And 
every man who shall present an offering on the day of thy 
commemoration will I bless and recompense in the church of 
the virgins: for one I will render unto him thirty, sixty, and a 
hundred. And whosoever shall write the history of thy life, of 
thy labour, and thy departure from this world, and this narra- 
tive that has issued from my mouth, him shall I commit to 
thy keeping as long as he shall have to do with this life. And 
when his soul departs from the body,and when he must leave 
this world, I will burn the book of his sins, nor will I torment 
him with any punishment in the day of judgment; but he 


1 Barnabas, 15; Hermas, i. 3; Ireneus, Contra Her. v. 33; Justin, Tryph. 81; 
Tertullian, Adv. Mare. iii. 24. Caius and Dionysius imputed grossness and 
sensuality to Cerinthus, because he spoke of the wedding feast of the thousand 
years. 


74 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


shall cross the sea of flames, and shall go through it without 
trouble or pain.t And upon every poor man who can give 
none of those things which I have mentioned this is incumbent: 
viz., if a son is born to him, he shall call his name Joseph. So 
there shall not take place in that house either poverty or any 
sudden death for ever. 

27. Thereafter the chief men of the city came together to the 
place where the body of the blessed old man Joseph had been 
laid, bringing with them burial-clothes; and they wished to 
wrap it up in them after the manner in which the Jews are 
wont to arrange their dead bodies. And they perceived that 
he kept his shroud fast; for it adhered to the body in such a 
way, that when they wished to take it off, it was found to be 
like iron—impossible to be moved or loosened. Nor could they 
find any ends in that piece of linen, which struck them with 
the greatest astonishment. At length they carried him out to 
a place where there was a cave, and opened the gate, that they 
might bury his body beside the bodies of his fathers. Then 
there came into my mind the day on which he walked with me 
into Egypt, and that extreme trouble which he endured on my 
account. Accordingly, I bewailed his death for a long time; 
and lying upon his body, I said : 

28. O Death! who makest all knowledge to vanish away, 
and raisest so many tears and lamentations, surely it is God 
my Father Himself who hath granted thee this power. For 
men die for the transgression of Adam and his wife Eve, and 
Death spares not so much as one. Nevertheless, nothing hap- 
pens to any one, or is brought upon him, without the command 
of my Father. There have certainly been men who have pro- 
longed their life even to nine hundred years; but they died. 
Yea, though some of them have lived longer, they have, not- 
withstanding, succumbed to the same fate; nor has any one of 
them ever said: I have not tasted death. For the Lord never 
sends the same punishment more than once, since it hath 
pleased my Father to bring it upon men. And at the very 


All the fathers placed the purgatorial fires, as the,Greek Church does now, 
at the day of judgment. Augustine was the first who brought forward the sup- 
position that the purification took place in Hades before the day of judgment. 
Haag, Histoire des Dogmés, ii. 323. 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. 75 


moment when it, going forth, beholds the command descending 
to it from heaven, it says: I will go forth against that man, 
and will greatly move him. Then, without delay, it makes an 
onset on the soul, and obtains the mastery of it, doing with it 
whatever it will. For, because Adam did not the will of my 
Father, but transgressed His commandment, the wrath of my 
Father was kindled against him, and He doomed him to death ; 
and thus it was that death came into the world. But if Adam 
had observed my Father’s precepts, death would never have 
fallen to his lot. Think you that I can ask my good Father 
to send me a chariot of fire, which may take up the body of 
my father Joseph, and convey it to the place of rest, in order 
that it may dwell with the spirits? But on account of the 
transgression of Adam, that trouble and violence of death has 
descended upon all the human race. And it is for this cause 
that I must die according to the flesh, for my work which I 
have created, that they may obtain grace. 

29. Having thus spoken, I embraced the body of my father 
Joseph, and wept over it; and they opened the door of the 
tomb, and placed his body in it, near the body of his father 
Jacob. And at the time when he fell asleep he had fulfilled 
a hundred and eleven years. Never did a tooth in his mouth 
hurt him, nor was his eyesight rendered less sharp, nor his body 
bent, nor his strength impaired; but he worked at his trade of 
a carpenter to the very last day of his life; and that was the 
six-and-twentieth of the month Abib. 

30. And we apostles, when we heard these things from our 
Saviour, rose up joyfully, and prostrated ourselves in honour 
of Him, and said: O our Saviour, show us Thy grace. Now 
indeed we have heard the word of life : nevertheless we wonder, 
O our Saviour, at the fate of Enoch and Elias, inasmuch as 
they had not to undergo death. For truly they dwell in the 
habitation of the righteous even to the present day, nor have 
their bodies seen corruption. Yet that old man Joseph the 
carpenter was, nevertheless, Thy father after the flesh. And 
Thou hast ordered us to go into all the world and preach the 
holy gospel; and Thou hast said: Relate to them the death of 
my father Joseph, and celebrate to him with annual solemnity 

1 2 Kings ii. 11. 


76 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


a festival and sacred day. And whosoever shall take anything 


away from this narrative, or add anything to it, commits sin.’ 


We wonder especially that Joseph, even from that day on which 
Thou wast born in Bethlehem, called Thee his son after the 
flesh. Wherefore, then, didst Thou not make him immortal 
as well as them, and Thou sayest that he was righteous and 
chosen ? 

31. And our Saviour answered and said: Indeed, the pro- 
phecy of my Father upon Adam, for his disobedience, has now 
been fulfilled. And all things are arranged according to the 
will and pleasure of my Father. For if a man rejects the 
commandment of God, and follows the works of the devil by 
committing sin, his life is prolonged; for he is preserved in 
order that he may perhaps repent, and reflect that he must be 
delivered into the hands of death. But if any one has been 
zealous of good works, his life also is prolonged, that, as the 
fame of his old age increases, upright men may imitate him. 
But when you see a man whose mind is prone to anger, as- 
suredly his days are shortened; for it is these that are taken 
away in the flower of their age. Every prophecy, therefore, 
which my Father has pronounced concerning the sons of men, 
must be fulfilled in every particular. But with reference to 
Enoch and Elias, and how they remain alive to this day, keep- 
ing the same bodies with which they were born; and as to 
what concerns my father Joseph, who has not been allowed as 
well as they to remain in the body: indeed, though a man 
live in the world many myriads of years, nevertheless at some 
time or other he is compelled to exchange life for death. And 
I say to you, Ὁ my brethren, that they also, Enoch and Elias? 
must towards the end of time return into the world and die— 
in the day, namely, of commotion, of terror, of perplexity, and 
affliction. For Antichrist will slay four bodies, and will pour 
out their blood like water, because of the reproach to which 
they shall expose him, and the ignominy with which they, in 
their lifetime, shall brand him when they reveal his impiety. 

32. And we said: O our Lord, our God and Saviour, who 
are those four whom Thou hast said Antichrist will cut off 
from the reproach they bring upon him? The Lord answered: 


1 Rev. xxii. 18, 19. 2 Cf. Rev. xi. 8-12. 


THE HISTORY OF JOSEPH THE CARPENTER. τῷ 


They are Enoch, Elias, Schila, and Tabitha." When we heard 
this from our Saviour, we rejoiced and exulted; and we offered 
all glory and thanksgiving to the Lord God, and our Saviour 
Jesus Christ. He it 15 to whom is due glory, honour, dignity, 
dominion, power, and praise, as well as to the good Father 
with Him, and to the Holy Spirit that giveth life, henceforth 
and in all time for evermore. Amen. 


’ Acts ix. 86. Schila is probably meant for the widow of Nain’s son. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 


FIRST GREEK FORM. 
--9Ὁ.ὄ.- 


THOMAS THE ISRAELITE PHILOSOPHER’S ACCOUNT OF 
THE INFANCY OF THE LORD. 


<a, THOMAS, an Israelite, write you this account, 
| that all the brethren from among the heathen 
may know the miracles of our Lord Jesus 
Christ in His infancy, which He did after His 
birth in our country. The beginning of it is as follows :— 

2. This child Jesus, when five years old, was playing in the 
ford of a mountain stream; and He collected the flowing waters 
into pools, and made them clear immediately, and by a word 
alone He made them obey Him. And having made some soft 
clay, He fashioned out of it twelve sparrows. And it was the 
Sabbath when He did these things. And there were also 
many other children playing with Him. And a certain Jew, 
seeing what Jesus was doing, playing on the Sabbath, went off 
immediately, and said to his father Joseph: Behold, thy son 
is at the stream, and has taken clay, and made of it twelve 
birds, and has profaned the Sabbath. And Joseph, coming to 
the place and seeing, cried out to Him, saying: Wherefore 
doest thou on the Sabbath what it is notlawful todo? And 
Jesus clapped His hands, and cried out to the sparrows, and 
said to them: Off you go! And the sparrows flew, and went 
off crying. And the Jews seeing this were amazed, and went 
away and reported to their chief men what they had seen 
Jesus doing." 

3. And the son of Annas the scribe was standing there with 
1 Pseudo-Matt. 26, ete. 


78 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 79 


Joseph ; and he took a willow branch, and let out the waters 
which Jesus had collected. And Jesus, seeing what was done, 
Was angry, and said to him: O wicked, impious, and foolish! 
what harm did the pools and the waters do to thee? Behold, 
even now thou shalt be dried up like a tree, and thou shalt 
not bring forth either leaves, or root,’ or fruit. And straight- 
way that boy was quite dried up. And Jesus departed, and 
went to Joseph’s house. But the parents of the boy that had 
been dried up took him up, bewailing his youth, and brought 
him to Joseph, and reproached him because [said they] thou 
hast such a child doing such things.’ 

4, After that He was again passing through the village; 
and a boy ran up against Him, and struck His shoulder. And 
Jesus was angry, and said to him: Thou shalt not go back the 
way thou camest. And immediately he fell down dead. And 
some who saw what had taken place, said: Whence was this 
child begotten, that every word of his is certainly accomplished ? 
And the parents of the dead boy went away to Joseph, and 
blamed him, saying: Since thou hast such a child, it- is im- 
possible for thee to live with us in the village; or else teach 
him to bless, and not to curse :* for he is killing our children. 

5. And Joseph called the child apart, and admonished Him, 
saying: Why doest thou such things, and these people suffer, 
and hate us, and persecute us? And Jesus said: I know that 
these words of thine are not thine own;‘ nevertheless for thy 
sake I will be silent; but they shall bear their punishment. 
And straightway those that accused Him were struck blind. 
And those who saw it were much afraid and in great per- 
plexity, and said about Him: Every word which he spoke, 
whether good or bad, was an act, and became a wonder. And 
when they saw that Jesus had done such a thing, Joseph rose 
and took hold of His ear, and pulled it hard. And the child 
was very angry, and said to him: It is enough for thee to 
seek, and not to find; and most certainly thou hast not done 


1 Another reading is, branches. 

2 One Ms. has: And Jesus, at the entreaty of all of them, healed him. 

3 Or, either teach him to bless, and not to curse, or depart with him from this 
place; for, etc. 

# Or, are not mine, but thine. 


80 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


wisely. Knowest thou not that I am thine? Do not trouble 
me." 

6. And a certain teacher, Zacchzeus by name, was standing 
in a certain place, and heard Jesus thus speaking to his father ; 
and he wondered exceedingly, that, being a child, he should 
speak in such a way. And a few days thereafter he came to 
Joseph, and said to him: Thou hast a sensible child, and he 
has some mind. Give him to me, then, that he may learn 
letters; and I shall teach him along with the letters all know- 
ledge, both how to address all the elders, and to honour them 
as forefathers and fathers, and how to love those of his own 
age. And He said to him all the letters from the Alpha even 
to the Omega, clearly and with great exactness. And He looked 
upon the teacher Zaccheeus, and said to him: Thou who art 
ignorant of the nature of the Alpha, how canst thou teach 
others the Beta? Thou hypocrite! first, if thou knowest, teach 
the A, and then we shall believe thee about the B. Then He 
began to question the teacher about the first letter, and he was 
not able to answer Him. And in the hearing of many, the 
child says to Zaccheeus: Hear, O teacher, the order of the first 
letter, and notice here how it has lines, and a middle stroke 
crossing those which thou seest common; (lines) brought to- 
gether; the highest part supporting them, and again bringing 
them under one head; with three points [of intersection]; of 
the same kind; principal and subordinate; of equal length. 
Thou hast the lines of the A.? 

7. And when the teacher Zacchus heard the child speak- 
ing such and so great allegories of the first letter, he was at 
a great loss about such a narrative, and about His teaching. 
And he said to those that were present: Alas! I, wretch that. 
I am, am at a loss, bringing shame upon myself by having 


1 Pseudo-Matt. 29. 

2 Pseud. Matt. 30, 31. Various explanations have been given of this difficult 
passage by annotators, who refer it to the A of the Hebrew, or of the Greek, 
or of the Armenian alphabet. It seems, however, to answer very closely to the 
old Phenician A, which was written <{ or γ᾽. 

The Paris Ms. has: And he sat down to teach Jesus the letters, and began 
the first letter Aleph ; and Jesus says the second, Beth, Gimel, and told him 
all the letters tothe end. And shutting the book, He taught the master the 
prophets. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 81 


dragged this child hither. Take him away, then, I beseech 
thee, brother Joseph. I cannot endure the sternness of his 
look; I cannot make out his meaning at all. That child does 
not belong to this earth; he can tame even fire. Assuredly he 
was born before the creation of the world. What sort of a belly 
bore him, what sort of a womb nourished him, I do not know. 
Alas! my friend, he has carried me away; I cannot get at his 
meaning: thrice wretched that I am, I have deceived myself. 
I made a struggle to have a scholar, and I was found to have a 
teacher. My mind is filled with shame, my friends, because I, 
an old man, have been conquered by a child. There is nothing 
for me but despondency and death on account of this boy, for 
Iam not able at this hour to look him in the face; and when 
everybody says that I have been beaten by a little child, what 
can I say? And how can I give an account of the lines of the 
first letter that he spoke about? I know not, O my friends; 
for I can make neither beginning nor end of him. Therefore, 
I beseech thee, brother Joseph, take him home. What great 
thing he is, either god or angel, or what I am to say, I know 
not." 

8. And when the Jews were encouraging Zaccheeus, the 
child laughed aloud, and said: Now let thy learning bring 
forth fruit, and let the blind in heart see. I am here from 
above, that I may curse them, and call them to the things that 
are above, as He that sent me on your account has commanded 
me. And when the child ceased speaking, immediately all 
were made whole who had fallen under His curse. And no 
one after that dared to make Him angry, lest He should curse 
him, and he should be maimed. 

9. And some days after, Jesus was playing in an upper room 
of a certain house, and one of the children that were playing 
with Him fell down from the house, and was killed. And, 
when the other children saw this, they ran away, and Jesus 
alone stood still. And the parents of the dead child coming, 


‘Instead of this chapter, the Paris ms. has: And he was ashamed and per- 
plexed, because he knew not whence he knew the letters. And he arose, and 
went home, in great astonishment at this strange thing. 

It then goes on with a fragment of the history of the dyer’s shop, as given in 
the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy, ch. 37. 

EF 


82 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


reproached? . . . and they threatened Him. And Jesus leaped 
down from the roof, and stood beside the body of the child, 
and cried with a loud voice, and said : Zeno—for that was his 
name—stand up, and tell me; did I throw thee down? And 
he stood up immediately, and said: Certainly not, my lord; 
thou didst not throw me down, but hast raised me up. And 
those that saw this were struck with astonishment. And the 
child’s parents glorified God on account of the miracle that had 
happened, and adored Jesus.” 

10. A few days after,a young man was splitting wood in 
the corner,® and the axe came down and cut the sole of his foot 
in two, and he died from loss of blood. And there was a great 
commotion, and people ran together, and the child Jesus ran 
there too. And He pressed through the crowd, and laid hold 
of the young man’s wounded foot, and he was cured imme- 
diately. And He said to the young man: Rise up now, split 


the wood, and remember me. And the crowd seeing what had » 


happened, adored the child, saying: Truly the Spirit of God 
dwells in this child. 

11. And when He was six years old, his mother gave Him 
a pitcher, and sent Him to draw water, and bring it into the 
house. But He struck against some one in the crowd, and the 
pitcher was broken. And Jesus unfolded the cloak which He 
had on, and filled it with water, and carried it to His mother. 
And His mother, seeing the miracle that had happened, kissed 
Him, and kept within herself the mysteries which she had seen 
Him doing.‘ 

12. And again in seed-time the child went out with His 
father to sow corn in their land. And while His father was 
sowing, the child Jesus also sowed one grain of corn. And 
when He had reaped it, and threshed it, He made a hundred 
kors ;° and calling all the poor of the village to the threshing- 
floor, He gave them the corn, and Joseph took away what was 

1 One of the ss. of the Latin Gospel inserts here—Jesus, saying: Indeed, you 
made him fall down. And Jesus said: I never made him fall. 

2 Pseudo-Matt. 82. 

3A better reading would be ἐν τῇ γείτονίᾳ, in the neighbourhood, for ἐν τῇ 
γωνίᾳ, in the corner, 

4 Pseudo-Matt. 33. 

6 The kor or chomer was, according to Jahn, 32 pecks 1 pint. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 83 


left of the corn. And He was eight years old when He did this 
miracle." 

13. And His father was a carpenter, and at that time made 
ploughs and yokes. And a certain rich man ordered him to 
make him a couch. And one of what is called the cross pieces 
being too short, they did not know what to do. The child 
Jesus said to His father Joseph: Put down the two pieces of 
wood, and make them even in the middle. And Joseph did 
as the child said to him. And Jesus stood at the other end, 
and took hold of the shorter piece of wood, and stretched it, 
and made it equal to the other. And His father Joseph saw it, 
and wondered, and embraced the child, and kissed Him, saying: 
Blessed am I, because God has given me this child.” 

14. And Joseph, seeing that the child was vigorous in mind 
and body, again resolved that He should not remain ignorant 
of the letters, and took Him away, and handed Him over to 
another teacher. And the teacher said to Joseph: I shall first 
teach him the Greek letters, and then the Hebrew. For the 
teacher was aware of the trial that had been made of the 
child, and was afraid of Him. Nevertheless he wrote out the 
alphabet, and gave Him all his attention for a long time, and 
He made him no answer. And Jesus said to him: If thou art 
really a teacher, and art well acquainted with the letters, tell 
me the power of the Alpha, and I will tell thee the power of 
the Beta. And the teacher was enraged at this, and struck 
Him on the head. And the child, being in pain, cursed him; 
and immediately he swooned away, and fell to the ground 
on his face. And the child returned to Joseph’s house; and 
Joseph was grieved, and gave orders to His mother, saying: Do 
not let him go outside of the door, because those that make 
him angry die.® 

15. And after some time, another master again, a genuine 
friend of Joseph, said to him: Bring the child to my school; 
perhaps I shall be able to flatter him into learning his letters. 
And Joseph said: If thou hast the courage, brother, take him 
with thee. And he took Him with him in fear and great 
agony ; but the child went along pleasantly. And going boldly 
into the school, He found a book lying on the reading-desk; 

' Pseudo-Matt. 34. 2 Pseudo-Matt. 37. 3 Pseudo-Matt. 38. 


84 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


and taking it, He read not the letters that were in it, but 
opening His mouth, He spoke by the Holy Spirit, and taught 
the law to those that were standing round. And a great crowd 
having come together, stood by and heard Him, and wondered 
at the ripeness of His teaching, and the readiness of His words, 
and that He, child as He was, spoke insuch a way. And Joseph 
hearing of it, was afraid, and ran to the school, in doubt lest 
this master too should be without experience." And the master 
said to Joseph: Know, brother, that I have taken the child 
as a scholar, and he is full of much grace and wisdom; but I 
beseech thee, brother, take him home. And when the child 
heard this, He laughed at him directly, and said: Since thou 
hast spoken aright, and witnessed aright, for thy sake he also 
that was struck down shall be cured. And immediately the 
other master was cured. And Joseph took the child, and went 
away home.” 

16. And Joseph sent his son James to tie up wood and 
bring it home, and the child Jesus also followed him. And 
when James was gathering the fagots, a viper bit James’ 
hand. And when he was racked [with pain], and at the point 
of death, Jesus came near and blew upon the bite; and the 
pain ceased directly, and the beast burst, and instantly James 
remained safe and sound.’ 

17. And after this the infant of one of Joseph’s neighbours 
fell sick and died, and its mother wept sore. And Jesus heard 
that there was great lamentation and commotion, and ran in 
haste, and found the child dead, and touched his breast, and 
said: I say to thee, child, be not dead, but live, and be with 
thy mother. And directly it looked up and laughed. And He 
said to the woman: Take it, and give it milk, and remember 
me. And seeing this, the crowd that was standing by won- 
dered, and said: Truly this child was either God or an angel of 
God, for every word of his is a certain fact. And Jesus went 
out thence, playing with the other children.* 

18. And some time after there occurred a great commotion 
while a house was building, and Jesus stood up and went away 
to the place. And seeing a man lying dead, He took him by 


 Tischendorf suggests οὀνώπηρος, maimed, for ἄπειρος. 
2 Pseudo-Matt, 39, 3 Pseudo-Matt. 41. * Pseudo-Matt. 40. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 85 


the hand, and said: Man, I say to thee, arise, and go on with 
thy work. And directly he rose up, and adored Him. And 
seeing this, the crowd wondered, and said: This child is from 
heaven, for he has saved many souls from death, and he con- 
tinues to save during all his life. 

L9. And when He was twelve years old His parents went as 
usual to Jerusalem to the feast of the passover with their fel- 
low-travellers. And after the passover they were coming home 
again. And while they were coming home, the child Jesus 
went back to Jerusalem. And His parents thought that He 
was in thecompany. And having gone one day’s journey, they 
sought for Him among their relations; and not finding Him, 
they were in great grief, and turned back to the city seeking 
for Him. And after the third day they found Him in the 
temple, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both hearing the 
law and asking them questions. And they were all attending 
to Him, and wondering that He, being a child, was shutting the 
mouths of the elders and teachers of the people, explaining the 
main points of the law and the parables of the prophets. And 
His mother Mary coming up, said to Him: Why hast thou 
done this to us, child? Behold, we have been seeking for thee 
in great trouble. And Jesus said to them: Why do you seek 
me? Do you not know that I must be about my Father’s 
business? And the scribes and the Pharisees said: Art thou 
the mother of this child? And she said: I am. And they 
said to her: Blessed art thou among women, for God hath 
blessed the fruit of thy womb; for such glory, and such virtue 
and wisdom, we have neither seen nor heard ever. And Jesus 
rose up, and followed His mother, and was subject to His 
parents. And His mother observed all these things that had 
happened. And Jesus advanced in wisdom, and stature, and 
grace. To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen. 

Luke ii. 41-52, 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS, 


SECOND GREEK FORM. 


THE WRITING OF THE HOLY APOSTLE THOMAS 
CONCERNING THE CHILDHOOD OF THE LORD. 


ee Sie, L.HOMAS the Israelite have deemed it necessary 
ἢ to make known to all the brethren of the heathen 
the great things which our Lord Jesus Christ 
did in His childhood, when He dwelt in the 
body in the city of Nazareth, going in the fifth year of His age. 
2. On one of the days, there being a rain-storm, He went out 
of the house where His mother was, and played on the ground 
where the waters were flowing. And He made pools, and 
brought in the waters, and the pools were filled with water. 
Then He says: It is my will that you become clear and excel- 
lent waters. And they became so directly. And a certain 
boy, the son of Annas the scribe, came past, and with a willow 
branch which he was carrying threw down the pools, and the 
water flowed out. And Jesus turning, said to him: O impious 
and wicked, how have the pools wronged thee, that thou hast 
emptied them? Thou shalt not go on thy way, and thou shalt 
be dried up lke the branch which thou art carrying. And as 
he went along, in a short time he fell down and died. And 
when the children that were playing with him saw this, they 
wondered, and went away and told the father of the dead boy. 
And he ran and found his child dead, and he went away and 
reproached Joseph. 
3. And Jesus made of that clay twelve sparrows, and it was 
the Sabbath, Anda child ran and told Joseph, saying: Behold, 
86 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 87 


thy child is playing about the stream, and of the clay he has 
made sparrows, which is not lawful. And when he heard this, 
he went, and said to the child: Why dost thou do this, pro- 
faning the Sabbath? But Jesus gave him no answer, but 
looked upon the sparrows, and said: Go away, fly, and live, 
and remember me. And at this word they flew, and went up 
into the air. And when Joseph saw it, he wondered. 

4, And some days after, when Jesus was going through the 
midst of the city, a boy threw a stone at Him, and struck Him 
on the shoulder. And Jesus said to him: Thou shalt not go 
on thy way. And directly falling down, he also died. And 
they that happened to be there were struck with astonishment, 
saying: Whence is this child, that every word he says is cer- 
tainly accomplished? And they also went and reproached 
Joseph, saying: It is impossible for thee to live with us in this 
city; but if thou wishest to do so, teach thy child to bless, and 
not to curse: for he is killing our children, and everything that 
he says is certainly accomplished. 

5. And Joseph was sitting in his seat, and the child stood 
before him ; and he took hold of Him by the ear, and pinched 
it hard. And Jesus looked at him steadily, and said: It is 
enough for thee. 

6. And on the day after he took Him by the hand, and led 
Him to a certain teacher, Zacchzus by name, and says to him: 
O master, take this child, and teach him his letters. And he 
says: Hand him over to me, brother, and I shall teach him the 
Scripture ; and I shall persuade him to bless all, and not to 
curse. And Jesus hearing, laughed, and said to them: You 
say what you know; but I know more than you, for I am 
before the ages. And I know when your fathers’ fathers were 
born; and I know how many are the years of your life. And 
hearing this, they were struck with astonishment. And again 
Jesus said to them: You wonder because I said to you that I 
knew how many are the years of your life. Assuredly I know 
when: the world was created. Behold, you do not believe me 
now. When you see my cross, then will ye believe that I 
speak the truth. And they were struck with astonishment 
when they heard these things. 

7. And Zaccheus, having written the alphabet in Hebrew, 


88 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


says to Him: Alpha. And the child says: Alpha. And again 
the teacher: Alpha; and the child likewise. Then again the 
teacher says the Alpha for the third time. Then Jesus, looking 
in the master’s face, says: How canst thou, not knowing the 
Alpha, teach another the Beta? And the child, beginning from 
the Alpha, said by Himself the twenty-two letters. Then also 
He says again: Hear, O teacher, the order of the first letter, 
and know how many entrances and lines it has, and strokes 
common, crossing and coming together. And when Zacchzeus 
heard such an account of the one letter, he was so struck with 
astonishment, that he could make no answer. And he turned 
and said to Joseph: This child assuredly, brother, does not 
belong to the earth. Take him, then, away from me. 

8. And after these things, on one of the days Jesus was 
playing with other children on the roof of a house. And one 
boy was pushed by another, and hurled down upon the ground, 
and he died. And seeing this, the boys that were playing with 
him ran away; and Jesus only was left standing upon the 
roof from which the boy had been hurled down. And when 
the news was brought to the parents of the dead boy, they ran 
weeping ; and finding their boy lying dead upon the ground, 
and Jesus standing above, they supposed that their boy had 
been thrown down by Him; and fixing their eyes upon Hin, 
they reviled Him. And seeing this, Jesus directly came down 
from the roof, and stood at the head of the dead body, and says 
to him: Zeno, did I throw thee down? Stand up, and tell us. 
For this was the name of the boy. And at the word the boy 
stood up and adored Jesus, and said: My lord, thou didst not 
throw me down, but thou hast brought me to life when I was 
dead. 

9. And a few days after, one of the neighbours, when splitting 
wood, cut away the lower part of his foot with the axe, and was 
on the point of death from loss of blood. And a great number 
of people ran together, and Jesus came with them to the place. 
And He took hold of the young man’s wounded foot, and cured 
him directly, and says to him: Rise up, split thy wood. And 
he rose up and adored Him, giving thanks, and splitting the 
wood. Likewise also all that were there wondered, and gave 
thanks to Him. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 89 


10. And when He was six years old, Mary His mother sent 
Him to bring water from the fountain. And as He went along, 
the pitcher was broken. And going to the fountain He un- 
folded His overcoat, and drew water from the fountain, and 
* filled it, and took the water to His mother. And seeing this, 
she was struck with astonishment, and embraced Him, and 
kissed Him. 

11. And when Jesus had come to the eighth year of His age, 
Joseph was ordered by a certain rich man to make him a couch. 
For he was a carpenter. And he went out into the field to get 
wood; and Jesus went with him. And having cut two pieces 
of wood, and smoothed them with the axe, he put the one 
beside the other ; and in measuring he found it too short. And 
when he saw this he was grieved, and sought to find another 
piece. And seeing this, Jesus says to him: Put these two 
pieces together, so as to make both ends even. And Joseph, in 
doubt as to what the child should mean, did as he was told. 
And He says to him again: Take a firm hold of the short piece. 
And Joseph, in astonishment, took hold of it. Then Jesus also, 
taking hold of the other end, drew it towards Himself, and 
made it equal to the other piece of wood. And He says to 
Joseph: Grieve no more, but do thy work without hindrance. 
And seeing this, he wondered greatly, and says to himself: 
Blessed am 1, because God has given me such a boy. And 
when they came back to the city, Joseph gave an account of 
the matter to Mary. And when she heard and saw the strange 
miracles of her son, she rejoiced and glorified Him, with the 
Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and for evermore. 
Amen. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 


LATIN FORM. 


HERE BEGINNETH THE TREATISE OF THE BOYHOOD 
OF JESUS ACCORDING TO THOMAS. 


CuaP. 1—How Mary and Joseph fled with Him into Egypt. 


=ea| EN a commotion took place in consequence of the 
4P*| search made by Herod for our Lord Jesus Christ to 
kill Him, then an angel said to Joseph: Take Mary 
and her boy, and flee into Egypt from the face of 
those who seek to kill Him. And Jesus was two years old 
when He went into Egypt. 

Andas He was walking through a field of corn, He stretched 
forth His hand, and took of the ears, and put them over the 
fire, and rubbed them, and began to eat. 

And when they had come into Egypt, they received hospi- 
tality in the house of a certain widow, and they remained in 
the same place one year. 

And Jesus was in His third year. And seeing boys playing, 
He began to play with them. And He took a dried fish, and 
put it into a basin, and ordered it to move about. And it 
began to move about. And He said again to the fish: Throw 
out thy salt which thou hast, and walk into the water. And 
it so came to pass. And the neighbours, seeing what had been 
done, told it to the widow woman in whose house Mary His 
mother lived. And as soon as she heard it, she thrust them 
out of her house with great haste. 


Cuap. 2.—How a schoolmaster thrust Him out of the city. 


And as Jesus was walking with Mary His mother through 
the middle of the city market-place, He looked and saw a 
90 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 91 


schoolmaster teaching his scholars. And behold twelve spar- 
rows that were quarrelling fell over the wall into the bosom of 
that schoolmaster, who was teaching the boys. And seeing this, 
Jesus was very much amused, and stood still. And when that 
teacher saw Him making merry, he said to his scholars with 
ereat fury: Go and bring him to me. And when they had 
carried Him to the master, he seized Him by the ear, and said: 
What didst thou see, to amuse thee so much? And He said 
to him: Master, see my hand full of wheat. I showed it to 
them, and scattered the wheat among them, and they carry it 
out of the middle of the street where they are in danger; and 
on this account they fought among themselves to divide the 
_ wheat. And Jesus did not pass from the place until it was 
accomplished. And this being done, the master began to thrust 
Him out of the city, along with His mother. 


CHAP. 3.—How Jesus went out of Egypt. 


And, lo, the angel of the Lord met Mary, and said to her: 
Take up the boy, and return into the land of the Jews, for 
they who sought His life are dead. And Mary rose up with 
Jesus; and they proceeded into the city of Nazareth, which is 
among the possessions of her father. And when Joseph went 
out of Egypt after the death of Herod, he kept Him in the 
desert until there should be quietness in Jerusalem on the 
part of those who were seeking the boy’s life. And he gave 
thanks to God because He had given him understanding, and 
because he had found favour in the presence of the Lord God. 
Amen. . 


Cup. 4.—What the Lord Jesus did in the city of Nazareth. 


It is glorious that Thomas the Israelite and apostle of the 
Lord gives an account also of the works of Jesus after He came 
out of Egypt into Nazareth. Understand all of you, my dearest 
brethren, what the Lord Jesus did when He was in the city of 
Nazareth ; the first chapter of which is as follows :-— 

And when Jesus was five years old, there fell a great rain 
upon the earth, and the boy Jesus walked up and down through 
it. And there was a terrible rain, and He collected it into a 
fish-pond, and ordered it by His word to become clear. And 


92 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


immediately it became so.. Again He took of the clay which 
was of that fish-pond, and made of it to the number of twelve 
sparrows. And it was the Sabbath when Jesus did this among 
the boys of the Jews. And the boys of the Jews went away, 
and said to Joseph His father: Behold, thy son was playing 
along with us, and he took clay and made sparrows, which it 
was not lawful to do on the Sabbath; and he has broken it. 
And Joseph went away to the boy Jesus, and said to Him: 
Why hast thou done this, which it was not lawful to do on the 
Sabbath? And Jesus opened His hands, and ordered the spar- 
rows, saying: Go up into the air, and fly ; nobody shall kill you. 
And they flew, and began to cry out, and praise God Almighty. 
And the Jews seeing what had happened, wondered, and went 
away and told the miracles which Jesus had done. But a 
Pharisee who was with Jesus took an olive branch, and began 
to let the water out of the fountain which Jesus had made. 
And when Jesus saw, this, He said to him in a rage: Thou im- 
pious and ignorant Sodomite, what harm have my works the 
fountains of water done thee? Behold, thou shalt become like 
a dry tree, having neither roots, nor leaves, nor fruit. And 
immediately he dried up, and fell to the ground, and died. 
And his parents took him away dead, and reproached Joseph, 
saying: See what thy son has done; teach him to pray, and 
not to blaspheme. 


Cuap. 5.—How the citizens were enraged against Joseph on 
account of the doings of Jesus. 


And a few days after, as Jesus was walking through the 
town with Joseph, one of the children ran wp and struck Jesus 
on the arm. And Jesus said to him: So shalt thou not finish 
thy journey. And immediately he fell to the ground, and died. 
And those who saw these wonderful things cried out, saying: 
Whence is that boy? And they said to Joseph: It is not 
right for such a boy to be among us. And Joseph went and 
brought Him. And they said to him: Go away from this 
place; but if thou must live with us, teach him to pray, and 
not to blaspheme: but our children have been killed. Joseph 
called Jesus, and reproved Him, saying: Why dost thou blas- 
pheme? For these people who live here hate us. And Jesus 


eee a. ee 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 93 


said: I know that these words are not mine, but thine; but I 
will hold my tongue for thy sake: and let them see to it in 
their wisdom. And immediately those who were speaking 
against Jesus became blind. And they walked up and down, 
and said: All the words which proceed from his mouth are 
accomplished. And Joseph seeing what Jesus had done, in a 
fury seized Him by the ear; and Jesus said to Joseph in anger: 
It is enough for thee to see me, not to touch me. For thou 
knowest not who I am; but if thou didst know, thou wouldst 
not make me angry. And although just now I am with thee, 
I was made before thee. 


Cua. 6.—How Jesus was treated by the schoolmaster. 


Therefore a certain man named Zacheus listened to all that 
Jesus was saying to Joseph, and in great astonishment said 
to himself: Such a boy speaking in this way I have never 
seen. And he went up to Joseph, and said: That is an intelli- 
gent boy of thine; hand him over to me to learn his letters ; 
and when he has thoroughly learned his letters, I shall teach 
him honourably, so that he may be no fool. But Joseph 
answered and said to him: No one can teach him but God 
alone. You do not believe that that little boy will be of little 
consequence? And when Jesus heard Joseph speaking in 
this way, He said to Zacheus: Indeed, master, whatever pro- 
ceeds from my mouth is true. And before all I was Lord, 
but you are foreigners. To me has been given the glory of the 
ages, to you has been given nothing; because I am before the 
ages. And I know how many years of life thou wilt have, 
and that thou wilt be carried into exile: and my Father hath 
appointed this, that thou mayest understand that whatever 
proceeds from my mouth is true. And the Jews who were 
standing by, and hearing the words which Jesus spoke, were 
astonished, and said: We have seen such wonderful things, 
and heard such words from that boy, as we have never heard, 
nor are likely to hear from any other human being,—either 
from the high priests, or the masters, or the Pharisees. Jesus 
answered and said to them: Why do you wonder? Do you 
consider it incredible that I have spoken the truth? I know 
when both you and your fathers were born, and, to tell you 


94 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


more, when the world was made; I know also who sent me 
to you. And when the Jews heard the words which the child 
had spoken, they wondered, because that they were not able 
to answer. And, communing with Himself, the child exulted 
and said: I have told you a proverb; and I know that you are 
weak and ignorant. 

And that schoolmaster said to Joseph: Bring him to me, 
and I shall teach him letters. And Joseph took hold of the 
boy Jesus, and led Him to the house of a certain schoolmaster, 
where other boys were being taught. Now the master in soothing 
words began to teach Him His letters, and wrote for Him the 
first line, which is from A to T, and began to stroke Him and 
teach Him. And that teacher struck the child on the head; 
and when He had received the blow, the child said to him: 
I should teach thee, and not thou me; I know the letters 
which thou wishest to teach me, and I know that you are to 
me like vessels from which there come forth only sounds, and 
no wisdom. And, beginning the line, He said the letters from 
A to T in full, and very fast. And He looked at the master, 
and said to him: Thou indeed canst not tell us what A and B 
are; how dost thou wish to teach others? O hypocrite, if 
thou knowest and will tell me about the A, then will I tell 
thee about the B. And when that teacher began to tell* about 
the first letter, he was unable to give any answer. And Jesus 
said to Zacheus: Listen to me, master; understand the first 
letter. See how it has two lines; advancing in the middle, 
standing still, giving, scattering, varying, threatening; triple 
intermingled with double; at the same time homogeneous, 
having all common.‘ 

And Zacheus, seeing that He so divided the first letter, was 
stupefied about the first letter, and about such a human being 
and such learning; and he cried out, and said: Woe’s me, for 
I am quite stupefied; I have brought disgrace upon myself 
through that child. And he said to Joseph: I earnestly en- 


ΤΑ slight alteration is here made upon the punctuation of the original. 

? This refers to the Hebrew alphabet. 

3 Better, perhaps: And when He began to tell that teacher. 

4 This passage is hopelessly corrupt. The writer of this Gospel knew very 
little Greek, and probably the text from which he was translating was also 
here in a bad state. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 95 


treat thee, brother, take him away from me, because I cannot 
look upon his face, nor hear his mighty words. Because that 
child can tame fire and bridle the sea: for he was born before 
the ages. What womb brought him forth, or what mother* 
nursed him, I know not. Oh, my friends, I am driven out of 
my senses; I have become a wretched laughing-stock. And I 
said that I had got a scholar; but he has been found to be my 
master. And my disgrace I cannot get over, because [ am an 
old man; and what to say to him I cannot find. All I have 
to do is to fall into some grievous illness, and depart from this 
world; or to leave this town, because all have seen my dis- 
grace. An infant has deceived me. What answer can I give 
to others, or what words can I say, because he has got the 
better of me in the first letter? 1 am struck dumb, O my 
friends and acquaintances; neither beginning nor end can I 
find of an answer to him. And now I beseech thee, brother 
Joseph, take him away from me, and lead him home, because 
he is a master, or the Lord, or an angel. What to say I do not 
know. And Jesus turned to the Jews who were with Zacheus, 
and said to them: Let all not seeing see, and not understand- 
ing understand ; let the deaf hear, and let those who are dead 
through me rise again; and those who are exalted, let me call 
to still higher things, as He who sent me to you hath com- 
manded me. And when Jesus ceased speaking, all who had 
been affected with any infirmity through His words were made 
whole. And they did not dare to speak to Him. 


Cuap. 7.—How Jesus raised a boy to life. 


One day, when Jesus was climbing on a certain house, along 
with the children, He began to play with them. And one of 
the boys fell down through a back-door, and died immediately. 
And when the children saw this, they all ran away; but Jesus 
remained in the house.? And when the parents of the boy 
who had died had come, they spoke against Jesus: Surely it 
was thou who made him fall down; and they reviled Him. 
And Jesus, coming down from the house, stood over the dead 


“The Greek original has μήσρα, which he seems to have confounded with 
μήτηρ. 
2 Or, on the house, 


96 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


child, and with a loud voice called out the name of the child: 
Sinoo, Sinoo, rise and say whether it was I that made thee fall 
down. And suddenly he rose up, and said: No, my lord. 
And his parents, seeing such a great miracle done by Jesus, 
glorified God, and adored Jesus. 


CuaP. 8.— How Jesus healed a boy's foot. 


And afew days thereafter, a boy in that town was splitting 
wood, and struck his foot. And a great crowd went to him, 
and Jesus too went with them. And He touched the foot 
which had been hurt, and immediately it was made whole. 
And Jesus said to him: Rise, and split the wood, and remember 
me. And when the crowd saw the miracles that were done 
by Him, they adored Jesus, and said: Indeed, we most surely 
believe that Thou art God. 


CHAP. 9.—How Jesus carried water in a cloak. 


And when Jesus was six years old, His mother sent Him to 
draw water. And when Jesus had come to the fountain, or 
to the well, there were great crowds there, and they broke His 
pitcher. And He took the cloak which He had on, and filled 
it with water, and carried it to His mother Mary. And His 
mother, seeing the miracles which Jesus had done, kissed Him, 
and said: O Lord, hear me, and save my son. 


CHAP. 10.—How Jesus sowed wheat. 


In the time of sowing, Joseph went out to sow wheat, and 
Jesus followed him. And when Joseph began to sow, Jesus 
stretched out His hand, and took as much wheat as He could 
hold in His fist, and scattered it. Joseph therefore came at 
reaping-time to reap his harvest. Jesus came also, and col- 
lected the ears which He had scattered, and they made a hun- 
dred pecks* of the best grain; and He called the poor, and the 
widows, and the orphans, and distributed to them the wheat 
which He had made. Joseph also took a little of the same 
wheat, for the blessing of Jesus to his house. 

1 The modius or modiwm was almost exactly two gallons, 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 97 


Cup. 11.—How Jesus made a short piece of wood of the 
same length as a longer one. 


And Jesus reached the age of eight years. Joseph was a 
master builder, and used to make ploughs and ox-yokes. And 
one day a rich man said to Joseph: Master, make me a couch, 
both useful and beautiful. And Joseph was in distress, be- 
cause the wood which he had brought’ for the work was too 
short. And Jesus said to him: Do not be annoyed. Take 
hold of this piece of wood by one end, and I by the other; and 
let us draw it out. And they did so; and immediately he found 
it useful for that which he wished. And He said to Joseph: 
Behold, do the work which thou wishest. And Joseph, seeing 
what He had done, embraced Him, and said: Blessed am I, 
because God hath given me such a son. 


CuaP. 12.— How Jesus was handed over to learn His letters. 


And Joseph, seeing that He had such favour, and that He 
was increasing in stature, thought it right to take Him to learn 
His letters. And He handed Him over to another teacher to 
be taught. And that teacher said to Joseph: What letters 
dost thou wish me to teach that boy? Joseph answered and 
said: First teach Him the Gentile letters, and then the Hebrew. 
For the teacher knew that He was very intelligent, and will- 
ingly took Him in hand. And writing for Him the first line, 
which is A and B, he taught Him for some hours. But Jesus 
was silent, and made him no answer. Jesus said to the master: 
If thou art indeed a master, and if thou indeed knowest the 
letters, tell me the power‘ of the A, and I shall tell thee the 
power of the B. Then His master was filled with fury, and 
struck Him on the head. And Jesus was angry, and cursed 
him; and he suddenly fell down, and died. 

And Jesus returned home. And Joseph gave orders to Mary 
His mother, not to let Him go out of the court of his house. 


1 But probably architector here is equal to τέκτων, a carpenter. 
* Perhaps sectum, cut, is the true reading, and not actum. 

8 This is his translation of ἐπὶ σολλὴν ὥραν. 

4 Here again he makes a mistranslation—dvvapus, fortitudo. 


G 


98 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


CuHaP. 13.—How He was handed over to another master. 


Many days after came another teacher, a friend of Joseph, 
and said to him: Hand him over to me, and I with much 
sweetness will teach him his letters. And Joseph said to 
him: If thou art able, take him and teach him. May it be 
attended with joy. When the teacher had taken Him, he went 
along in fear and in great firmness, and held Him with exulta- 
tion. And when He had come to the teacher’s house, He found 
a book lying there, and took it and opened it, and did not read 
what was written in the book; but opened His mouth, and 
spoke from the Holy Spirit, and taught the law. And, indeed, 
all who were standing there listened to Him attentively; and 
the master sat down beside Him, and listened to Him with 
pleasure, and entreated Him to teach them more. And a great 
crowd being gathered together, they heard all the holy teach- 
ing which He taught, and the choice words which came forth 
from the mouth of Him who, child as He was, spake such 
things. 

And Joseph, hearing of this, was afraid, and running’. . . 
the master, where Jesus was, said to Joseph: Know, brother, 
that I have received thy child to teach him or train him; but. 
he is filled with much gravity and wisdom. Lo, now, take 
him home with joy, my brother; because the gravity which 
he has, has been given him by the Lord. And Jesus, hearing 
the master thus speaking, became cheerful, and said: Lo, 
now, master, thou hast truly said. For thy sake, he who is 
dead shall rise again. And Joseph took Him home. 


Cuap. 14.—How Jesus delivered James from the bite of a 
serpent. 

And Joseph sent James to gather straw, and Jesus followed 
him. And while James was gathering the straw, ἃ viper bit 
him; and he fell to the ground, as if dead from the poison. And 
Jesus seeing this, blew upon his wound; and immediately James 
was made whole, and the viper died. 


‘Some words have been omitted here in the ms., but the sense is obvious 
enough. 


THE GOSPEL OF THOMAS. 99 


Cuap. 15.—How Jesus raised a boy to life. 


A few days after, a child, His neighbour, died, and his 
mother mourned for him sore. Jesus, hearing this, went and 
stood over the boy, and knocked upon his breast, and said: I 
say to thee, child, do not die, but live. And immediately the 
child rose up. And Jesus said to the boy’s mother: Take thy 
son, and give him the breast, and remember me. And the 
crowd, seeing this miracle, said: In truth, this child is from 
heaven ; for already has he freed many souls from death, and 
he has made whole all that hope in him. 

The scribes and Pharisees said to Mary: Art thou the mother 
of this child? And Mary said: Indeed Lam. And they said 
to her: Blessed art thou among women,’ since God hath blessed 
the fruit of thy womb, seeing that He hath given thee such a 
glorious child, and such a gift of wisdom, as we have never 
seen nor heard of. Jesus rose up and followed His mother. 
And Mary kept in her heart all the great miracles that Jesus 
had done among the people, in healing many that were diseased. 
And Jesus grew in stature and wisdom; and all who saw Him 
glorified God the Father Almighty, who is blessed for ever and 
ever. Amen. 


After all these things I Thomas the Israelite have written 
what I have seen, and have recounted them to the Gentiles and 
to our brethren, and many other things done by Jesus, who was 
born in the land of Judah. Behold, the house of Israel has 
seen all, from the first even to the last; how great signs and 
wonders Jesus did among them, which were exceedingly good, 
and invisible to their father,’ as holy Scripture relates, and the 
prophets have borne witness to His works in all the peoples of 
Israel. And He it is who is to judge the world according to 
the will of immortality, since He is the Son of God throughout 
all the world. To Him is due all glory and honour for ever, 
who lives and reigns God through all ages of ages. Amen. 


1 Luke i. 28. 
2 This, I think, means : and which their father Israel, ὁ.6, their fathers gene- 
rally, had not seen. 


THE ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE INFANCY 
OF THE SAVIOUR. 


ee AEN the name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy 
ΕΥ̓ Spirit, one God. 

With the help and favour of the Most High we 
begin to write a book of the miracles of our Lord 
and Master and Saviour Jesus Christ, which is called the 
Gospel of the Infancy: in the peace of the Lord. Amen. 


1. We find? what follows in the book of Joseph the high 
priest, who lived in the time of Christ. Some say that he is 
Caiaphas.” He has said that Jesus spoke, and, indeed, when 
He was lying in His cradle said to Mary His mother: I am 
Jesus, the Son of God, the Logos, whom thou hast brought 
forth, as the angel Gabriel announced to thee; and my Father 
has sent me for the salvation of the world. 

2. In the three hundred and ninth year of the era of Alex- 
ander, Augustus put forth an edict, that every man should be 
enrolled in his native place. Joseph therefore arose, and 
taking Mary his spouse, went away to*® Jerusalem, and came 
to Bethlehem, to be enrolled along with his family in his native 
city. And having come to a cave, Mary told Joseph that the 
time of the birth was at hand, and that she could not go into 
the city; but, said she, let us go into this cave. This took 
place at sunset. And Joseph went out in haste to go for a 


1 Or, have found. 

2 He is called Joseph Caiaphas in Josephus, Antig. xviii. 2. 2. 

3 The Latin translation in Tischendorf has Hierosolyma, which, as the form 
in the rest of the translation is feminine, means ‘‘from Jerusalem.” But as the 
Arabic can mean only ‘‘ to Jerusalem,” the ace. plural of the neut. form may he 
here intended, 


100 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 101 


woman to be near her. When, therefore, he was busy about 
that, he saw an Hebrew old woman belonging to Jerusalem, 
and said: Come hither, my good woman, and go into this cave, 
in which there is a woman near her time. 

3. Wherefore, after sunset, the old woman, and Joseph with 
her, came to the cave, and they both went in. And, behold, 
it was filled with lights more beautiful than the gleaming of 
lamps and candles,‘ and more splendid than the light of the 
sun. The child, enwrapped in swaddling-clothes, was sucking 
the breast of the Lady Mary His mother, being placed in a 
stall. And when both were wondering at this light, the old 
woman asks the Lady Mary: Art thou the mother of this 
child? And when the Lady Mary gave her assent, she says: 
Thou art not at all like the daughters of Eve. The Lady Mary 
said: As my son has no equal among children, so his mother 
has no equal among women. The old woman replied: My 
mistress, I came to get payment; I have been for a long time 
affected with palsy. Our mistress the Lady Mary said to her: 
Place thy hands upon the child. And the old woman did so, 
and was immediately cured. Then she went forth, saying: 
Henceforth I will be the attendant and servant of this child all 
the days of my life. 

4. Then came shepherds; and when they had lighted a fire, 
and were rejoicing greatly, there appeared to them the hosts of 
heaven praising and celebrating God Most High. And while 
the shepherds were doing the same, the cave was at that time 
made like a temple of the upper world, since both heavenly and 
earthly voices glorified and magnified God on account of the 
birth of the Lord Christ. And when that old Hebrew woman 
saw the manifestation of those miracles, she thanked God, say- 
ing: I give Thee thanks, O God, the God of Israel, because 
mine eyes have seen the birth of the Saviour of the world. 

5. And the time of circumcision, that is, the eighth day, 
being at hand, the child was to be circumcised according to the 
law. Wherefore they circumcised Him in the cave. And the 
old Hebrew woman took the piece of skin; but some say that 
she took the navel-string, and laid it past in a jar of old oil of 


1 Or, with the lights of lamps and candles, more beautiful than lightning, 
and more splendid than sunlight. 


102 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


nard. And she had a son, a dealer in unguents, and she gave 
it to him, saying: See that thou do not sell this jar of unguent 
of nard, even although three hundred denarii* should be offered 
thee for it. And this is that jar which Mary the sinner bought 
and poured upon the head and feet of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
which thereafter she wiped with the hair of her head? Ten 
days after, they took Him to Jerusalem; and on the fortieth 
day * after His birth they carried Him into the temple, and 
set Him before the Lord, and offered sacrifices for Him, accord- 
ing to the commandment of the law of Moses, which is: Every 
male that openeth the womb shall be called the holy of God.* 

6. Then old Simeon saw Him shining lke a pillar of light, 
when the Lady Mary, His virgin mother, rejoicing over Him, 
was carrying Him in her arms. And angels, praising Him, 
stood round Him im a circle, like life guards standing by a 
king. Simeon therefore went up in haste to the Lady Mary, 
and, with hands stretched out before her, said to the Lord 
Christ: Now, O my Lord, let Thy servant depart in peace, 
according to Thy word ; for mine eyes have seen Thy compas- 
sion, Which Thou hast prepared for the salvation of all peoples, 
a light to all nations, and glory to Thy people Israel. Hanna 
also, a prophetess, was present, and came up, giving thanks to 
God, and calling the Lady Mary blessed.° 

7. And it came to pass, when the Lord Jesus was born at 
Bethlehem of Judea, in the time of King Herod, behold, magi 
came from the east to Jerusalem, as Zeraduscht® had predicted ; 
and there were with them gifts, gold, and frankincense, and 
myrrh. And they adored Him, and presented to Him their 
gifts. Then the Lady Mary took one of the swaddling-bands, 
and, on account of the smallness of her means, gave it to them; 
and they received it from her with the greatest marks of honour. 
And in the same hour there appeared to them an angel in the 
form of that star which had before guided them on their journey; 
and they went away, following the guidance of its light, until 
they arrived in their own country.’ 


1 John xii. 5. The denarius was worth about 73d. 2 Luke vii. 37, 38. 
3 Lev. xii. 4. 4 Ex. xiii. 2; Luke ii. 23. 5 Luke ii. 25-38. 
6 For this prediction of Zoroaster, see Smith’s Dict. of the Bible, art. Magi. 
7 Matt. 11. 1-12. 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 108 


8. And their kings and chief men came together to them, 
asking what they had seen or done, how they had gone and 
come back, what they had brought with them. And they 
showed them that swathing-cloth which the Lady Mary had 
given them. Wherefore they celebrated a feast, and, according 
to their custom, lighted a fire and worshipped it, and threw 
that swathing-cloth into it; and the fire laid hold of it, and 
enveloped it. And when the fire had gone out, they took out 
the swathing-cloth exactly as it had been before, just as if the 
fire had not touched it. Wherefore they began to kiss it, and 
to put it on their heads and their eyes, saying: This verily is 
the truth without doubt. Assuredly it is a great thing that 
the fire was not able to burn or destroy it. Then they took it, 
_and with the greatest honour laid it up among their treasures. 

9. And when Herod saw that the magi had left him, and not 
come back to him, he summoned the priests and the wise men, 
and said to them: Show me where Christ is to be born. And 
when they answered, In Bethlehem of Judea, he began to 
think of putting the Lord Jesus Christ to death. Then appeared 
an angel of the Lord to Joseph in his sleep, and said: Rise, 
take the boy and His mother, and go away into Egypt." He 
rose, therefore, towards cock-crow, and set out. 

10. While he is reflecting how he is to set about his journey, 
morning came upon him after he had gone a very little way. 
And now he was approaching a great city, in which there was 
an idol, to which the other idols and gods of the Egyptians 
offered gifts and vows. And there stood before this idol a 
priest ministering to him, who, as often as Satan spoke from 
that idol, reported it to the inhabitants of Egypt and its terri- 
tories. This priest had a son, three years old, beset by several 
demons; and he made many speeches and utterances; and when 
the demons seized him, he tore his clothes, and remained naked, 
and threw stones at the people. And there was a hospital in 
that city dedicated to that idol. And when Joseph and the 
Lady Mary had come to the city, and had turned aside into 
that hospital, the citizens were very much afraid; and all the 
chief men and the priests of the idols came together to that 
idol, and said to it: What agitation and commotion is this that 

1 Matt. ii. 13, 14. 


104 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


has arisen in our land? The idol answered them: A God'has 
come here in secret, who is God indeed; nor is any god be- 
sides Him worthy of divine worship, because He is truly the 
Son of God. And when this land became aware of His pre- 
sence, it trembled at His arrival, and was moved and shaken ; 
and we are exceedingly afraid from the greatness of His power. 
And in the same hour that idol fell down, and at its fall all, 
inhabitants of Egypt and others, ran together. 

11. And the son of the priest, his usual disease having come 
upon him, entered the hospital, and there came upon Joseph 
and the Lady Mary, from whom all others had fied. The Lady 
Mary had washed the cloths of the Lord Christ, and had spread 
them over some wood. ‘That demoniac boy, therefore, came 
and took one of the cloths, and put it on his head. Then the 
demons, fleeing in the shape of ravens and serpents, began to go 
forth out of his mouth. The boy, being immediately healed at 
the command of the Lord Christ, began to praise God, and then 
to give thanks to the Lord who had healed him. And when his 
father saw him restored to health, My son, said he, what has 
happened to thee ? and by what means hast thou been healed ? 
The son answered: When the demons had thrown me on the 
eround, 1 went into the hospital, and there I found an august 
woman with a boy, whose newly-washed cloths she had thrown 
upon some wood: one of these I took up and put upon my 
head, and the demons left me and fled. At this the father 
rejoiced greatly, and said: My son, it is possible that this boy 
is the Son of the living God who created the heavens and the 
earth : for when he came over to us, the idol was broken, and 
all the gods fell, and perished by the power of his magnificence. 

12, Here was fulfilled the prophecy which says, Out of Egypt 
have I called my son.* Joseph indeed, and Mary, when they 
heard that that idol had fallen down and perished, trembled, 
and were afraid. Then they said: When we were in the land 
of Israel, Herod thought to put Jesus to death, and on that 
account slew all the children of Bethlehem and its confines ; 
and there is no doubt that the Egyptians, as soon as they have 
heard that this idol has been broken, will burn us with fire.” 


1 Hos. xi. 1; Matt. ii. 15. 
2 Burning to death was the punishment of those convicted of sacrilege and 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 105 


13. Going out thence, they came to a place where there were 
robbers who had plundered several men of their baggage and 
clothes, and had bound them. Then the robbers heard a great 
noise, like the noise of a magnificent king going out of his city 
with his army, and his chariots and his drums; and at this the 
robbers were terrified, and left all their plunder. And their 
captives rose up, loosed each other’s bonds, recovered their bag- 
gage, and went away. And when they saw Joseph and Mary 
coming up to the place, they said to them: Where is that king, 
at the hearing of the magnificent sound of whose approach the 
robbers have left us, so that we have escaped safe? Joseph 
answered them: He will come behind us. 

14. Thereafter they came into another city, where there was 
a demoniac woman whom Satan, accursed and rebellious, had 
beset, when on one occasion she had gone out by night for 
water. She could neither bear clothes, nor live in a house; 
and as often as they tied her up with chains and thongs, she 
broke them, and fled naked into waste places; and, standing 
in cross-roads and cemeteries, she kept throwing stones at 
people, and brought very heavy calamities upon her friends. 
And when the Lady Mary saw her, she pitied her; and upon 
this Satan immediately left her, and fled away in the form of 
a young man, saying: Woe to me from thee, Mary, and from 
thy son. So that woman was cured of her torment, and being 
restored to her senses, she blushed on account of her naked- 
ness ; and shunning the sight of men, went home to her friends. 
And after she put on her clothes, she gave an account of the 
matter to her father and her friends; and as they were the 
chief men of the city, they received the Lady Mary and Joseph 
with the greatest honour and hospitality. 

15. On the day after, being suppled by them with provision 
for their journey, they went away, and on the evening of that 
day arrived at another town, in which they were celebrating a 
marriage ; but, by the arts of accursed Satan and the work of 
enchanters, the bride had become dumb, and could not speak 
a word. And after the Lady Mary entered the town, carrying 
her son the Lord Christ, that dumb bride saw her, and stretched 


the practice of magic. It was inflicted also on slaves for grave offences against 
their masters. 


106 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


out her hands towards the Lord Christ, and drew Him to her, 
and took Him into her arms, and held Him close and kissed 
Him, and leaned over Him, moving His body back and forwards. 
Immediately the knot of her tongue was loosened, and her ears 
were opened; and she gave thanks and praise to God, because 
He had restored her to health. And that night the inhabitants 
of that town exulted with joy, and thought that God and His 
angels had come down to them. 

16. There they remained three days, being held in great 
honour, and living splendidly. Thereafter, being supplied by 
them with provision for their journey, they went away and 
came to another city, in which, because it was very populous, 
they thought of passing the night. And there was in that city 
an excellent woman: and once, when she had gone to the river 
to bathe, lo, accursed Satan, in the form of a serpent, had leapt 
upon her, and twisted himself round her belly ; and as often as 
night came on, he tyrannically tormented her. This woman, 
seeing the mistress the Lady Mary, and the child, the Lord 
Christ, in her bosom, was struck with a longing for Him, 
and said to the mistress the Lady Mary: O mistress, give me 
this child, that I may carry him, and kiss him. She therefore 
cave Him to the woman; and when He was brought to her, 
Satan let her go, and fled and left her, nor did the woman ever 
see him after that day. Wherefore all who were present praised 
God Most High, and that woman bestowed on them liberal gifts. 

17. On the day after, the same woman took scented water 
to wash the Lord Jesus; and after she had washed Him, she 
took the water with which she had done it, and poured part 
of it upon a girl who was living there, whose body was white 
with leprosy, and washed her with it. And as soon as this 
was done, the girl was cleansed from her leprosy. And the 
townspeople said: There is no doubt that Joseph and Mary 
and that boy are gods, not men. And when they were getting 
ready to go away from them, the girl who had laboured under 
the leprosy came up to them, and asked them to let her go 
with them. | 

18. When they had given her permission, she went with 
them. And afterwards they came to a city, in which was the 
castle of a most illustrious prince, who kept a house for the 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 107 


entertainment of strangers. They turned into this place; and 
the girl went away to the prince’s wife; and she found her 
weeping and sorrowful, and she asked why she was weeping. 
Do not be surprised, said she, at my tears; for I am over- 
whelmed by a great affliction, which as yet I have not endured 
to tell to any one. Perhaps, said the girl, if you reveal it and 
disclose it to me, I may have a remedy for it. Hide this secret, 
then, replied the princess, and tell it to no one. I was married 
to this prince, who is a king and ruler over many cities, and I 
lived long with him, but by me he had no son. And when at 
length I produced him a son, he was leprous; and as soon as 
he saw him, he turned away with loathing, and said to me: 
Either kill him, or give him to the nurse to be brought up 
in some place from which we shall never hear of him more. 
After this I can have nothing to do with thee, and I will never 
see thee more. On this account I know not what to do, and I 
am overwhelmed with grief. Alas! my son. Alas! my hus- 
band. Did I not say so? said the girl, I have found a cure 
for thy disease, and I shall tell it thee. or I too was a leper; 
but I was cleansed by God, who is Jesus, the son of the Lady 
Mary. And the woman asking her where this God was whom 
she had spoken of, Here, with thee, said the girl; He is 
living in the same house. But how is this possible? said she. 
Where is he? There, said the girl, are Joseph and Mary; 
and the child who is with them is called Jesus; and He it is 
who cured me of my disease and my torment. But by what 
means, said she, wast thou cured of thy leprosy? Wilt thou 
not tell me that? Why not? said the girl. I got from His 
mother the water in which He had been washed, and poured 
it over myself; and so I was cleansed from my leprosy. Then 
the princess rose up, and invited them to avail themselves of 
her hospitality. And she prepared a splendid banquet for 
Joseph in a great assembly of the men of the place. And 
on the following day she took scented water with which to 
wash the Lord Jesus, and thereafter poured the same water 
over her son, whom she had taken with her; and immediately 
her son was cleansed from his leprosy. Therefore, singing 
thanks and praises to God, she said: Blessed is the mother 
who bore thee, O Jesus; dost thou so cleanse those who share 


108 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


the same nature with thee with the water in which thy body 
has been washed? Besides, she bestowed great gifts upon the 
mistress the Lady Mary, and sent her away with great honour. 

19. Coming thereafter to another city, they wished to spend 
the night in it. They turned aside, therefore, to the house of 
aman newly married, but who, under the influence of witch- 
craft, was not able to enjoy his wife; and when they had 
spent that night with him, his bond was loosed. And at day- 
break, when they were girding themselves for their journey, 
the bridegroom would not let them go, and prepared for them 
a great banquet. 

20. They set out, therefore, on the following day; and as 
they came near another city, they saw three women weeping 
as they came out of a cemetery. And when the Lady Mary 
beheld them, she said to the girl who accompanied her: Ask 
them what is the matter with them, or what calamity has 
befallen them. And to the girl’s questions they made no reply, 
but asked in their turn: Whence are you, and whither are 
you going? for the day is already past, and night is coming 
on apace. We are travellers, said the girl, and are seeking 
a house of entertainment in which we may pass the night. 
They said: Go with us, and spend the night with us. They 
followed them, therefore, and were brought into a new house 
with splendid decorations and furniture. Now it was winter; 
and the girl, going into the chamber of these women, found 
them again weeping and lamenting. There stood beside them 
a mule, covered with housings of cloth of gold, and sesame was 
put before him; and the women were kissing him, and giving 
him food. And the girl said: What is all the ado, my ladies, 
about this mule? They answered her with tears, and said: This 
mule, which thou seest, was our brother, born of the same 
mother with ourselves. And when our father died, and left 
us great wealth, and this only brother, we did our best to get 
him married, and were preparing his nuptials for him, after the 
manner of men. But some women, moved by mutual jealousy, 
bewitched him unknown to us; and one night, a little before — 
daybreak, when the door of our house was shut, we saw that — 
this our brother had been turned into a mule, as thou now be- © 
holdest him. And we are sorrowful, as thou seest, having no — 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOUR’S INFANCY. 109 


father to comfort us: there is no wise man, or magician, or 
enchanter in the world that we have omitted to send for; but 
nothing has done us any good. And as often as our hearts 
are overwhelmed with grief, we rise and go away with our 
mother here, and weep at our father’s grave, and come back 
again. 

21. And when the girl heard these things, Be of good 
courage, said she, and weep not: for the cure of your calamity 
is near; yea, itis beside you, and in the middle of your own 
house. For I also was a leper; but when I saw that woman, 
and along with her that young child, whose name is Jesus, 
I sprinkled my body with the water with which His mother 
had washed Him, and I was cured. And I know that He can 
cure your affliction also. But rise, go to Mary my mistress; 
bring her into your house, and tell her your secret; and en- 
treat and supplicate her to have pity upon you. After the 
women had heard the girl’s words, they went in haste to the 
Lady Mary, and brought her into their chamber, and sat down 
before her weeping, and saying: O our mistress, Lady Mary, 
have pity on thy handmaidens; for no one older than our- 
selves, and no head of the family, is left—neither father nor 
brother—to live with us; but this mule which thou seest was 
our brother, and women have made him such as thou seest by 
witcheraft. We beseech thee, therefore, to have pity upon us. 
Then, grieving at their lot, the Lady Mary took up the Lord 
Jesus, and put Him on the mule’s back; and she wept as well 
as the women, and said to Jesus Christ: Alas! my son, heal 
this mule by Thy mighty power, and make him a man endowed 
with reason as he was before. And when these words were 
uttered by the Lady Mary, his form was changed, and the mule 
became a young man, free from every defect. Then he and 
his mother and his sisters adored the Lady Mary, and lifted 
the boy above their heads, and began to kiss Him, saying: 
Blessed is she that bore Thee, O Jesus, O Saviour of the 
world; blessed are the eyes which enjoy the felicity of seeing 
Thee. 

22. Moreover, both the sisters said to their mother: Our 
brother indeed, by the aid of the Lord Jesus Christ, and by 
the salutary intervention of this girl, who pointed out to us 


110 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Mary and her son, has been raised to human form. Now, 
indeed, since our brother is unmarried, it would do very well 
for us to give him as his wife this girl, their servant. - And 
having asked the Lady Mary, and obtained her consent, they 
made ἃ splendid wedding for the girl; and their sorrow being 
changed into joy, and the beating of their breasts into dancing, 
they began to be glad, to rejoice, to exult, and sing—adorned, 
on account of their great joy, in most splendid and gorgeous 
attire. Then they begin to recite songs and praises, and to 
say: O Jesus, son of David, who turnest sorrow into gladness, 
and lamentations into joy! And Joseph and Mary remained 
there ten days. Thereafter they set out, treated with great 
honours by these people, who bade them farewell, and from 
bidding them farewell returned weeping, especially the girl. 

23. And turning away from this place, they came to a desert ; 
and hearing that it was infested by robbers, Joseph and the 
Lady Mary resolved to cross this region by night. But as they 
go along, behold, they see two robbers lying in the way, and 
along with them a great number of robbers, who were their 
associates, sleeping. Now those two robbers, into whose hands 
they had fallen, were Titus and Dumachus. ‘Titus therefore 
said to Dumachus: I beseech thee to let these persons go freely, 
and so that our comrades may not see them. And as Duma- 
chus refused, Titus said to him again: Take to thyself forty 
drachmas from me, and hold this as a pledge. At the same 
time he held out to him the belt which he had had about his 
waist, to keep him from opening his mouth or speaking. And 
the Lady Mary, seeing that the robber had done them a kind- 
ness, said to him: The Lord God will sustain thee by His right 


hand, and will grant thee remission of thy sins. And the Lord 


Jesus answered, and said to His mother: Thirty years hence, 
O my mother, the Jews will crucify me at Jerusalem, and these 
two robbers will be raised wpon the cross along with me, Titus 
on my right hand and Dumachus on my left; and after that 
day Titus shall go before me into Paradise. And she said: 
God keep this from thee, my son. And they went thence to- 
wards a city of idols, which, as they came near it, was changed 
into sand-hills. 

24, Hence they turned aside to that sycamore which is now 


eS ee. ea et eet ot 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 111 


called Matarea,’ and the Lord Jesus brought forth in Matarea a 
fountain in which the Lady Mary washed His shirt. And from 
the sweat of the Lord Jesus which she sprinkled there, balsam 
was produced in that region. 

25. Thence they came down to Memphis, and saw Pharaoh, 
and remained three years in Egypt; and the Lord Jesus did in 
Egypt very many miracles which are recorded neither in the 
Gospel of the Infancy nor in the perfect Gospel. 

26. And at the end of the three years He came back out of 
Egypt, and returned. And when they had arrived at Judea, 
Joseph was afraid to enter it; but hearing that Herod was 
dead, and that Archelaus his son had succeeded him, he was 
afraid indeed, but he went into Judea. And an angel of the 
Lord appeared to him, and said: O Joseph, go into the city of 
Nazareth, and there abide. 

Wonderful indeed, that the Lord of the world should be thus 
borne and carried about through the world! 

27. Thereafter, going into the city of Bethlehem, they saw 
there many and grievous diseases infesting the eyes of the 
children, who were dying in consequence. And a woman was 
there with a sick son, whom, now very near death, she brought 
to the Lady Mary, who saw him as she was washing Jesus 
Christ. Then said the woman to her: O my Lady Mary, look 
upon this son of mine, who is labouring under a grievous 
disease. And the Lady Mary listened to her, and said: Take 
a little of that water in which I have washed my son, and 
sprinkle him with it. She therefore took a little of the water, 
as the Lady Mary had told her, and sprinkled it over her son. 
And when this was done his illness abated; and after sleeping 
a little, he rose up from sleep safe and sound. His mother re- 
joicing at this, again took him to the Lady Mary. And she 
said to her: Give thanks to God, because He hath healed this 
thy son. 


' Matarea, or Matariyeh, the site of Heliopolis or On, is a little way to the 
N.E. of Cairo. Ismail Pasha is said to have presented, on his visit to the Paris 
Exhibition of 1867, the tree and the ground surrounding it to the Empress of 
the French. For some interesting particulars about the tree, see a paragraph, 
by B. H. C. (ie. Mr. B. Harris Cowper, who has translated the Apocryphal 
Gospels), in the Leisure Hour for 24 November 1867. 


112 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


28. There was in the same place another woman, a neighbour 
of her whose son had lately been restored to health. And as 
her son was labouring under the same disease, and his eyes 
were now almost blinded, she wept night and day. And the 
mother of the child that had been cured said to her: Why dost 
thou not take thy son to the Lady Mary, as I did with mine 
when he was nearly dead? And he got well with that water 
with which the body of her son Jesus had been washed. And 
when the woman heard this from her, she too went and got 
some of the same water, and washed her son with it, and his 
body and his eyes were instantly made well. Her also, when 
she had brought her son to her, and disclosed to her all that had 
happened, the Lady Mary ordered to give thanks to God for her 
son’s restoration to health, and to tell nobody of this matter. 

29. There were in the same city two women, wives of one 
man, each having a son ill with fever. The one was called 
Mary, and her son’s name was Cleopas. She rose and took 
up her son, and went to the Lady Mary, the mother of Jesus, 
and offering her a beautiful mantle, said: O my Lady Mary, 
accept this mantle, and for it give me one small bandage. 
Mary did so, and the mother of Cleopas went away, and made 
a shirt of it, and put it on her son. So he was cured of his 
disease ; but the son of her rival died. Hence there sprung 
up hatred between them; and as they did the house-work 
week about, and as it was the turn of Mary the mother of 
Cleopas, she heated the oven to bake bread; and going away 
to bring the lump that she had kneaded, she left her son 
Cleopas beside the oven. Her rival seeing him alone—and the 
oven was very hot with the fire blazing under it—seized him 
and threw him into the oven, and took herself off. Mary com- 
ing back, and seeing her son Cleopas lying in the oven laugh- 
ing, and the oven quite cold, as if no fire had ever come near it, 
knew that her rival had thrown him into the fire. She drew 
him out, therefore, and took him to the Lady Mary, and told 
her of what had happened tohim. And she said: Keep silence, 
and tell nobody of the affair; for I am afraid for you if you 
divulge it. After this her rival went to the well to draw 
water ; and seeing Cleopas playing beside the well, and nobody 
near, she seized him and threw him into the well, and went 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOUR’S INFANCY. 118 


home herself. And some men who had gone to the well for 
water saw the boy sitting on the surface of the water; and so 
they went down and drew him out. And they were seized 
with a great admiration of that boy, and praised God. Then 
came his mother, and took him up, and went weeping to the 
Lady Mary, and said: O my lady, see what my rival has done 
to my son, and how she has thrown him into the well; she 
will be sure to destroy him some day or other. The Lady Mary 
said to her: God will avenge thee upon her. Thereafter, when 
her rival went to the well to draw water, her feet got entangled 
in the rope, and she fell into the well. Some men came to 
draw her out, but they found her skull fractured and her bones 
broken. Thus she died a miserable death, and in her came to 
pass that saying: They have digged a well deep, but have 
fallen into the pit which they had prepared.* 

30. Another woman there had twin sons who had fallen into 
disease, and one of them died, and the other was at his last 
breath. And his mother, weeping, lifted him up, and took him 
to the Lady Mary, and said: O my lady, aid me and succour 
me. For I had two sons, and I have just buried the one, and 
the other is at the point of death. See how I am going to 
entreat and pray to God. And she began to say: O Lord, Thou 
art compassionate, and merciful, and full of affection. Thou 
gavest me two sons, of whom Thou hast taken away the one: 
this one at least leave to me. Wherefore the Lady Mary, see- 
ing the fervour of her weeping, had compassion on her, and 
said: Put thy son in my son’s bed, and cover him with his 
clothes. And when she had put him in the bed in which 
Christ was lying, he had already closed his eyes in death; 
but as soon as the smell of the clothes of the Lord Jesus Christ 
reached the boy, he opened his eyes, and, calling upon his 
mother with a loud voice, he asked for bread, and took it and 
sucked it. Then his mother said: O Lady Mary, now I know 
that the power of God dwelleth in thee, so that thy son heals 
those that partake of the same nature with himself, as soon as 
they have touched his clothes. This boy that was healed is 
he who in the Gospel is called Bartholomew. 

31. Moreover, there was there a leprous woman, and she 

1 Ps, vii. 15, lvii. 6. 
H 


114 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


went to the Lady Mary, the mother of Jesus, and said: My 
lady, help me. And the Lady Mary answered: What help dost 
thou seek? Is it gold or silver ? or is it that thy body be made 
clean from the leprosy ? And that woman asked: Who can 
orant me this? And the Lady Mary said to her: Wait a little, 
until I shall have washed my son Jesus, and put him to bed. 
The woman waited, as Mary had told her; and when she had 
put Jesus to bed, she held out to the woman the water ini which 
she had washed His body, and said: Take a little of this water, 
and pour it over thy body. And as soon as she had done so, 
she was cleansed, and gave praise and thanks to God. 

32. Therefore, after staying with her three days, she went 
away; and coming to a city, saw there one of the chief men, 
who had married the daughter of another of the chief men. 
But when he saw the woman, he beheld between her eyes the 
mark of leprosy in the shape of a star; and so the marriage 
was dissolved, and became null and void. And when that 
woman saw them in this condition, weeping and overwhelmed 
with sorrow, she asked the cause of their grief. But they said: 
Inquire not into our condition, for to no one living can we 
tell our grief, and to none but ourselves can we disclose it. 
She urged them, however, and entreated them to entrust it to 
her, saying that she would perhaps be able to tell them of a 
remedy. And when they showed her the girl, and the sign of 
leprosy which appeared between her eyes, as soon as she saw 
it, the woman said: I also, whom you see here, laboured under 
the same disease, when, upon some business which happened 
to come in my way, 1 went to Bethlehem. There going into 
a cave, I saw a woman named Mary, whose son was he who 
was named Jesus; and when she saw that I was a leper, she 
took pity on me, and handed me the water with which she 
had washed her son’s body. With it I sprinkled my body, 
and came out clean. Then the woman said to her: Wilt thou 
not, O lady, rise and go with us, and show us the Lady Mary ? 
And she assented; and they rose and went to the Lady Mary, 
carrying with them splendid gifts. And when they had gone 
in, and presented to her the gifts, they showed her the leprous — 
girl whom they had brought. The Lady Mary therefore said: 
May the compassion of the Lord Jesus Christ descend upon 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 115 


you; and handing to them also a little of the water in which 
she had washed the body of Jesus Christ, she ordered the 
wretched woman to be bathed in it. And when this had been 
done, she was immediately cured; and they, and all standing 
by, praised God. Joyfully therefore they returned to their own 
city, praising the Lord for what He had done. And when the 
chief heard that his wife had been cured, he took her home, 


-and made a second marriage, and gave thanks to God for the 


recovery of his wife’s health. 

33. There was there also a young woman afflicted by Satan ; 
for that accursed wretch repeatedly appeared to her in the 
form of a huge dragon, and prepared to swallow her. He also 
sucked out all her blood, so that she was left like a corpse. 
As often as he came near her, she, with her hands clasped over 
her head, cried out, and said: Woe, woe’s me, for nobody is 
near to free me from that accursed dragon. And her father 
and mother, and all who were about her or saw her, bewailed 
her lot; and men stood round her in a crowd, and all wept 
and lamented, especially when she wept, and said: Oh, my 
brethren and friends, is there no one to free me from that 
murderer? And the daughter of the chief who had been 
healed of her leprosy, hearing the girl’s voice, went up to the 
roof of her castle, and saw her with her hands clasped over her 
head weeping, and all the crowds standing round her weeping 
as well. She therefore asked the demoniac’s husband whether 
his wife’s mother were alive. And when he answered that 
both her parents were living, she said: Send for her mother to 
come to me. And when she saw that he had sent for her, and 
she had come, she said: Is that distracted girl thy daughter ? 
Yes, O lady, said that sorrowful and weeping woman, she 
is my daughter. The chief’s daughter answered: Keep my 
secret, for I confess to thee that I was formerly a leper; but 
now the Lady Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ, has healed 
me. But if thou wishest thy daughter to be healed, take her 
to Bethlehem, and seek Mary the mother of Jesus, and believe 
that thy daughter will be healed; I indeed believe that thou 
wilt come back with joy, with thy daughter healed. As soon 
as the woman heard the words of the chief's daughter, she led 
away her daughter in haste; and going to the place indicated, 


116 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


she went to the Lady Mary, and revealed to her the state of 
her daughter. And the Lady Mary hearing her words, gave 
her a little of the water in which she had washed the body 
of her son Jesus, and ordered her to pour it on the body of 
her daughter. She gave her also from the clothes of the Lord 
Jesus a swathing-cloth, saying: Take this cloth, and show it to 
thine enemy as often as thou shalt see him. And she saluted 
them, and sent them away. 

84. When, therefore, they had gone away from her, and 
returned to their own district, and the time was at hand at 
which Satan was wont to attack her, at this very time that 
accursed one appeared to her in the shape of a huge dragon, 
and the girl was afraid at the sight of him. And her mother 
said to her: Fear not, my daughter; allow him to come near 
thee, and then show him the cloth which the Lady Mary hath 
given us, and let us see what will happen. Satan, therefore, 
having come near in the likeness of a terrible dragon, the body 
of the girl shuddered for fear of him; but as soon as she took 
out the cloth, and placed it on her head, and covered her eyes 
with it, flames and live coals began to dart forth from it, and 
to be cast upon the dragon. O the great miracle which was 
done as soon as the dragon saw the cloth of the Lord Jesus, 
from which the fire darted, and was cast upon his head and 
eyes! He cried out with a loud voice: What have I to do 
with thee, O Jesus, son of Mary? Whither shall I fly from 
thee? And with great fear he turned his back and departed 
from the girl, and never afterwards appeared to her. And the 
girl now had rest from him, and gave praise and thanks to God, 
and along with her all who were present at that miracle. 

35. Another woman was living in the same place, whose 
son was tormented by Satan. He, Judas by name, as often as 
Satan seized him, used to bite all who came near him; and 
if he found no one near him, he used to bite his own hands 
and other limbs. The mother of this wretched creature, then, 
hearing the fame of the Lady Mary and her son Jesus, rose up 
and brought her son Judas with her to the Lady Mary. In the 
meantime, James and Joses had taken the child the Lord Jesus 
with them to play with the other children; and they had gone 
out of the house and sat down, and the Lord Jesus with them. 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 117 


And the demoniac Judas came up, and sat down at Jesus’ right 
hand: then, being attacked by Satan in the same manner as 
usual, he wished to bite the Lord Jesus, but was not able; 
nevertheless he struck Jesus on the right side, whereupon He 
began to weep. And immediately Satan went forth out of that 
boy, fleeing like a mad dog. And this boy who struck Jesus, 
and out of whom Satan went forth in the shape of a dog, was 
Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Him to the Jews; and that same 
side on which Judas struck Him, the Jews transfixed with a 
lance." 

36. Now, when the Lord Jesus had completed seven years 
from His birth, on a certain day He was occupied with boys of 
His own age. For they were playing among clay, from which 
they were making images of asses, oxen, birds, and other ani- 
mals; and each one boasting of his skill, was praising his own 
work. Then the Lord Jesus said to the boys: The images that 
I have made I will order to walk. The boys asked Him whether 
then he were the son of the Creator; and the Lord Jesus bade 
them walk. And they immediately began to leap; and then, 
when He had given them leave, they again stood still. And 
He had made figures of birds and sparrows, which flew when 
He told them to fly, and stood still when He told them to stand, 
and ate and drank when He handed them food and drink. After 
the boys had gone away and told this to their parents, their 
fathers said to them: My sons, take care not to keep company 
with him again, for he is a wizard: flee trom him, therefore, 
and avoid him, and do not play with him again after this. 

37. On a certain day the Lord Jesus, running about and 
playing with the boys, passed the shop of a dyer, whose name 
was Salem; and he had in his shop many pieces of cloth which 
he was to dye. The Lord Jesus then, going into his shop, took 
up all the pieces of cloth, and threw them into a tub full of 
indigo. And when Salem came and saw his cloths destroyed, 
he began to cry out with a loud voice, and to reproach Jesus, 
saying: Why hast thou done this to me, O son of Mary? 
Thou hast disgraced me before all my townsmen: for, seeing 
that every one wished the colour that suited himself, thou 
indeed hast come and destroyed them all. The Lord Jesus 

1 John xix. 34. 


118 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


answered: I shall change for thee the colour of any piece of 
cloth which thou shalt wish to be changed. And immediately 
He began to take the pieces of cloth out of the tub, each of 
them of that colour which the dyer wished, until He had 
taken them all out. When the Jews saw this miracle and 
prodigy, they praised God. 

38. And Joseph used to go about through the whole city, 
and take the Lord Jesus with him, when people sent for him 
in the way of his trade to make for them doors, and milk- 
pails, and beds, and chests; and the Lord Jesus was with him 
wherever he went. As often, therefore, as Joseph had to make 
anything a cubit or a span longer or shorter, wider or narrower, 
the Lord Jesus stretched His hand towards it; and as soon as 
He did so, it became such as Joseph wished. Nor was it neces- 
sary for him to make anything with his own hand, for Joseph 
was not very skilful in carpentry. 

39. Now, on a certain day, the king of Jerusalem sent for 
him, and said: I wish thee, Joseph, to make for me a throne 
to fit that place in which I usually sit. . Joseph obeyed, and 
began the work immediately, and remained in the palace two 
years, until he finished the work of that throne. And when he 
had it carried to its place, he perceived that each side wanted 
two spans of the prescribed measure. And the king, seeing 
this, was angry with Joseph; and Joseph, being in great fear 
of the king, spent the night without supper, nor did he taste 
anything at all. Then, being asked by the Lord Jesus why 
he was afraid, Joseph said: Because I have spoiled all the 
work that I have been two years at. And the Lord Jesus said 
to him: Fear not, and do not lose heart; but do thou take 
hold of one side of.the throne ; I shall take the other; and we 
shall put that to rights. And Joseph, having done as the Lord 
Jesus had said, and each having drawn by his own side, the 
throne was put to rights, and brought to the exact measure of 
the place. And those that stood by and saw this miracle were 
struck with astonishment, and praised God. And the woods 
used in that throne were of those which are celebrated in the 
time of Solomon the son of David; that is, woods of many and 
various kinds. | : 

40, On another day the Lord Jesus went out into the road, 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 119 


and saw the boys that had come together to play, and followed 
them ; but the boys hid themselves from Him. The Lord Jesus, 
therefore, having come to the door of a certain house, and seen 
some women standing there, asked them where the boys had 
gone ; and when they answered that there was no one there, He 
said again: Who are these whom you see in the furnace ?* 
They replied that they were kids of three years old. And the 
Lord Jesus cried out, and said: Come out hither, O kids, to 
your Shepherd. Then the boys, in the form of kids, came out, 
and began to dance round Him; and the women, seeing this, 
were very much astonished, and were seized with trembling, 
and speedily supplicated and adored the Lord Jesus, saying: 
O our Lord Jesus, son of Mary, Thou art of a truth that good 
Shepherd of Israel; have mercy on Thy handmaidens who 
stand before Thee, and who have never doubted: for Thou 
hast come, O our Lord, to heal, and not to destroy. And when 
the Lord Jesus answered that the sons of Israel were lke the 
Ethiopians among the nations, the women said: Thou, O Lord, 
knowest all things, nor is anything hid from Thee; now, in- 
deed, we beseech Thee, and ask Thee of Thy affection to re- 
store these boys Thy servants to their former condition. The 
Lord Jesus therefore said: Come, boys, let us go and play. 
And immediately, while these women were standing by, the 
kids were changed into boys. | 

41. Now in the month Adar, Jesus, after the manner of a 
king, assembled the boys together. They spread their clothes 
on the ground, and He sat down upon them. Then they put 
on His head a crown made of flowers, and, like chamber-ser- 
vants, stood in His presence, on the right and on the left, as if 
He were a king. And whoever passed by that way was forcibly 
dragged by the boys, saying: Come hither, and adore the king; 
then go thy way. 

42. In the meantime, while these things were going on, some 
men came up carrying a boy. For this boy had gone into the 
mountain with those of his own age to seek wood, and there he 
found a partridge’s nest; and when he stretched out his hand 
to take the eggs from it, a venomous serpent bit him from the 
middle of the nest, so that he called out for help. His com- 


1 Perhaps the correct reading is fornice, archway, and not fornace. 


120 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


rades accordingly went to him with haste, and found him lying 
on the ground like one dead. Then his relations came and 
took him up to carry him back to the city. And after they 
had come to that place where the Lord Jesus was sitting like 
a king, and the rest of the boys standing round Him lke His 
servants, the boys went hastily forward to meet him who had 
been bitten by the serpent, and said to his relations: Come 
and salute the king. But when they were unwilling to go, on 
account of the sorrow in which they were, the boys dragged 
them by force against their will. And when they had come up 
to the Lord Jesus, He asked them why they were carrying the 
boy. And when they answered that a serpent had bitten 
him, the Lord Jesus said to the boys: Let us go and kill that 
serpent. And the parents of the boy asked leave to go away, 
because their son was in the agony of death; but the boys 
answered them, saying: Did you not hear the king saying: 
Let us go and kill the serpent ? and will you not obey him ? 
And so, against their will, the couch was carried back. And 
when they came to the nest, the Lord Jesus said to the boys: 
Is this the serpent’s place? They said that it was; and the 
serpent, at the call of the Lord, came forth without delay, and 
submitted itself to Him. And He said to it: Go away, and 
suck out all the poison which thou hast infused into this boy. 
And so the serpent crawled to the boy, and sucked out all its 
poison. Then the Lord Jesus cursed it, and immediately on 
this being done it burst asunder ; and the Lord Jesus stroked 
the boy with his hand, and he was healed. And he began to 
weep ; but Jesus said: Do not weep, for by and by thou shalt 
be my disciple. And this is Simon the Cananite, of whom 
mention is made in the Gospel." 

43. On another day, Joseph sent his son James to gather 
wood, and the Lord Jesus went with him as his companion. 
And when they had come to the place where the wood was, 
and James had begun to gather it, behold, a venomous viper 
bit his hand, so that he began to cry out and weep. The Lord 
Jesus then, seeing him in this condition, went up to him, and 
blew upon the place where the viper had bitten him; and this 
being done, he was healed immediately. 

1 Matt. x. 4, ete. 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 121 


44, One day, when the Lord Jesus was again with the boys 
playing on the roof of a house, one of the boys fell down from 
above, and immediately expired. And the rest of the boys fled 
in all directions, and the Lord Jesus was left alone on the roof. 
And the relations of the boy came up and said to the Lord Jesus: 
It was thou who didst throw our son headlong from the roof. 
And when He denied it, they cried out, saying: Our son is dead, 
and here is he who has killed him. And the Lord Jesus said 
to them: Do not bring an evil report against me; but if you do 
not believe me, come and let us ask the boy himself, that he 
may bring the truth to light. Then the Lord Jesus went down, 
and standing over the dead body, said, with a loud voice: Zeno, 
Zeno, who threw thee down from the roof? Then the dead boy 
answered and said: My lord, it was not thou who didst throw 
me down, but such a one cast me down fromit. And when the 
Lord commanded those who were standing by to attend to His 
words, all who were present praised God for this miracle. 

45. Once upon a time the Lady Mary had ordered the Lord 
Jesus to go and bring her water from the well. And when He 
had gone to get the water, the pitcher already full was knocked 
against something, and broken. And the Lord Jesus stretched 
out His handkerchief, and collected the water, and carried it to 
His mother; and she was astonished at it. And she hid and 
preserved in her heart all that she saw. 

46. Again, on another day, the Lord Jesus was with the 
boys at a stream of water, and they had again made little 
fish-ponds. And the Lord Jesus had made twelve sparrows, 
and had arranged them round His fish-pond, three on each 
side. And it was the Sabbath-day. Wherefore a Jew, the son 
of Hanan, coming up, and seeing them thus engaged, said in 
anger and great indignation: Do you make figures of clay on 
the Sabbath-day ? And he ran quickly, and destroyed their 
fish-ponds. But when the Lord Jesus clapped His hands over 
the sparrows which He had made, they flew away chirping. 

Then the son of Hanan came up to the fish-pond of Jesus 
also, and kicked it with his shoes, and the water of it vanished 
away. And the Lord Jesus said to him: As that water has 
vanished away, so thy life shall likewise vanish away. And 
immediately that boy dried up. 


122 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


47, At another time, when the Lord Jesus was returning home 
with Joseph in the evening, He met a boy, who ran up against 
Him with so much force that He fell. And the Lord Jesus said 
to him: As thou hast thrown me down, so thou shalt fall, and 
not rise again. And the same hour the boy fell down, and expired. 

48. There was, moreover, at Jerusalem a certain man named 
Zacheus, who taught boys. He said to Joseph: Why, O Joseph, 
dost thou not bring Jesus to me to learn his letters? Joseph 
agreed to do so, and reported the matter to the Lady Mary. 
They therefore took Him to the master; and he, as soon as he 
saw Him, wrote out the alphabet for Him, and told Him to say 
Aleph. And when He had said Aleph, the master ordered Him 
to pronounce Beth. And the Lord Jesus said to him: Tell me 
first the meaning of the letter Aleph, and then I shall pronounce 
Beth. And when the master threatened to flog Him, the Lord 
Jesus explained to him the meanings of the letters Aleph and 
Beth; also which figures of the letters were straight, which 
crooked, which drawn round into a spiral, which marked with 
points, which without them, why one letter went before another; 
and many other things He began to recount and to elucidate 
which the master himself had never either heard or read in any 
book. The Lord Jesus, moreover, said to the master: Listen, 
and I shall say them to thee. And He began clearly and 
distinctly to repeat Aleph, Beth, Gimel, Daleth, on to Tan. 
And the master was astonished, and said: I think that this boy 
was born before Noah. And turning to Joseph, he said: Thou 
hast brought to me to be taught a boy more learned than all 
the masters. To the Lady Mary also he said: This son of 
thine has no need of instruction. 

49. Thereafter they took Him to another and a more learned 
master, who, when he saw Him, said: Say Aleph. And when 
He had said Aleph, the master ordered him to pronounce Beth. 
And the Lord Jesus answered him, and said: First tell me the 
meaning of the letter Aleph, and then I shall pronounce Beth. 
And when the master hereupon raised his hand and flogged 
Him, immediately his hand dried up, and he died. Then said 
Joseph to the Lady Mary: From this time we shall not let him 
go out of the house, since every one who opposes him is struck 
dead. 


ree - 


ARABIC GOSPEL OF THE SAVIOURS INFANCY. 123 


50. And when He was twelve years old, they took Him to 
Jerusalem to the feast. And when the feast was finished, they 
indeed returned ; but the Lord Jesus remained in the temple 
among the teachers and elders and learned men of the sons of 
Israel, to whom He put various questions upon the sciences, 
and gave answers in His turn." For He said to them: Whose 
son is the Messias? They answered Him: The son of David. 
Wherefore then, said He, does he in the Spirit call him his lord, 
when he says, The Lord said to my lord, Sit at my right hand, 
that I may put thine enemies under thy footsteps ?? Again the 
chief of the teachers said to Him: Hast thou read the books ? 
Both the books, said the Lord Jesus, and the things contained 
in the books. And He explained the books, and the law, and 
the precepts, and the statutes, and the mysteries, which are 
contained in the books of the prophets—things which the 
understanding of no creature attains to. That teacher there- 
fore said: I hitherto have neither attained to nor heard of such 
knowledge: Who, pray, do you think that boy will be ? 

51. And a philosopher who was there present, a skilful 
astronomer, asked the Lord Jesus whether He had studied 
astronomy. And the Lord Jesus answered him, and explained 
the number of the spheres, and of the heavenly bodies, their 
natures and operations; their opposition ; their aspect, trian- 
gular, square, and sextile ; their course, direct and retrograde ; 
the twenty-fourths,’ and sixtieths of twenty-fourths; and other 
things beyond the reach of reason. 

52. There was also among those philosophers one very skilled 
in treating of natural science, and he asked the Lord Jesus 
whether He had studied medicine. And He, in reply, explained 
to him physics and metaphysics, hyperphysics and hypophysics, 
the powers likewise and humours of the body, and the effects 
of the same; also the number of members and bones, of veins, 
arteries, and nerves; also the effect of heat and dryness, of 
cold and moisture, and what these give rise to; what was the 
operation of the soul upon the body, and its perceptions and 


1 Luke ii. 42-47. 2 Ps. ex. 1; Matt. xxii. 42-45. 

$ The scripulum was the twenty-fourth part of the as. It is likely here put 
for the motion of a planet during one hour. Pliny, V. H. ii. 10, uses the word 
to signify an undefined number of degrees, or parts of a degree. 


124 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


powers; what was the operation of the faculty of speech, of 
anger, of desire; lastly, their conjunction and disjunction, and 
other things beyond the reach of any created intellect. Then 
that philosopher rose up, and adored the Lord Jesus, and said: 
O Lord, from this time I will be thy disciple and slave. 

53. While they were speaking to each other of these and 
other things, the Lady Mary came, after having gone about seek- 
ing Him for three days along with Joseph. She therefore, 
seeing Him sitting among the teachers asking them questions, 
and answering in His turn, said to Him: My son, why hast 
thou treated us thus? Behold, thy father and I have sought 
thee with great trouble. But He said: Why do you seek me? 
Do you not know that I ought to occupy myself in my Father’s 
house? But they did not understand the words that He spoke 
to them. Then those teachers asked Mary whether He were 
her son; and when she signified that He was, they said: Blessed 
art thou, O Mary, who hast brought forth such a son. And 
returning with them to Nazareth, He obeyed them in all things. 
And His mother kept all these words of His in her heart. 
And the Lord Jesus advanced in stature, and in wisdom, and in 
favour with God and man.’ 

54. And from this day He began to hide His miracles and 
mysteries and secrets, and to give attention to the law, until 
He completed His thirtieth year, when His Father publicly 
declared Him at the Jordan by this voice sent down from 
heaven: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased ; 
the Holy Spirit being present in the form of a white dove.* 

55. This is He whom we adore with supplications, who hath 
given us being and life, and who hath brought us from our 
mothers’ wombs; who for our sakes assumed a human body, and 
redeemed us, that He might embrace us in eternal compassion, 
and show to us His mercy according to His liberality, and bene- 
ficence, and generosity, and benevolence. To Him is glory, 
and beneficence, and power, and dominion from this time forth 
for evermore. Amen. 

Here endeth the whole Gospel of the Infancy, with the aid of 
God Most High, according to what we have found in the original. 

1 Luke 11, 46-52, * Matt. iii. 18-17 ; Luke iii. 21-23. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 
PART I—THE ACTS OF PILATE. 


FIRST GREEK FORM. 


MEMORIALS OF OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, DONE IN 
THE TIME OF PONTIUS PILATE. 


PROLOGUE, 


ANANTAS, of the propreetor’s body-guard, being 
learned in the law, knowing our Lord Jesus Christ 
from the Holy Scriptures, coming to Him by faith, 
and counted worthy of the holy baptism, searching 
also the memorials written at that time of what was done in 
the case of our Lord Jesus Christ, which the Jews had laid up 
in the time of Pontius Pilate, found these memorials written in 
Hebrew, and by the favour of God have translated them into 
Greek for the information of all who call upon the name of 
our Master Jesus Christ, in the seventeenth year of the reign 
of our lord Flavius Theodosius, and the sixth of Flavius Valen- 
tinianus, in the ninth indiction. 

All ye, therefore, who read and transfer into other books, 
remember me, and pray for me, that God may be merciful to 
me, and pardon my sins which I have sinned against Him. 

Peace be to those who read, and to those who hear and to 
their households. Amen. 


In the fifteenth year? of the government of Tiberius Cesar, 
emperor of the Romans, and Herod being king of Galilee, in 
1 The 15th year of Tiberius, reckoning from the death of Augustus, was A.D. 


29, A.U.C. 782, the first year of the 202d Olympiad, in the consulship of C. 
125 


126 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


the nineteenth year of his rule, on the eighth day before the 
Kalends of April, which is the twenty-fifth of March, in the 
consulship of Rufus and Rubellio, in the fourth year of the two 
hundred and second Olympiad, Joseph Caiaphas being high 
priest of the Jews. 

The account that Nicodemus wrote in Hebrew, after the 
cross and passion of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour God, 
and left to those that came after him, is as follows :— 


Cuap. 1.—Having called a council, the high priests and scribes 
Annas and Caiaphas and Semes and Dathaes, and Gamaliel, 
Judas, Levi and Nephthalim, Alexander and Jairus," and the 
rest of the Jews, came to Pilate accusing Jesus about many 
things, saying: We know this man to be the son of Joseph the 
carpenter, born of Mary; and he says that he is the Son of God, 
and a king; moreover, he profanes the Sabbath, and wishes to 
do away with the law of our fathers. Pilate says: And what 
are the things which he does, to show that he wishes to do 
away with it?” The Jews say: We have a law not to cure 
any one on the Sabbath; but this man® has on the Sabbath 
cured the lame and the crooked, the withered and the blind 
and the paralytic, the dumb and the demoniac, by evil prac- 
tices. Pilate says to them: What evil practices? They say 
to him: He is a magician, and by Beelzebul prince of the 
demons he casts out the demons, and all are subject to him. 
Pilate says to them: This is not casting out the demons by an 
unclean spirit, but by the god Esculapius. 

The Jews say to Pilate: We entreat your highness that he 
stand at thy tribunal, and be heard.* And Pilate having called 
them, says: Tell me how I, being a procurator, can try a king ? 
They say to him: We do not say that he is a king, but he 


Fufius Geminus and L. Rubellius Geminus, and the 34th year of Herod Antipas. 
Other readings are: In the eighteenth year—In the nineteenth year. 

1 There is in the Mss. great variation as to these names. 

2 Lit., and wishes to do away with it. 

3. Compare with this, Lactantius, iv. 17. The Jews brought charges against 
Jesus, that He did away with the law of God given by Moses, that is, that He 
did not rest on the Sabbath, ete. 

* Another reading is: We entreat your highness to go into the pretorium, 
and question him. For Jesus was standing outside with the crowd. . 


Eee 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 127 


himself says that he is. And Pilate having called the runner, 
says to him: Let Jesus be brought in with respect. And the 
runner going out, and recognising Him, adored Him, and took 
his cloak into his hand, and spread it on the ground, and says 
to Him: My lord, walk on this, and come in, for the procurator 
calls thee. And the Jews seeing what the runner had done, 
cried out against Pilate, saying: Why hast thou ordered him 
to come in by a runner, and not by a crier? for assuredly the 
runner, when he saw him, adored him, and spread his doublet on 
the ground, and made him walk like a king. 

And Pilate having called the runner, says to him: Why 
hast thou done this, and spread out thy cloak upon the earth, 
and made Jesus walk upon it? ‘The runner says to him: My 
lord procurator, when thou didst send me to Jerusalem to 
Alexander,’ I saw him sitting upon an ass, and the sons of the 
Hebrews held branches in their hands, and shouted; and other 
spread their clothes under him, saying, Save now, thou who 
art in the highest: blessed is he that cometh in the name of 
the Lord.? 

The Jews cry out, and say to the runner: The sons of the 
Hebrews shouted in Hebrew; whence then hast thou the Greek? 
The runner says to them: I asked one of the Jews, and said, 
What is it they are shouting in Hebrew? And he interpreted 
it for me. Pilate says to them: And what did they shout in 
Hebrew? The Jews say to him: Hosanna membrome baruch- 
amma adonai.? Pilate says to them: And this hosanna, etc., 
how is it interpreted? The Jews say to him: Save now in the 
highest ; blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord. 
Pilate says to them: If you bear witness to the words spoken 
by the children, in what has the runner done wrong? And 
they were silent. And the procurator says to the runner: Go 
out, and bring him in what way thou wilt. And the runner 
going out, did in the same manner as before, and says to Jesus: 
My lord, come in; the procurator calleth thee. 

And Jesus going in, and the standard-bearers holding their 
standards, the tops of the standards were bent down, and adored 


? Probably the Alexander mentioned in Acts iv. 6. 
2 Matt. xxi. 8, 9. 
3 Ps. exviil. 25: Hosyah na bimromim baruch habba (b’shem) Adonai. 


128 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Jesus. And the Jews seeing the bearing of the standards, how 
they were bent down and adored Jesus, cried’ out vehemently 
against the standard-bearers. And Pilate says to the Jews: 
Do you not wonder how the tops of the standards were bent 
down, and adored Jesus? The Jews say to Pilate: We saw 
how the standard-bearers bent them down, and adored him. 
And the procurator having called the standard-bearers, says to 
them: Why have you done this? They say to Pilate: We are 
Greeks and temple-slaves, and how could we adore him? and 
assuredly, as we were holding them up, the tops bent down of 
their own accord, and adored him. 

Pilate says to the rulers of the synagogue and the elders of 
the people: Do you choose for yourselves men strong and 
powerful, and let them hold up the standards, and let us see 
whether they will bend down with them. And the elders of 
the Jews picked out twelve men powerful and strong, and 
made them hold up the standards six by six; and they were 
placed in front of the procurator’s tribunal. And Pilate says 
to the runner: Take him outside of the pratorium, and bring 
him in again in whatever way may please thee. And Jesus 
and the runner went out of the pretorium. And Pilate, sum- 
moning those who had formerly held up the standards, says 
to them: I have sworn by the health of Cesar, that if the 
standards do not bend down when Jesus comes in, I will 
cut off your heads. And the procurator ordered Jesus to 
come in the second time. And the runner did in the same 
manner as before, and made many entreaties to Jesus to walk 
on his cloak. And He walked on it, and went in. And as 
He went in, the standards were again bent down, and adored 
Jesus. 


Cuap. 2.—And Pilate seeing this, was afraid, and sought to 
go away from the tribunal; but when he was still thinking 
of going away, his wife sent to him, saying: Have nothing to 
do with this just man, for many things have I suffered on his 
account this night. And Pilate, summoning the Jews, says 

1 Another reading is: Annas and Caiaphas and Joseph, the three false wit- 


nesses, began to cry out, ete, 
2 Matt. xxvii. 19. 


er my 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 129 


to them: You know that my wife is a worshipper of God, 
and prefers to adhere to the Jewish religion along with you. 
They say to him: Yes; we know. Pilate says to them: Be- 
hold, my wife’ has sent to me, saying, Have nothing to do 
with this just man, for many things have I suffered on account 
of him this night. And the Jews answering, say unto Pilate: 
Did we not tell thee that he was a sorcerer 752. behold, he has 
sent a dream to thy wife. 

And Pilate, having summoned Jesus, says to Him: What 
do these witness against thee? Sayest thou nothing? And 
Jesus said: Unless they had the power, they would say no- 
thing; for every one has the power of his own mouth to speak 
both good and evil. They shall see to it.’ 

And the elders of the Jews answered, and said to Jesus: 
What shall we see? first, that thou wast born of fornication ; 
secondly, that thy birth in Bethlehem was the cause of the 
murder of the infants; thirdly, that thy father Joseph and thy 
mother Mary fled into Egypt because they had no confidence 
in the people. 

Some of the bystanders, pious men of the Jews, say: We 
deny that he was born of fornication; for we know that Joseph 
espoused Mary, and he was not born of fornication. Pilate 
says to the Jews who said that he was of fornication: 
This story of yours is not true, because they were betrothed, 
as also these fellow-countrymen of yours say. Annas and 
Caiaphas say to Pilate: All the multitude of us cry out that 
he was born of fornication, and are not believed; these are 
proselytes, and his disciples. And Pilate, calling Annas and 
Caiaphas, says to them: What are proselytes? They say to 
him: They are by birth children of the Greeks, and have now 
become Jews. And those that said that He was not born of 
fornication, viz—Lazarus, Asterius, Antonius, James, Amnes, 
Zeras, Samuel, Isaac, Phinees, Crispus, Agrippas, and Judas*— 
say: We are not proselytes, but are children of the Jews, and 


1 One ms. adds: Procla,—the traditional name of Pilate’s wife. 
* Three Mss. add: And by Beelzebul, prince of the demons, he casts out the 
demons, and they are all subject to him. 
3 i.e. let them see to it. 
4 There is considerable variation in the ss. as to these names. 
I 


130 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


speak of the truth; for we were present at the betrothal of 
Joseph and Mary. 

And Pilate, calling these twelve men who said that He was 
not born of fornication, says to them: I adjure you by the 
health of Czesar, to tell me whether it be true that you say, 
that he was not born of fornication. They say to Pilate: We 
have a law against taking oaths, because it is a sin; but they 
will swear by the health of Czesar,! that it is not as we have 
said, and we are liable to death. Pilate says to Annas and 
Caiaphas: Have you nothing to answer to this? Annas and 
Caiaphas say to Pilate: These twelve are believed when they 
say that he was not born of fornication; all the multitude of 
us cry out that he was born of fornication, and that he is a 
sorcerer, and he says that he is the Son of God and a king, and 
we are not believed. 

And Pilate orders all the multitude to go out, except the 
twelve men who said that He was not born of fornication, and 
he ordered Jesus to be separated from them. And Pilate says 
to them: For what reason do they wish to put him to death ? 
They say to him: They are angry because he cures on the 
Sabbath. Pilate says: For a good work do they wish to put 
him to death? They say to him: Yes. 


Cuap. 3.—And Pilate, filled with rage, went outside of the 
preetorium, and said to them: I take the sun to witness? that 
I find no fault in this man. The Jews answered and said to 
the procurator: Unless this man were an evil-doer, we should 
not have delivered him to thee. And Pilate said, Do you 
take him, and judge him according to your law. The Jews 
said to Pilate: It is not lawful for us to put any one to death. 
Pilate said: Has God said that you are not to put to death, 
but that I am? | 

And Pilate went again into the pretorium, and spoke to | 
Jesus privately, and said to Him: Art thou the king of the 
Jews? Jesus answered Pilate: Dost thou say this of thyself, 


1 Or, let them swear. 

*See Ap. Const. ii. 56. At last he who is going to pronounce sentence 
death upon the culprit raises his hands aloft, and takes the sun to witness that 
he is innocent of his blood. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 131 


or have others said it to thee of me? Pilate answered Jesus: 
Am I also a Jew?* Thy nation and the chief priests have 
given thee up tome. What hast thou done? Jesus answered: 
My kingdom is not of this world; for if my kingdom were of 
this world, my servants would fight in order that I should not 
be given up to the Jews: but now my kingdom is not from 
thence. Pilate said to Him: Art thou then a king? Jesus 
answered him: Thou sayest that I am a king. Because for 
this have I been born, and have I come, in order that every 
one who is of the truth might hear my voice. Pilate says to 
Him: What is truth? Jesus says to him: Truth is from 


heaven. Pilate says: Is truth not upon earth? Jesus says to 


Pilate: Thou seest how those who speak the truth are judged 
by those that have the power upon earth. 


Cuap. 4.—And leaving Jesus within the pretorium, Pilate 
went out to the Jews, and said to them: I find no fault in 
him. The Jews say to him: He said, I can destroy this 
temple, and in three days buildit. Pilate says: What temple ? 
The Jews say: The one that Solomon? built in forty-six years, 
and this man speaks of pulling it down and building it in 
three days. Pilate says to them: I am innocent of the blood 
of this just man. See you toit. The Jews say: His blood 
be upon us, and upon our children. 

And Pilate having summoned the elders and priests and 
Levites, said to them privately: Do not act thus, because no 
charge that you bring against him is worthy of death; for 
your charge is about curing and Sabbath profanation. The 
elders and the priests and the Levites say: If any one speak 
evil against Cesar, is he worthy of death or not? Pilate 
says: He is worthy of death. The Jews say to Pilate: If any 
one speak evil against Ceesar, he is worthy of death; but this 
man has spoken evil against God. 

And the procurator ordered the Jews to go outside of the 
preetorium; and summoning Jesus, he says to Him: What shall 
I do to thee? Jesus says to Pilate: As it has been given to 


1 The full force of the expression is: You do not mean to say that I too am 
a Jew? 
2 Comp. John ii. 20, 


132 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


thee. Pilate says: How given? Jesus says: Moses and the 
prophets have proclaimed beforehand of my death and resur- 
rection. And the Jews noticing this, and hearing it, say to 
Pilate: What more wilt thou hear of this blasphemy? Pilate 
says to the Jews: If these words be blasphemous, do you take 
him for the blasphemy, and lead him away to your synagogue, 
and judge him according to your law. The Jews say to Pilate: 
Our law bears that a man who wrongs his fellow-men is worthy 
to receive forty save one; but he that blasphemeth God is to 
be stoned with stones." 

Pilate says to them: Do you take him, and punish him in 
whatever way you please. The Jews say to Pilate: We wish 
that he be crucified. Pilate says: He is not deserving of 
crucifixion. 

And the procurator, looking round upon the crowds of the 
Jews standing by, sees many of the Jews weeping, and says: 
All the multitude do not wish him to die. The elders of the 
Jews say: For this reason all the multitude of us have come, 
that he should die. Pilate says to the Jews: Why should he 
die? The Jews say: Because he called himself Son of God, 
and King. 


CuaAp. 5.—And one Nicodemus, a Jew, stood before the pro- 
curator, and said: I beseech your honour, let me say a few words. 
Pilate says: Say on. Nicodemus says: I said to the elders and 
the priests and Levites, and to all the multitude of the Jews in 
the synagogue, What do you seek to do with this man? This 
man does many miracles and strange things, which no one has 
done or will do. Let him go, and do not wish any evil against 
him. If the miracles which he does are of God, they will stand ; 
but if of man, they will come to nothing.” For assuredly 
Moses, being sent by God into Egypt, did many miracles, 
which the Lord commanded him to do before Pharaoh king 
of Egypt. And there were there Jannes and Jambres, servants 
of Pharaoh, and they also did not a few of the miracles which 
Moses did; and the Egyptians took them to be gods—this 
Jannes and this Jambres.* But, since the miracles which they 
did were not of God, both they and those who believed in 

1 Deut. xxv. 3; Lev. xxiv. 16. ? Acts v. 38. 52 Tim. iii, 8, 9. 


THE GOSPEL Of NICODEMUS. 135 


them were destroyed. And now release this man, for he is not 
deserving of death. 

The Jews say to Nicodemus: Thou hast become his disciple, 
and therefore thou defendest him. Nicodemus says to them: 
Perhaps, too, the procurator has become his disciple, because 
he defends him. Has the emperor not appointed him to this 
place of dignity? And the Jews were vehemently enraged, 
and gnashed their teeth against Nicodemus. Pilate says to 
them: Why do you gnash your teeth against him when you 
hear the truth? The Jews say to Nicodemus: Mayst thou 
receive his truth and his portion. Nicodemus says: Amen, 
amen; may I receive it, as you have said. 


Cuap. 6.—One of the Jews, stepping up, asked leave of the 
procurator to say a word. The procurator says: If thou wishest 
to say anything, say on. And the Jew said: Thirty-eight years 
I lay in my bed in great agony. And when Jesus came, many 
demoniacs, and many lying ill of various diseases, were cured 
by him. And some young men, taking pity on me, carried me, 
bed and all, and took me to him. And when Jesus saw me, he 
had compassion on me, and said to me: Take up thy couch and 
walk. And I took up my couch, and walked. The Jews say to 
Pilate: Ask him on what day it was that he was cured. He 
that had been cured says: On a Sabbath.7 The Jews say: Is 
not this the very thing that we said, that on a Sabbath he 
cures and casts out demons ? 

And another Jew stepped up and said: I was born blind; I 
heard sounds, but saw not a face. And as Jesus passed by, I 
eried out with a loud voice, Pity me, O son of David. And 
he pitied me, and put his hands upon my eyes, and 1 instantly 
received my sight.2, And another Jew stepped up and said: I 
was crooked, and he straightened me witha word. And another 
said: I was a leper, and he cured me with a word.’ 


Cuap. 7.—And a woman ‘ cried out from a distance, and said: 
I had an issue of blood, and I touched the hem of his garment, 
and the issue of blood which I had had for twelve years was 


' John v. 5-9. 2 Mark x. 46, ete. 
3 Matt. viii. 1-4, ete. 4 Some mss. add the name Bernice, or Veronica. 


134 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


stopped." The Jews say: We have a law, that a woman’s 
evidence is not to be received.’ 


Cuap. 8.—And others, a multitude both of men and women, 
cried out, saying: This man is a prophet, and the demons are 
subject to him. Pilate says to them who said that the demons 
were subject to Him: Why, then, were not your teachers also 
subject to him? They say to Pilate: We do not know. And 
others said: He raised Lazarus from the tomb after he had 
been dead four days.* And the procurator trembled, and said 
to all the multitude of the Jews: Why do you wish to pour out 
innocent blood ? 


Cuap. 9.—And having summoned Nicodemus and the twelve 
men that said He was not born of fornication, he says to them: 
What shall I do, because there is an insurrection among the 
people? They say to him: We know not; let them see to it. 
Again Pilate, having summoned all the multitude of the Jews, 
says: You know that it is customary, at the feast of unleavened 
bread, to release one prisoner to you. I have one condemned 
prisoner in the prison, a murderer named Barabbas, and this 
man standing in your presence, Jesus, in whom I find no fault. 
Which of them do you wish me to release to you? And they 
cry out: Barabbas. Pilate says: What, then, shall we do to 
Jesus who is called Christ ? The Jews say: Let him be cruci- 
fied. And others said: Thou art no friend of Ceesar’s if thou 
release this man, because he called himself Son of God and 
king. You wish, then, this man to be king, and not Cesar ? * 

And Pilate, in a rage, says to the Jews: Always has your 
nation been rebellious, and you always speak against your 
benefactors. The Jews say: What benefactors? He says to 
them: Your God led you out of the land of Egypt from bitter 
slavery, and brought you safe through the sea as through dry 
land, and in the desert fed you with manna, and gave you 
quails, and quenched your thirst with water from a rock, and 
gave you a law; and in all these things you provoked your 
God to anger, and sought a molten calf. And you exasperated 


1 Matt. ix. 20-26. * Jos. Ant. iv. 8, ὃ 15. 
3 John xi. 1-16. 4 Matt. xxvii. 15-26, ete. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 135 


your God, and He sought to slay you. And Moses prayed for 
you, and you were not put to death. And now you charge me 
with hating the emperor." 

And rising up from the tribunal, he sought to go out. And 
the Jews cry out, and say: We know that Cesar is king, and 
not Jesus. For assuredly the magi brought gifts to him as to 
aking. And when Herod heard from the magi that a king 
had been born, he sought to slay him; and his father Joseph, 
knowing this, took him and his mother, and they fled into 
Egypt. And Herod hearing of it, destroyed the children of the 
Hebrews that had been born in Bethlehem.? 

And when Pilate heard these words, he was afraid; and 
ordering the crowd to keep silence, because they were crying 
out, he says to them: So this is he whom Herod sought? The 
Jews say: Yes, itis he. And, taking water, Pilate washed his 
hands in the face of the sun, saying: I am innocent of the 
blood of this just man; see you to it. -Again the Jews cry out: 
His blood be upon us, and upon our children. . 

Then Pilate ordered the curtain of the tribunal where he 
was sitting to be drawn,’ and says to Jesus: Thy nation has 
charged thee with being a king. On this account I sentence 
thee, first to be scourged, according to the enactment of vene- 
rable kings, and then to be fastened on the cross in the garden 
where thou wast seized. And let Dysmas and Gestas, the two 
malefactors, be crucified with thee. 


Cuap. 10.—And Jesus went forth out of the preetorium, and 
the two malefactors with Him. And when they came to the 
place, they stripped Him of His clothes, and girded Him with 
a towel, and put a crown of thorns on Him round His head. 
And they crucified Him ; and at the same time also they hung 
up the two malefactors along with Him. And Jesus said: 
Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do. And 
the soldiers parted His clothes among them; and the people 
stood looking at Him. And the chief priests, and the rulers 


‘Lit., king. Other readings are: with wishing another king; with seeking 
Jesus for king. 

2 One ms. adds: from two years old and under. 

* This was customary before pronouncing sentence. See Const. Apost. ii. 56. 


136 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


with them, mocked Him, saying: He saved others; let him 
save himself. If he be the Son of God, let him come down 
from the cross. And the soldiers made sport of Him, coming 
near and offering Him vinegar mixed with gall, and said: Thou 
art the king of the Jews; save thyself.* 

And Pilate, after the sentence, ordered the charge made 
against Him to be inscribed as a superscription in Greek, and 
Latin, and Hebrew, according to what the Jews had said: He 
is king of the Jews. 

And one of the malefactors hanging up spoke to Him, saying : 
If thou be the Christ, save thyself and us. And Dysmas 
answering, reproved him, saying: Dost thou not fear God, 
because thou art in the same condemnation ? And we indeed 
justly, for we receive the fit punishment of our deeds; but this 
man has done no evil. And he said to Jesus: Remember me, 
Lord, in Thy kingdom. And Jesus said to him: Amen, amen; 
I say to thee, To-day shalt thou be* with me in Paradise. 


Cuap, 11.—And it was about the sixth hour, and there was 
darkness over the earth until the ninth hour, the sun being 
darkened; and the curtain of the temple was split in the 
middle. And crying out with a loud voice, Jesus said: Father, 
baddach ephkid ruel, which is, interpreted: Into Thy hands I 
commit my spirit.2 And having said this, He gave up the 
ghost. And the centurion, seeing what had happened, glorified 
God, and said: This was a just man. And all the crowds that 
were present at this spectacle, when they saw what had hap- 
pened, beat their breasts and went away. 


And the centurion reported what had happened to the pro-: 


curator. And when the procurator and his wife heard it, they 
were exceedingly grieved, and neither ate nor drank that day. 
And Pilate sent for the Jews, and said to them: Have you 


seen what has happened? And they say: There has been an 


eclipse of the sun in the usual way.* 


* Some of the mss. add: And the soldier Longinus, taking a spear, pierced His 
side, and there came forth blood and water. 

5 Lit., art. 

3 Luke xxiii. 46. Ps. xxxi. 5 is, b’yadcha aphkid ruchi. 

* One ms. adds: Pilate said to them: You scoundrels! is this the way you 
tell the truth about everything? I know that that never happens but at new 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 137 


And His acquaintances were standing at a distance, and the 
women who came with Him from Galilee, seeing these things. 
And a man named Joseph, a councillor from the city of Arima- 
thea, who also waited for the kingdom of God, went to Pilate, 
and begged the body of Jesus. And he took it down, and 
wrapped it in clean linen, and’ placed it in a tomb hewn out 
of the rock, in which no one had ever lain, 


Cuap. 12.—And the Jews, hearing that Joseph had begged 
the body of Jesus, sought him and the twelve who said that 
Jesus was not born of fornication, and Nicodemus, and many 
others who had stepped up before Pilate and declared His good 
works. And of all these that were hid, Nicodemus alone was 
seen by them, because he was a ruler of the Jews. And Nico- 
demus says to them: How have you come into the synagogue ? 
The Jews say to him: How hast thou come into the synagogue ? 
for thou art a confederate of his, and his portion is with thee 
in the world to come. Nicodemus says: Amen, amen. And 
likewise Joseph also stepped out and said to them: Why are 
you angry against me because I begged the body of Jesus ? 
Behold, I have put him in my new tomb, wrapping him in 
clean linen; and I have rolled a stone to the door of the tomb. 
And you have acted not well against the just man, because you 
have not repented of crucifying him, but also have pierced him 
with a spear. And the Jews seized Joseph, and ordered him 
to be secured until the first day of the week, and said to him: 
Know that the time does not allow us to do anything against 
thee, because the Sabbath is dawning ; and know that thou 
shalt not be deemed worthy of burial, but we shall give thy 
flesh to the birds of the air. Joseph says to them: These are 
the words of the arrogant Goliath, who reproached the living 
God and holy David* For God has said by the prophet, Ven- 
geance is mine, and I will repay, saith the Lord.” And now he 
that is uncircumcised in flesh, but circumcised in heart, has 
taken water, and washed his hands in the face of the sun, 
saying, I am innocent of the blood of this just man; see ye 


moon. Now you ate your passover yesterday, the fourteenth of the month, and 
you say that it was an eclipse of the sun. 
11 Sam. xvii. 44. 2 Deut. xxxii. 35; Rom. xii. 19; Heb. x. 30. 


138 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


to it. And you answered and said to Pilate, His blood be 
upon us, and upon our children. And now I am afraid lest the 
wrath of God come upon you, and upon your children, as you 
have said. And the Jews, hearing these words, were embittered 
in their souls, and seized Joseph, and locked him into a room 
where there was no window; and guards were stationed at the 
door, and they sealed the door where Joseph was locked in. 

And on the Sabbath, the rulers of the synagogue, and the 
priests and the Levites, made a decree that all should be found 
in the synagogue on the first day of the week. And rising up 
early, all the multitude in the synagogue consulted by what 
death they should slay him. And when the Sanhedrim was 
sitting, they ordered him to be brought with much indignity. 
And having opened the door, they found him not. And all the 
people were surprised, and struck with dismay, because they 
found the seals unbroken, and because Caiaphas had the key. 
And they no longer dared to lay hands upon those who had 
spoken before Pilate in Jesus’ behalf. 


CHAP. 13—And while they were still sitting in the syna- 
gogue, and wondering about Joseph, there come some of the 
guard whom the Jews had begged of Pilate to guard the tomb 
of Jesus, that His disciples might not come and steal Him. 
And they reported to the rulers of the synagogue, and the 
priests and the Levites, what had happened: how there had 
been a great earthquake ; and we saw an angel coming down 
from heaven, and he rolled away the stone from the mouth of 
the tomb, and sat upon it; and he shone like snow, and like 
lightning. And we were very much afraid, and lay like dead 
men ; and we heard the voice of the angel saying to the women 
who remained beside the tomb, Be not afraid, for I know that 
you seek Jesus who was crucified. He is not here: He is risen, 
as He said. Come, see the place where the Lord lay: and go 
quickly, and tell His disciples that He is risen from the dead, 
and is in Galilee." 

The Jews say: To what women did he speak? The men of 
the guard say: We do not know who they were. The Jews 
say: At what time was this? The men of the guard say: At 

1 Matt. xxviii. 5-7. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 139 


midnight. The Jews say: And wherefore did you not lay hold 
of them? The men of the guard say: We were like dead men 
from fear, not expecting to see the light of day, and how could 
we lay hold of them? The Jews say: As the Lord liveth, we 
do not believe you. The men of the guard say to the Jews: 
You have seen so great miracles in the case of this man, and 
have not believed; and how can you believe us? And assur- 
edly you have done well to swear that the Lord liveth, for 
indeed He does live. Again the men of the guard say: We 
have heard that you have locked up the man that begged the 
body of Jesus, and put a seal on the door; and that you have 
opened it, and not found him. Do you then give us the man 
whom you were guarding, and we shall give you Jesus. The 
Jews say: Joseph has gone away to his own city. The men 
of the guard say to the Jews: And Jesus has risen, as we 
heard from the angel, and is in Galilee. 

And when the Jews heard these words, they were very much 
afraid, and said: We must take care lest this story be heard, and 
all incline to Jesus. And the Jews called a council, and paid 
down a considerable sum of money, and gave it to the soldiers, 
saying: Say, while we slept, his disciples came by night and 
stole him ; and if this come to the ears of the procurator, we 
shall persuade him, and keep you out of trouble. And they 
took it, and said as they had been instructed." 


Cuap. 14.—And Phinees a priest, and Adas a teacher, and 
Haggai a Levite, came down from Galilee to Jerusalem, and 
said to the rulers of the synagogue, and the priests and the 
Levites: We saw Jesus and his disciples sitting on the 
mountain called Mamilch ;* and he said to his disciples, Go 
into all the world, and preach to every creature: he that 
believeth and is baptized shall be saved, and he that believeth 


1 Three of the Latin versions say: And they took the money, but could not 
hide the truth. For they wanted to say, His disciples stole him while we slept, 
and could not utter it ; but said, Truly the Lord Jesus Christ has risen from the 
dead ; and we saw an angel of God coming down from heaven, and he rolled 
back the stone, and sat on it. And this saying has been spread abroad among 
the Jews even to this day. 

2 Others readings are: Malek, Mophek, Mambre, Mabrech. Vid. 2 Kings 
xxiii. 13. 


140 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


not shall be condemned. And these signs shall attend those 
who have believed: in my name they shall cast out demons, 
speak new tongues, take up serpents; and if they drink any 
deadly thing, it shall by no means hurt them; they shall lay 
hands on the sick, and they shall be well. And while Jesus was 
speaking to his disciples, we saw him taken up into heaven. 

The elders and the priests and Levites say: Give glory to 
the God of Israel, and confess to Him whether you have heard 
and seen those things of which you have given us an account. 
And those who had given the account said: As the Lord 
liveth, the God of our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, we 
heard these things, and saw him taken up into heaven. The 
elders and the priests and the Levites say to them: Have you 
come to give us this announcement, or to offer prayer to God ? 
And they say: To offer prayer to God. The elders and the 
chief priests and the Levites say to them: If you have come 
to offer prayer to God, why then have you told these idle tales 
in the presence of all the people?” Says Phinees the priest, and 
Adas the teacher, and Haggai the Levite, to the rulers of the 
synagogues, and the priests and the Levites: If what we have 
said and seen be sinful, behold, we are before you; do to us as 
seems good in your eyes. And they took the law, and made 
them swear upon it, not to give any more an account of these 
matters to any one. And they gave them to eat and drink, 
aud sent them out of the city, having given them also money, 
and three men with them; and they sent them away to Galilee. 

And these men having gone into Galilee, the chief priests, 
and the rulers of the synagogue, and the elders, came together 
into the synagogue, and locked the door, and lamented with a 
ereat lamentation, saying: Is this a miracle that has happened 
in Israel? And Annas and Caiaphas said: Why are you so 
much moved? Why do you weep? Do you not know that 
his disciples have given a sum of gold to the guards of the 
tomb, and have instructed them to say that an angel came 
down and rolled away the stone from the door of the tomb? 
And the priests and the elders said: Be it that his disciples 
have stolen his body ; how is it that the life has come into his 

1 (Mark xvi. 15-18. ] 
2 Lit., why then this trifling which ye have trifled, ete. 


; 
é 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 141 


body, and that he is going about in Galilee? And they being 
unable to give an answer to these things, said, after great hesi- 
tation: It is not lawful for us to believe the uncircumcised. 


Cuap. 15.—And Nicodemus stood up, and stood before the 
Sanhedrim, saying: You say well; you are not ignorant, you 
people of the Lord, of these men that come down from Galilee, 
that they fear God, and are men of substance, haters of covet- 
ousness, men of peace; and they have declared with an oath, 
We saw Jesus upon the mountain Mamilch with his disciples, 
and he taught what we heard from him, and we saw him 
taken up into heaven. And no one asked them in what form 
he went up. For assuredly, as the book of the Holy Serip- 
tures taught us, Helias also was taken up into heaven, and 
Elisszeus cried out with a loud voice, and Helias threw his 
sheepskin upon Elisszeus, and Elisszeus threw his sheepskin 
upon the Jordan, and crossed, and came into Jericho. And the 
children of the prophets met him, and said, Ὁ Elisszeus, where 
is thy master Helias? And he said, He has been taken up 
into heaven. And they said to Elisseus, Has not a spirit 
seized him, and thrown him upon one of the mountains? But 
let us take our servants? with us, and seek him. And they 
persuaded Elisseeus, and he went away with them. And they 
sought him three days, and did not find him; and they knew 
that he had been taken up.’ And now listen to me, and let 
us send into every district of Israel, and see lest perchance 
Christ has been taken up by a spirit, and thrown upon one of 
the mountains. And this proposal pleased all. And they sent 
into every district of Israel, and sought Jesus, and did not find 
Him; but they found Joseph in Arimathea, and no one dared 
to lay hands on him. 

And they reported to the elders, and the priests, and the 
Levites: We have gone round to every district of Israel, and 
have not found Jesus ; but Joseph we have found in Arimathea. 
And hearing about Joseph, they were glad, and gave glory to 
the God of Israel. And the rulers of the synagogue, and the 
priests and the Levites, having held a council as to the manner 


? Perhaps better as a question. 
? Lit., boys. 3 2 Kings ii. 12-18. 


142 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


in which they should meet with Joseph, took a piece of paper, 
and wrote to Joseph as follows : 

Peace to thee! We know that we have sinned against God, 
and against thee; and we have prayed to the God of Israel, 
that thou shouldst deign to come to thy fathers, and to thy 
children, because we have all been grieved. For having opened 
the door, we did not find thee. And we know that we have 
counselled evil counsel against thee; but the Lord has defended 
thee, and the Lord Himself has scattered to the winds our 
counsel against thee, O honourable father Joseph. 

And they chose from all Israel seven men, friends of Joseph, 
whom also Joseph himself was acquainted with ; and the rulers 
of the synagogue, and the priests and the Levites, say to them: 
Take notice: if, after receiving our letter, he read it, know that 
he will come with you to us; but if he do not read it, know 
that he is ill-disposed towards us. And having saluted him in 
peace, return to us. And having blessed the men, they dis- 
missed them. And the men came to Joseph, and did reverence 
to him, and said to him: Peace to thee! And he said: Peace 
to you, and to all the people of Israel! And they gave him the 
roll of the letter. And Joseph having received it, read the 
letter and rolled it up, and blessed God, and said: Blessed be 
the Lord God, who has delivered Israel, that they should not 
shed innocent blood ; and blessed be the Lord, who sent out 
His angel, and covered me under his wings. And he set a 
table for them ; and they ate and drank, and slept there. 

And they rose up early, and prayed. And Joseph saddled 
his ass, and set out with the men; and they came to the holy 
city Jerusalem. And all the people met Joseph, and cried 
out: Peace to thee in thy coming in! And he said to all the 
people: Peace to you! and he kissed them. And the people 
prayed with Joseph, and they were astonished at the sight 
of him. And Nicodemus received him into his house, and 
made a great feast, and called Annas and Caiaphas, and the 
elders, and the priests, and the Levites to his house. And they 
rejoiced, eating and drinking with Joseph; and after singing 
hymns, each proceeded to his own house. But Joseph remained 
in the house of Nicodemus. 

And on the following day, which was the preparation, the 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 143 


rulers of the synagogue and the priests and the Levites went 
early to the house of Nicodemus; and Nicodemus met them, 
and said: Peace to you! And they said: Peace to thee, and to 
Joseph, and to all thy house, and to all the house of Joseph! 
And he brought them into his house. And all the Sanhedrim 
sat down, and Joseph sat down between Annas and Caiaphas ; 
and no one dared to say a word to him. And Joseph said: 
Why have you called me? And they signalled to Nicodemus 
to speak to Joseph. And Nicodemus, opening his mouth, said 
to Joseph: Father, thou knowest that the honourable teachers, 
and the priests and the Levites, seek to learn a word from thee. 
And Joseph said: Ask. And Annas and Caiaphas having 
taken the law, made Joseph swear, saying: Give glory to the 
God of Israel, and give Him confession; for Achar being made 
to swear by the prophet Jesus,’ did not forswear himself, but 
declared unto him all, and did not hide a word from him. Do 
thou also accordingly not hide from us to the extent of a word. 
And Joseph said: I shall not hide from you one word. And 
they said to him: With grief were we grieved because thou 
didst beg the body of Jesus, and wrap it in clean linen, and 
lay itinatomb. And on account of this we secured thee in a 
room where there was no window; and we put locks and seals 
upon the doors, and guards kept watching where thou wast 
locked in. And on the first day of the week we opened, and 
found thee not, and were grieved exceedingly ; and astonish- 
ment fell upon all the people of the Lord until yesterday. And 
now relate to us what has happened to thee, 

And Joseph said: On the preparation, about the tenth hour, 
you locked me up, and I remained all the Sabbath. And at 
midnight, as I was standing and praying, the room where you 
locked me in was hung up by the four corners, and I saw a 
light like hghtning into my eyes.2?, And I was afraid, and fell 
to the ground. And some one took me by the hand, and re- 
moved me from the place where I had fallen; and moisture of 
water was poured from my head even to my feet, and a smell 
of perfumes came about my nostrils. And he wiped my face, 
and kissed me, and said to me, Fear not, Joseph; open thine 
eyes, and see who it is that speaks to thee. And looking up, I 

li.e. Joshua. Josh. vii. 19, 20. 2 Of, Acts x. 11. 


144 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


saw Jesus. And I trembled, and thought it was a phantom ; 
and I said the commandments, and he said them with me. 
Even so you are not ignorant that a phantom, if 1t meet any- 
body, and hear the commandments, takes to flight. And seeing 
that he said them with me, I said to him, Rabbi Helias, And 
he said to me, I am not Helias. And I said to him, Who 
art thou, my lord? And he said to me, I am Jesus, whose 
body thou didst beg from Pilate ; and thou didst clothe me with 
clean linen, and didst put a napkin on my face, and didst lay 
me in thy new tomb, and didst roll a great stone to the door of 
the tomb. And I said to him that was speaking to me, Show 
me the place where I laid thee. And he carried me away, and 
showed me the place where I laid him; and the linen cloth was 
lying in it, and the napkin for his face. And I knew that it 
was Jesus. And he took me by the hand, and placed me, 
though the doors were locked, in the middle of my house, and 
led me away to my bed, and said to me, Peace to thee! And 
he kissed me, and said to me, For forty days go not forth out 
of thy house; for, behold, I go to my brethren into Galilee. 


CuAp. 16.—And the rulers of the synagogue, and the priests 
and the Levites, when they heard these words from Joseph, 
became as dead, and fell to the ground, and fasted until the 
ninth hour. And Nicodemus, along with Joseph, exhorted 
Annas and Caiaphas, the priests and the Levites, saying: Rise 
up and stand upon your feet, and taste bread, and strengthen 
your souls, because to-morrow is the Sabbath of the Lord. And 
they rose up, and prayed to God, and ate and drank, and de- 
parted every man to his own house. 

And on the Sabbath our teachers and the priests and Levites 
sat questioning each other, and saying: What is this wrath 
that has come upon us? for we know his father and mother. 
Levi, a teacher, says: I know that his parents fear God, and do 
not withdraw themselves from the prayers, and give the tithes 
thrice a year.” And when Jesus was born, his parents brought 
him to this place, and gave sacrifices and burnt-offerings to God. 

1 Or, and he spoke to me. 


* This would seem to confirm the opinion that there were three tithes paid in 
the year. Vid. Smith's Dict. sub voce, 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 145 


And when the great teacher Symeon took him into his arms, 


‘he said, Now Thou sendest away Thy servant, Lord, according 


to Thy word, in peace ; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, 
which Thou hast prepared before the face of all the peoples: a 
light for the revelation of the Gentiles, and the glory of Thy 
people Israel. And Symeon blessed them, and said to Mary 
his mother, I give thee good news about this child. And Mary 
said, It is well, my lord. And Symeon said to her, It is well; 
behold, he lies for the fall and rising again of many in Israel, 
and for a sign spoken against; and of thee thyself a sword 
shall go through the soul, in order that the reasoning of many 
hearts may be revealed." 

They say to the teacher Levi: How knowest thou these 
things ? Levi says to them: Do you not know that from him I 
learned the law? ‘The Sanhedrim say to him: We wish to see 
thy father. And they sent for his father. And they asked 
him; and he said to them: Why have you not believed my 
son? The blessed and just Symeon himself taught him the 
law. The Sanhedrim says to Rabbi Levi: Is the word that you 
have said true? And he said: It is true. And the rulers of 
the synagogue, and the priests and the Levites, said to them- 
selves: Come, let us send into Galilee to the three men that 
came and told about his teaching and his taking up, and let them 
tell us how they saw him taken up. And this saying pleased 
all. And they sent away the three men who had already gone 
away into Galilee with them; and they say to them: Say to 
Rabbi Adas, and Rabbi Phinees, and Rabbi Haggai: Peace to 
you, and all who are with you! A great inquiry having taken 
place in the Sanhedrim, we have been sent to you to call you to 
this holy place, Jerusalem. 

And the men set out into Galilee, and found them sitting 
and considering the law; and they saluted them in peace. And 
the men who were in Galilee said to those who had come to 
them: Peace upon all Israel! And they said: Peace to you! 
And they again said to them: Why have you come? And 
those who had been sent said: The Sanhedrim call you to the 
holy city Jerusalem. And when the men heard that they were 
sought by the Sanhedrim, they prayed to God, and reclined 

* Luke ii. 25-35. 
K 


146 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


with the men, and ate and drank, and rose up, and set out in 
peace to Jerusalem. 

And on the following day the Sanhedrim sat in the syna- 
gogue, and asked them, saying: Did you really see Jesus sit- 
ting on the mountain Mamilch teaching his eleven disciples, 
and did you see him taken up? And the men answered them, 
and said: As we saw him taken up, so also we said. 

Annas says: Take them away from one another, and let us 
see whether their account agrees. And they took them away 
from one another. And first they call Adas, and say to him: 
How didst thou see Jesus taken up? Adas says: While he 
was yet sitting on the mountain Mamilch, and teaching his 
disciples, we saw a cloud overshadowing both him and his 
disciples. And the cloud took him up into heaven, and his 
disciples lay upon their face upon the earth. And they call 
Phinees the priest, and ask him also, saying: How didst thou 
see Jesus taken up? And he spoke in like manner. And 
they again asked Haggai, and he spoke in like manner. And 
the Sanhedrim said: The law of Moses holds: At the mouth 
of two or three every word shall be established." Buthem, a 
teacher, says: It is written in the law, And Enoch walked with 
God, and is not, because God took him.? Jairus, a teacher, 
said: And the death of holy Moses we have heard of, and have 
not seen it; for it is written in the law of the Lord, And 
Moses died from the mouth of the Lord, and no man knoweth 
of his sepulchre unto this day.2 And Rabbi Levi said: Why 
did Rabbi Symeon say, when he saw Jesus, “ Behold, he les 
for the fall and rising again of many in Israel, and for a sign ~ 
spoken against ?”* And Rabbi Isaac said: It is written in the 
law, Behold, I send my messenger before thy face, who shall go 
before thee to keep thee in every good way, because my name ~ 
has been called upon him.° 

Then Annas and Caiaphas said: Rightly have you said what — 
is written in the law of Moses, that no one saw the death of © 
Enoch, and no one has named the death of Moses; but Jesus 
was tried before Pilate, and we saw him receiving blows and 
spittings on his face, and the soldiers put about him a crown 


1 Deut. xvii. 6. 2 Gen. v. 24; Heb. xi. 5. 3 Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6. . 
4 Luke ii. 34. 5 Ex. xxiii. 20, 21; Mal. iii. 1; Matt. xi. 10. 


i 
| 71 Kings viii. 56-58. 8 Zech. xiv. 9. 


; 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 147 


of thorns, and he was scourged, and received sentence from 
Pilate, and was crucified upon the Cranium, and two robbers 
with him; and they gave him to drink vinegar with gall, and 
Longinus the soldier pierced his side with a spear; and Joseph 
our honourable father begged his body, and, as he says, he is 
risen; and as the three teachers say, We saw him taken up 
into heaven; and Rabbi Levi has given evidence of what was 
said by Rabbi Symeon, and that he said, Behold, he les for 
the fall [and] rising again of many in Israel, and for a sign 
spoken against. And all the teachers said to all the people of 
the Lord: If this was from the Lord, and is wonderful in your 
eyes, knowing you shall know, Ὁ house of Jacob, that it is 
written, Cursed is every one that hangeth upon a tree.? And 
another scripture teaches: The gods which have not made the 
heaven and the earth shall be destroyed. And the priests and 
the Levites said to each other: If his memorial be until the 
[year] that is called Jobel,* know that it shall endure for ever, 
and he hath raised for himself a new people. Then the rulers 
of the synagogue, and the priests and the Levites, announced to 
all Israel, saying: Cursed is that man who shall worship the 
work of man’s hand, and cursed is the man who shall worship 
the creatures more than the Creator. And all the people said, 
Amen, amen.’ 

And all the people praised® the Lord, and said: Blessed is 
the Lord, who hath given rest to His people Israel, according to 
all that He hath spoken; there hath not fallen one word of 
every good word of His that He spoke to Moses His servant. 
May the Lord our God be with us, as He was with our fathers : 
let Him not destroy us. And let Him not destroy us, that we 
may incline our hearts to Him, that we may walk in all His 
ways, that we may keep His commandments and His judg- 
ments which He commanded to our fathers.” And the Lord 
shall be for a king over all the earth in that day; and there 
shall be one Lord, and His name one.* The Lord is our king: 


1 Ps, cxviii. 23. * Deut. xxi. 23; Gal. iii. 13. ® ὅδ se bl, 

*i.e. the year of jubilee. The original, ἕως τοῦ σώμμου, is not Greek. It is 
not easy to see what the passage means. It may refer to Isa. lxi. 1-3. 

5 Deut. xxvii. 15; Rom. i. 25. 6 Or, sang hymns to. 


148 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


He shall save us.t. There is none like Thee, O Lord? Great 
art Thou, O Lord, and great is Thy name. By Thy power heal 
us, O Lord, and we shall be healed: save us, O Lord, and we 
shall be saved;* because we are Thy lot and heritage. And 
the Lord will not leave His people, for His great name’s sake ; 
for the Lord has begun to make us into His people.* 

And all, having sung praises, went away each man to his 
own house, glorifying God; for His is the glory for ever and 
ever. Amen. 


1Tsa. xxxili. 22. 2 Ps. Ixxxvi. 8. 
3 Cf, Jer. xvii. 14. 4 Cf. 1 Sam. xii. 22, 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 
PART I—ACTS OF PILATE. 


SECOND GREEK FORM. 


Rey NARRATIVE about the suffering of our Lord Jesus 
€4| Christ, and His holy resurrection. 

Written by a Jew, A‘neas by name, and trans- 
lated out of the Hebrew tongue into the Romaic 
language by Nicodemus, a Roman toparch. 

After the dissolution of the kingdom of the Hebrews, four 
hundred years having run their course, and the Hebrews also 
coming at last under the kingdom of the Romans, and the 
king of the Romans appointing them a king; when Tiberius 
Ceesar at last swayed the Roman sceptre, in the eighteenth 
year of his reign, he appointed as king in Judea, Herod, the 
son of the Herod who had formerly slaughtered the infants in 
Bethlehem, and he made Pilate procurator in Jerusalem; when 
Annas and Caiaphas held the high-priesthood of Jerusalem, 
Nicodemus, a Roman toparch, having summoned a Jew, Atneas 
by name, asked him to write an account of the things done in 
Jerusalem about Christ in the times of Annas and Caiaphas. 
The Jew accordingly did this, and delivered it to Nicodemus; 
and he, again, translated it from the Hebrew writing into the 
Romaic language. And the account is as follows :— 


CuAp. 1—Our Lord Jesus Christ having wrought in Judea 
many and great and extraordinary miracles, and on account of 
this being hated by the Hebrews, while Pilate was procurator 
in Jerusalem, and Annas and Caiaphas high priesis, there came 

149 


150 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


of the Jews to the chief priests, Judas, Levi, Nephthalim, Alex- 
ander, Syrus, and many others, speaking against Christ. And 
these chief priests sent them away to say these things to Pilate 
also. And they went away, and said to him: A man walks 
about in this city whose father is called Joseph, and his mother 
Mary; and he calls himself king and Son of God; and being a 
Jew, he overturns the Scriptures, and does away with the Sab- 
bath. Pilate then asked, in order to learn from them in what 
manner he did away with the Sabbath. And they answered, 
saying: He cures the sick on the Sabbath. Pilate says: If he 
makes the sick whole, he does no evil. They say to him: If 
he effected the cures properly, small would be the evil; but by 
using magic he does these things, and by having the demons 
on his side. Pilate says: To cure a person that is ill is not a 
diabolic work, but a grace from God. 

The Hebrews said: We beseech your highness to summon 
him, in order that thou mayst make accurate inquiry into 
what we say. Pilate therefore, throwing off his cloak, gave it 
to one of his officers," saying: Go away, and show this to Jesus, 
and say to him, Pilate the procurator calls thee to come before 
him. The officer accordingly went away, and finding Jesus, 
summoned Him, having unfolded on the ground also Pilate’s 
mantle, and urged Him to walk upon it. And the Hebrews, 
seeing this, and being greatly enraged, came to Pilate, murmur- 
ing against him, how he had deemed Jesus worthy of so great 
honour. 

And he, having inquired of the officer who had been sent 
how he had done so, the officer answered: When thou didst 
send me to the Jew Alexander, | came upon Jesus entering 
the gate of the city, sitting upon an ass. And I saw that the 
Hebrews spread their garments in the way, and the ass walked 
upon the garments; and others cut branches, and they went 
forth to meet him, and cried out, Hosanna in the highest! 
Thus, therefore, it was necessary for me also to do. 

The Jews, hearing these words, said to him: How didst thou, 
being a Roman, know what was said by the Hebrews? The 
officer answered: I asked one of the Hebrews, and he told me 
these things. Pilate said: What means Hosanna? The Jews 

? One Ms. inserts: by name Rachaab, the messenger. 


a Mian! 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 151 


said: Save us, O Lord. Pilate answered: Since you confess 
that your children said so, how now do you bring charges, and 
say against Jesus what you do say? The Jews were silent, 
and had nothing to answer." 

Now, as Jesus was coming to Pilate, the soldiers of Pilate 
adored Him. And others also were standing before Pilate 
holding standards. And as Jesus was coming, the standards 
also bowed down, and adored Him. As Pilate, therefore, was 
wondering at what had happened, the Jews said to him: My 
lord, it was not the standards that adored Jesus, but the 
soldiers who were holding them carelessly. 

Pilate says to the ruler of the synagogue: Choose twelve 
powerful men, and give them the standards, so that they may 
hold them firmly. And this having taken place, Pilate ordered 
the officer to take Jesus outside, and bring Him in again. And 
as He was coming in, the standards again bowed down, and 
adored Him. Pilate therefore wondered greatly. But the 
Jews said: He is a magician, and through that he does these 
things. | 


Cuap. 2.—Pilate says to Jesus: Hearest thou what these 
testify against thee, and answerest thou not?? And Jesus 
answered and said: Every man has power to speak either good 
or bad, as he wishes; these also, therefore, having power, say 
what they wish.’ 

The Jews said to Him: What have we to say about thee? 
First, that thou wast begotten from sin; second, that on ac- 
count of thee, when thou wast born, the infants* were mur- 


1 Instead of these four sections, ms. C has a minute account of the suicide of 
Judas, of which the following specimen may be given :—And he went home to 
make a halter to hang himself, and he found his wife roasting a cock on the 
coals. And he says to her: Rise, wife, and get a rope ready for me; for I mean 
to hang myself, as I deserve. And his wife said to him: Why do you speak 
like that? And Judas says: Know in truth that I unjustly betrayed my 
Master, etc., and that he is going to rise on the third day ; and woe to us! 
And his wife says: Do not speak or think in that way. It is just as likely as 
that this cock roasting on the coals will crow, that Jesus will rise, as you say. 
No sooner said than the cock flapped his wings, and crew thrice. This decided 
Judas, and he immediately made the halter, and hanged himself. 

? Matt. xxvii. 13, 14. 3 Cf. John xix. 11. 

4 us. A, 14,000 infants ; B, 44,000 infants. 


152 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


dered ; third, that thy father and thy mother fled into Egypt, 
because they had no confidence in the people. 

To these the Jews who were there present, God-fearing men, 
answered and said: We say that his birth is not from sin; 
for we know that Joseph received into keeping his mother 
Mary, according to the practice of betrothal. Pilate said: 
Consequently you lie who say that his birth is from sin. 
They say again to Pilate: All the people testify that he is a 
magician, The God-fearing Jews answered and said: We also 
were at the betrothal of his mother, and we are Jews, and 
know all his daily life; but that he is a magician, that we do 
not know. And the Jews that thus said were these: Lazarus, 
Astharius, Antonius, James, Zaras, Samuel, Isaac, Phinees, 
Crispus, Dagrippus, Amese, and Judas. 

Pilate therefore says to them: By the life of Cesar, I wish 
you to swear whether the birth of this man is without sin. 
They answered: Our law lays down that we are to swear not 
at all, because an oath is great sin. Notwithstanding, by the 
life of Ceesar we swear that his birth is without sin; and if we 
lie, order us all to be beheaded. And when they had thus 
spoken, the Jews that were bringing the charge answered Pilate, 
and said: And dost thou believe these twelve single Jews more 
than all the multitude and us, who know for certain that he is 
a magician and blasphemer, and that he names himself Son of 
God ? 

Then Pilate ordered them all to go forth out of the preetorium 
except the said twelve alone. And when this had been done, 
Pilate says to them privately: As to this man, it appears that 
from envy and madness the Jews wish to murder him: for of 
one thing—that he does away with the Sabbath—they accuse 
him; but he then does a good work, because he cures the sick. 
For this, sentence of death is not upon the man. The twelve 
also say to him: Assuredly, my lord, it is so. 


CHAP. 3.—Pilate therefore went outside in rage and anger, and 
says to Annas and Caiaphas, and to the crowd who brought 
Jesus: I take the sun to witness that I find no fault in this 
man. The crowd answered: If he were not a sorcerer, and a 
magician, and a blasphemer, we should not have brought him 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 153 


to your highness. Pilate said: Try him yourselves; and since 
you have a law, do as your law says. The Jews said: Our law 
permits to put no man to death.’ Pilate says: If you are 
unwilling to put him to death, how much more am 1! 

Then Pilate returned to the palace, and says to Jesus: Tell 
me, art thou the king of the Jews? Jesus answered: Dost 
thou say this, or have the other Jews said this tu thee, that 
thou mightst question me? Pilate said: Thou dost not think 
that Iam a Hebrew? I am not a Hebrew. Thy people and 
the chief priests have delivered thee into my hands; and tell 
me if thou art king of the Jews? Jesus answered: My king- 
dom is not of this world; for if my kingdom were in this 
world, my soldiers would not be unconcerned at my being 
seized: wherefore my kingdom is not in this world. Pilate 
says: But art thoua king? Jesus said: Thou hast said: for 
this was I born, to bear witness to the truth; and if any one 
be a man of the truth, he believes my word, and does it. Pilate 
says: What is the truth ??_ Jesus answered: The truth is from 
the heavens. Pilate says: On earth, then, is there no truth ? 
Christ says: I am the truth; and how is the truth judged on 
earth by those that have earthly power! 


Cap. 4.—Pilate therefore, leaving Christ alone, went out- 
side, and says to the Jews: I find no fault inthis man. The 
Jews answered: Let us tell your highness what he said. He 
said, I am able to destroy the temple of God, and in three 
days to build it. Pilate says: And what temple did he say 
that he was to destroy? The Hebrews say: The temple of 
Solomon, which Solomon built in forty-six years.® 

Pilate says privately to the chief priests and the scribes and 
the Pharisees: I entreat you, do nothing evil against this man; 
for if you do evil against him, you will do unjustly: for it is 
not just that such a man should die, who has done great good 
to many men. They said to Pilate: If, my lord, he who has 
dishonoured Czesar is worthy of death, how much more this 
[man] who dishonours God! 

Then Pilate dismissed them, and they all went outside. 
Thereupon he says to Jesus: What dost thou wish that I 

1 John xix. 6, 7. 2 John xviii. 33-38. ° Cf. John ii. 20, 


154 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


shall do to thee? Jesus says to Pilate: Do to me as is deter- 
mined. Pilate says: How is it determined? Jesus answered : 
Moses and the prophets wrote about me being crucified, and 
rising again. The Hebrews, hearing [this], said to Pilate: Why 
do you seek to hear a greater insult out of him against God ? 
Pilate says: These words are not an ‘insult against God, since 
they are written in the books of the prophets. The Hebrews 
said: Our Scripture says, If a man offend against a man, that 
is to say, if he insult him, he is worthy to receive forty strokes 
with a rod; but if any one insult God, to be stoned.* - 

Then came a messenger from Procle, the wife of Pilate, to 
him ; and the message said: Take care that thou do not agree 
that any evil should happen to Jesus the good man; because 
during this night I have seen fearful dreams on account of 
him.” And Pilate spoke to the Hebrews, saying: If you hold 
as insult against God the words which you declare Jesus to 
have spoken, take and judge him yourselves according to your 
law.’ The Jews said to Pilate: We wish that you should 
crucify him. Pilate says: This is not good. 

And Pilate, turning towards the people, saw many weeping, 
and said: To me it seems that it is not the wish of all the 
people that this man should die. The priests and the scribes 
say: We on this account have brought all the people, that thou 
mightst have full conviction that all wish his death. Pilate 
says: For what evil hath he done? The Hebrews said: He 
says that he is a king, and the Son of God. 


Cuap. 5.—A God-fearing Jew, therefore, Nicodemus by 
name, stood up in the midst, and said to Pilate: I entreat 
your highness to permit me to say a few words. Say on, said 
Pilate. Nicodemus says: I, being present in the synagogue, 
said to the priests, and the Levites, and the scribes, and the 
people, What have you to say against this man? This man 
does many miracles, such as man has never yet done nor will 
do. Let him go, therefore; and if indeed what he does be 
from God, it will stand; but if from man, it will be destroyed.‘ 
Just as happened also when God sent Moses into Egypt, and 


1 Deut. xxv. 3; Ley. xxiv. 16. 2 Matt. xxvii. 19. 
8 John xviii, 31. 4Cf. Acts νυ. 38. 


ξ 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 155 


Pharaoh king of Egypt told him to do a miracle, and he did it. 
Then Pharaoh had also two magicians, Jannes and Jambres ; 
and they also did miracles by the use of magic art, but not 
such as Moses did. And the Egyptians held these magicians 
to be gods; but because they were not from God, what they 
did was destroyed. This Jesus, then, raised up Lazarus, and 
he is alive. On this account I entreat thee, my lord, by no 
means to allow this man to be put to death. 

The Hebrews were enraged against Nicodemus, and said: 
Mayst thou receive the truth of Jesus, and have a portion with 
him. Nicodemus says: Amen, amen; be it to me as you say. 


Cuar. 6.—And when Nicodemus had thus spoken, another 
Hebrew rose up, and said to Pilate: I beg of thee, my lord 
Pilate, hear me also. Pilate answered: Say what thou wishest. 
The Hebrew says: I lay sick in bed thirty-eight years; and 
when he saw me he was grieved, and said to me, Rise, take 
up thy couch, and go into thine house. And while he was 
saying the word to me, I rose and walked about. The 
Hebrews say: Ask him on what day of the week this hap- 
pened. He says: On Sabbath.2 The Jews said: And con- 
sequently we say truly, that he does not keep the Sabbath. 

Another, again, standing in the midst, said: I was born 
blind; and as Jesus was going along the road; I cried to him, 
saying, Have mercy upon me, Lord, thou son of David. And 
he took clay, and anointed mine eyes; and straightway I re- 
ceived my sight. Another said: I was crooked; and seeing 
him, I cried, Have mercy upon me, O Lord. And he took 
me by the hand, and I was immediately raised.* Another 
said: I was a leper, and he healed me merely by a word.* 


Cuap. 7.—There was found there also a woman named 


- Veronica, and she said: Twelve years I was in an issue of 


blood, and I only touched the edge of his garment, and 
directly I was cured.6 The Jews say: Our law does not 
admit the testimony of a woman.’ 


2 Ex. vii. 10-14. 2 John v. 5-9. 3 John ix. 6, 7. 
4 Cf. Acts iii. 7. 5 Luke xvii. 11-19. 6 Matt. ix. 20-22. 
7 See note, p. 134. 


156 TITE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Cuap. 8.—Other men cried: This man is a prophet, and the 
demons are afraid of him. Pilate says: And how were the 
demons not at all thus afraid of your parents also? They say: 
We donot know. Others, again, said: Lazarus, after having 
been four days in the tomb, he raised by a single word.’ 
Pilate therefore, hearing of the raising of Lazarus, was afraid, 
and said to the people: Why do you wish to shed the blood 
of a just man ? 


Cuap. 9.—Then he summoned Nicodemus and the twelve 
God-fearing Jews, and said to them: What do you say that I 
should do ? because the people are in commotion. They say: 
We do not know: do as thou wilt; but what the people do, 
they do unjustly, in order to kill him. Pilate again went out- 
side, and said to the people: You know that in the feasts of un- 
leavened bread it is customary that I free on your account one 
of the criminals kept in custody. I have, then, one malefactor 
in the prison, a robber named Barabbas. 1 have also Jesus, 
who has never done any evil. Which of the two, then, do you 
wish that I release to you? The people answered: Release to 
us Barabbas. Pilate says: What then shall I do with Jesus ? 
They say: Let him be crucified.” Again, others of them cried 
out: If thou release Jesus, thou art no friend of Czesar,’ be- 
cause he calls himself Son of God, and king. And if thou free 
him, he becomes a king, and will take Czesar’s kingdom. 

Pilate therefore was enraged, and said: Always has your 
nation been devilish* and unbelieving; and ever have you 
been adversaries to your benefactors. The Hebrews say: And 
who were our benefactors? Pilate says: God, who freed you 
out of the hand of Pharaoh, and brought you through the Red 
Sea as upon dry land, and fed you with quails, and gave you 
water to drink out of the dry rock, and who gave you a law, 
which, denying God, you broke; and if Moses had not stood 
and entreated God, you would have perished by a bitter death. 
All these, then, you have forgotten. Thus also, even now, you 
say that I do not at all love Cesar, but hate him, and wish to 
plot against his kingdom. 

1 John xi. 48. 2 Matt. xxvii. 15-18, 21-23. 
8 John xix. 12, * Or, slanderous. 


᾿ 
; 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 157 


And having thus spoken, Pilate rose up from the throne with 
anger, wishing to flee from them. The Jews therefore cried 
out, saying: We wish Cesar to be king over us, not Jesus, be- 
cause Jesus received gifts’ from the magi. And Herod also 
heard this—that there was going to be a king—and wished to 
put him to death, and for this purpose sent and put to death 
all the infants that were in Bethlehem. And on this account 
also his father Joseph and his mother fled from fear of him 
into Egypt.’ 

So then Pilate, hearing [this], silenced all the people, and said : 
This, then, is the Jesus whom Herod then sought that he might 
put him to death? They say to him: Yes. Pilate therefore, 
having ascertained that he was of the jurisdiction of Herod, as 
being derived of the race of the Jews, sent Jesus to him. And 
Herod, seeing Him, rejoiced greatly, because he had been long 
desiring to see Him, hearing of the miracles which He did. He 
put on Him, therefore, white garments. Then he began to ques- 
tion Him. But Jesus did not give him an answer. And Herod, 
wishing to see also some miracle or other done by Jesus, and 
not seeing it, and also because He did not answer him a single 
word, sent Him back again to Pilate.’ Pilate, seeing this, 
ordered his officers to bring water. Washing, then, his hands 
with the water, he said to the people: I am innocent of the 
blood of this good man. See you to it, that he is unjustly put 
to death, since neither I have found a tault in him, nor Herod ; 
for because of this he has sent him back again to me. The 
Jews said: His blood be upon us, and upon our children.* 

Then Pilate sat down upon his throne to pass sentence. He 
gave order, therefore, and Jesus came before him. And they 
brought a crown of thorns, and put it on His head, and a reed 
into His right hand.’ Then he passed sentence, and said to 
Him: Thy nation says, and testifies against thee, that thou 
wishest to be aking. Therefore I decree that they shall beat 
thee first with a rod forty strokes, as the laws of the kings 


‘The word here, χάρισμα, is used in the New Testament only of gifts and 
graces bestowed by God, and specially of the miraculous gifts imparted to the 
early Christians by the Holy Ghost. The word in Matt. ii. 11 is δῶρα, 

2 Matt. ii. 14-16. 3 Luke xxiii. 6-11. 

4 Matt. xxvii. 25. δ᾽ John xix. 2, 3; Matt. xxvii. 29. 


158 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


decree, and that they shall mock thee; and finally, that they 
shall crucify thee. 


Cup. 10.—The sentence to this effect, then, having been 
passed by Pilate, the Jews began to strike Jesus, some with 
rods, others with [their] hands, others with [their] feet; some 
also spat in His face. Immediately, therefore, they got ready 
the cross, and gave it to Him, and flew to take the road. And 
thus going along, bearing also the cross, He came as far as the 
gate of the city of Jerusalem. But as He, from the many 
blows and the weight of the cross, was unable to walk, the 
Jews, out of the eager desire they had to crucify Him as 
quickly as possible, took the cross from Him, and gave it to a 
man that met them, Simon by name, who had also two sons, 
Alexander and Rufus. And he was from the city of Cyrene.’ 
They gave the cross, then, to him, not because they pitied 
Jesus, and wished to lighten Him of the weight, but because 
they eagerly desired, as has been said, to put Him to death 
more speedily. | 

Of His disciples, therefore, John followed Him there. Then 
he came fleeing to the mother of God,’ and said to her: Where 
hast thou been, that thou hast not come to see what has hap- 
pened? She answered: What is it that has happened? John 
says: Know that the Jews have laid hold of my Master, and 
are taking Him away to crucify Him. MHearing this, His 
mother cried out with a loud voice, saying: My son, my son, 
what evil then hast thou done, that* they are taking thee away 
to crucify thee? And she rose up as if blinded,* and goes 
along the road weeping. And women followed her—Martha, 
and Mary Magdalene, and Salome, and other virgins. And 
John also was with her. When, therefore, they came to the 
multitude of the crowd, the mother of God says to John: 
Where is my son? John says: Seest thou Him bearing the 

1 Mark xv. 21. 

2 @soroxos—a word used several times by Athanasius (died 373), e.g. in Orat. 
ili. Contra Arianos, ο. 14 and 29. The refusal of Nestorius to give this epithet to 
Mary was the commencement, in 428, of the long struggle between the rival sees 
of Constantinople and Alexandria. See Haag, Histoire des Dogmes Chrétiens, 


i, 190. The paragraphs about the Θεοσόκος in this chapter are interpolations, 
8 Lit., and, k 4 Lit., darkened. 


} 
, 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 159 


erown of thorns, and having His hands bound? And the 
mother of God, hearing this, and seeing Him, fainted, and fell 
backwards to the ground, and lay a considerable time. And 
the women, as many as followed her, stood round her, and 
wept. And as soon as she revived and rose up, she cried out 
with a loud voice: My Lord, my son, where has the beauty of 
thy form sunk? how shall I endure to see thee suffering such 
things? And thus saying, she tore her face with her nails, and 
beat her breast. Where are they gone, said she, the good deeds 
which thou didst in Judea? What evil hast thou done to the 
Jews? The Jews, then, seeing her thus lamenting and crying, 
came and drove her from the road; but she would not flee, but 
remained, saying: Kill me first, ye lawless Jews. 

Then they got safe to the place called Cranium, which was 
paved with stone ;* and there the Jews set up the cross. Then 
they stripped Jesus, and the soldiers took His garments, and 
divided them among themselves; and they put on Him a 
tattered robe of scarlet, and raised Him, and drew Him up on 
the cross at the sixth hour of the day. After this they brought 
also two robbers, the one on His right, the other on His left. 

Then the mother of God, standing and looking, cried out 
with a loud voice, saying: My son! my son! And Jesus, turn- 
ing to her, and seeing John near her, and weeping with the 
rest of the women, said: Behold thy son! Then He says also 
to John: Behold thy mother !? And she wept much, saying: 
For this I weep, my son, because thou sufferest unjustly, be- 
cause the lawless Jews have delivered thee to a bitter death. 
Without thee, my son, what will become of me? How shall I 
live without thee? What sort of life shall I spend? Where 
are thy disciples, who boasted that they would die with thee ? 
Where those healed by thee? How has no one been found to 
help thee? And looking to the cross, she said: Bend down, 
O cross, that I may embrace and kiss my son, whom I suckled 
at these breasts after a strange manner, as not having known 
man. Bend down, O cross; I wish to throw my arms round my 
son. Bend down, O cross, that I may bid farewell to my son 
like a mother. The Jews, hearing these words, came forward, 
and drove to a distance both her and the women and John. 

ΤΑ mistaken reference to John xix. 13. 2 John xix. 26, 27. 


160 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Then Jesus cried out with a loud voice, saying: Father, let 
not this sin stand against them; for they know not what they 
dot Then He says: I thirst. And immediately there ran one 
of the soldiers, and took a sponge, and filled it with gall and 
vinegar mixed, and put it on a reed, and gave Jesus to drink. 
And having tasted it, He would not drink it.2 And the Jews 
standing and looking on laughed at Him, and said: If thou 
truly sayst that thou art the Son of God, come down from the 
cross, and immediately, that we may believe in thee. Others 
said, mocking: Others he saved, others he cured, and he healed 
the sick, the paralytic, the lepers, the demoniacs, the blind, the 
lame, the dead; and himself he cannot cure.* 

In the same manner also, the robber crucified on His left 
hand said to Him: If thou art the Son of God, come down and 
save both thyself and us. His name was Gistas. And he that 
was crucified on the right, Dysmas by name, reproved that 
robber, saying: O wretched and miserable man, dost thou not 
fear God? We suffer the due punishment of what we have 
done; but this man has done no evil at all. And turning to 
Jesus, he says to Him: Lord, when Thou shalt reign, do not 
forget me. And He said to him: To-day, I tell thee truth, I 
shall have thee in paradise with me.* 


CHAP. 11.—Then Jesus, crying out with a loud voice, Father, 
into Thy hands I shall commit my spirit, breathed His last.’ 
And immediately one could see the rocks rent: for there was 
an earthquake over all the earth; and from the earthquake 
being violent and great, the rocks also were rent. And the 
tombs of the dead were opened, and the curtain of the temple 
was rent, and there was darkness from the sixth hour till the 
ninth. And from all these things that had happened the Jews 
were afraid, and said: Certainly this was a just man. And 
Longinus, the centurion who stood by, said: Truly this was a 
son of God. Others coming and seeing Him, beat their breasts 
from fear, and again turned back.® 


1 Luke xxiii. 34; cf. Acts vii. 60. 2 John xix. 28; Matt. xxvii. 48. 

3 Cf. Matt. xxvii. 40-42. 

4 Luke xxiii. 39-43. MS. C here inserts the early history of the robber Dysmas. 
5 Luke xxiii. 46, ὃ Cf. Luke xxiii. 44-49, 


re 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 161 


And the centurion having perceived all these so great 
miracles, went away and reported them to Pilate. And when 
he heard, he wondered and was astonished, and from his fear 
and grief would neither eat nor drink that day. And he sent 
notice, and all the Sanhedrim came to him as soon as the dark- 
ness was past; and he said to the people: You know how the 
sun has been darkened; you know how the curtain has been 
rent. Certainly I did well in being by no means willing to 
put to death the good man. And the malefactors said to 
Pilate: This darkness is an eclipse of the sun, such as has hap- 
pened also at other times. Then they say to him: We hold 
the feast of unleavened bread to-morrow; and we entreat thee, 
since the crucified are still breathing, that their bones be 
broken, and that they be brought down. Pilate said: It shall 
be so. He therefore sent soldiers, and they found the two 
robbers yet breathing, and they broke their legs; but finding 
Jesus dead, they did not touch Him at all, except that a soldier 
speared Him in the right side, and immediately there came 
forth blood and water." 

And as the [day of the] preparation was annie towards 
evening, Joseph, a man well-born and rich, a God- fearing Jew, 
finding Nicodemus, whose sentiments his foregoing speech 
had shown, says to him: I know that thou didst love Jesus 
when living, and didst gladly hear his words, and I saw thee 
fighting with the Jews on his account. If, then, it seem good 
to thee, let us go to Pilate, and beg the body of Jesus for burial, 
because it is a great sin for him to he unburied. I am afraid, 
said Nicodemus, lest Pilate should be enraged, and some evil 
should befall me. But if thou wilt go alone, and beg the dead, 
and take him, then will I also go with thee, and help thee to 
do everything necessary for the burial. Nicodemus having thus 
spoken, Joseph directed his eyes to heaven, and prayed that he 
might not fail in his request; and he went away to Pilate, and 
having saluted him, sat down. Then he says to him: I entreat 
thee, my lord, not to be angry with me, if I shall ask anything 
contrary to what seems good to your highness. And he said: 
_ And what is it that thou askest? Joseph says: Jesus, the 
_ good man whom through hatred the Jews have taken away to 


1 John xix. 31-34, 
L 


162 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


crucify, him I entreat that thou give me for burial. Pilate 
says: And what has happened, that we should deliver to be 
honoured again the dead body of him against whom evidence 
of sorcery was brought by his nation, and who was in suspi- 
cion of taking the kingdom of Cesar, and so was given up by 
us to death? And Joseph, weeping and in great grief, fell at 
the feet of Pilate, saying: My lord, let no hatred fall upon a 
dead man; for all the evil that a man has done should perish 
with him in his death. And I know your highness, how eager 
thou wast that Jesus should not be crucified, and how much 
thou saidst to the Jews on his behalf, now in entreaty and 
again in anger, and at last how thou didst wash thy hands, 
and declare that thou wouldst by no means take part with 
those who wished him to be put to death; for all which [rea- 
sons| I entreat thee not to refuse my request. Pilate, there- 
fore, seeing Joseph thus lying, and supplicating, and weeping, 
raised him up, and said: Go, I grant thee this dead man; take 
him, and do whatever thou wilt. 

And then Joseph, having thanked Pilate, and kissed his hands 
and his garments, went forth, rejoicing indeed in heart as having 
obtained his desire, but carrying tears in his eyes. Thus also, 
though grieved, he was glad. Accordingly he goes away to 
Nicodemus, and discloses to him all that had happened, Then, 
having bought myrrh and aloes a hundred pounds, and a new 
tomb,’ they, along with the mother of God and Mary Magda- 
lene and Salome, along with John, and the rest of the women, 
did what was customary for the body with white linen, and 
placed it in the tomb.’ 

And the mother of God said, weeping: How am I not to 
lament thee, my son? How should I not tear my face with my 
nails ? This is that, my son, which Symeon the elder foretold 
to me when I brought thee, an infant of forty days old, into — 
the temple. This is the sword which now goes through my 
soul.” Who shall put a stop to my tears, my sweetest son? — 
No one at all except thyself alone, if, as thou saidst, thou shalt 
rise again in three days. 

Mary Magdalene said, weeping: Hear, O peoples, tribes, and 
tongues, and learn to what death the lawless Jews have de- 

1 Cf. Matt. xxvii. 60. 2 John xix, 38-42. 83 Luke ii. 35. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 165 


livered him who did them ten thousand good deeds. Hear, and 
be astonished. Who will let these things be heard by all the 
world? I shall go alone to Rome, to the Cesar. I shall show 
him what evil Pilate hath done in obeying the lawless Jews. 
Likewise also Joseph lamented, saying: Ah, me! sweetest 
Jesus, most excellent of men, if indeed it be proper to call thee 
man, who hast wrought such miracles as no man has ever done. 
How shall I enshroud thee? How shall I entomb thee ? 
There should now have been here those whom thou fedst with 
a few loaves ; for thus should I not have seemed to fail in what 
is due. 

Then Joseph, along with Nicodemus, went home; and lke- 
wise also the mother of God, with the women, John’ also being 
present with them. 


CuAP. 12—When the Jews were made acquainted with these 
things done by Joseph and Nicodemus, they were greatly stirred 
up against them. And the chief priests Annas and Caiaphas 
sent for Joseph, and said: Why hast thou done this service to 
Jesus? Joseph says: I know that Jesus was a man just, and 
true, and good in all respects; and J know also that you, 
through hatred, managed to murder him: and therefore I buried 
him. Then the high priests were enraged, and laid hold of 
Joseph, and threw him into prison, and said to him: If we 
had not to-morrow the feast of unleavened bread, to-morrow 
also should we have put thee, like him, to death; but beine 
kept in the meantime, early in the morning of the Lord’s day? 
thou shalt be given up to death. Thus they spoke, and affixed 
their seal to the prison, having secured it by fastenings of all 
sorts. ; 

Thus, therefore, when the preparation was ended, early on 
the Sabbath the Jews went away to Pilate, and said to him: 
My lord, that deceiver said, that after three days he should rise 
again. Lest, therefore, his disciples should steal him by night, 
and lead the people astray by such deceit, order his tomb to be 
euarded. Pilate therefore, upon this, gave them five hundred 


1 ΤΆ is to be observed that John’s Gospel is much more frequently quoted in 
this book than any of the others. 
2 Observe the anachronism. 


164 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


soldiers, who also sat round the sepulchre so as to guard it, 
after having put seals upon the stone of the tomb.’ 

The Lord’s day, then, having dawned, the chief priests, along 
with the Jews, called a council, and sent to take Joseph out of 
the prison, in order to put him to death. But having opened 
it, they found him not. And they were astonished at this—how, 
with the doors shut, and the bolts safe, and the seals unbroken, 
Joseph had disappeared. 


Crap. 13.—And upon this there came up one of the soldiers 
cuarding the tomb, and he said in the synagogue: Learn that 
Jesus has risen. The Jews say: How? And he said: First 
there was an earthquake; then an angel of the Lord, clothed 
with lightning, came from heaven, and rolled the stone from the 
tomb, and sat upon it. And from fear of him, all of us soldiers 
became as dead, and were able neither to flee nor speak. And 
we heard the angels saying to the women who came there to 
see the tomb: Be not you afraid, for I know that you seek 
Jesus. He is not here, but is risen, as He told you before. 
Bend down and see the tomb where His body lay ; but go and 
tell His disciples that He is risen from the dead, and let them 
go into Galilee, for there shall they find Him. For this reason 
I tell you this first.’ 

The Jews say to the soldiers: What sort of women were they 
who came to the tomb ? and why did you not lay hold of them ? 
The soldiers say: From the fear and the mere sight of the 
angel, we were able neither to speak nor move. The Jews 
said: As the God of Israel liveth, we do not believe a word you 
say. The soldiers say: Jesus did so great wonders, and you 
believed not, and are you going to believe us? You say truly 
that God liveth; and certainly he whom you crucified truly 
liveth. But we have heard that you had Joseph shut up in the 
prison, and that you afterwards opened the doors, and did not 
find him. Do you then present Joseph, and so we also shall 
present Jesus. The Jews say: Joseph, that fled from the prison, 
you will find in Arimathea, his own country. And the soldiers 
say: Go you too into Galilee, and you will find Jesus, as the 
angel said to the women. 

1 Matt. xxvii. 62-66. ἡ Matt. xxviii. 1-8. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 165 


At these [words] the Jews were afraid, and said to the 
soldiers: See that you tell this story to nobody, or all will 
believe in Jesus. And for this reason they gave them also 
much money. And the soldiers said: We are afraid lest by any 
chance Pilate hear that we have taken money, and he will kill 
us. And the Jews said: Take it; and we pledge ourselves 
that we shall speak to Pilate in your defence. Only say that 
you were asleep, and in your slumber the disciples of Jesus 
came and stole him from the tomb. The soldiers therefore took 
the money, and said as they were bid. And up to this day 
this same lying tale is told among the Jews.* 


Crap. 14.—And a few days after there came from Galilee to 
Jerusalem three men. One of them was a priest, by name 
Phinees; the second a Levite, by name Aggai; and the third a 
soldier, by name Adas. These came to the chief priests, and 
said to them and to the people: Jesus, whom you crucified, we 
have seen in Galilee with his eleven disciples upon the Mount 
of Olives, teaching them, and saying, Go into all the world, 
and proclaim the good news; and whosoever will believe and 
be baptized shall be saved ; but whosoever will not believe 
shall be condemned. And having thus spoken, he went up 
into heaven.” And both we and many others of the five hun- 
dred * besides were looking on. 

And when the chief priests and the Jews heard these things, 
they said to these three: Give glory to the God of Israel, and 
repent of these lies that you have told. They answered: As 
the God of our fathers Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob liveth, we 
do not lie, but tell you the truth. Then the high priest spoke, 
and they brought the old [covenant] of the Hebrews out of the 
temple, and he made them swear, and giving them also money, 
he sent them into another place, in order that they might not 
proclaim in Jerusalem the resurrection of Christ. 

And when these stories had been heard by all the people, the 
crowd came together into the temple, and there was a great 
commotion. For many said: Jesus has risen from the dead, as 
we hear, and why did you crucify him? And Annas and 
Caiaphas said: Do not believe, ye Jews, what the soldiers say ; 

1 Matt. xxviii. 11-15. 2 Mark xvi. 16. 2) Com xvi 6. 


166 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


and do not believe that they saw an angel coming down from 
heaven. For we have given money to the soldiers, in order 
that they should not tell such tales to any one; and thus also 
have the disciples of Jesus given them money, in order that 
they should say that Jesus has risen from the dead. 


CuaAp. 15.—Nicodemus says: © children of the inhabitants 
of Jerusalem, the prophet Helias went up into the height of 
heaven with a fiery chariot, and it is nothing incredible if Jesus 
too has risen; for the prophet Helias was a prototype of Jesus, 
in order that you, hearing that Jesus has risen, might not dis- 
believe. I therefore say and advise, that it is befitting that we 
send soldiers into Galilee, to that place where these men testify 
that they saw him with his disciples, in order that they may go 
round about and find him, and that thus we may ask pardon of 
him for the evil which we have done to him. This proposal 
pleased them; and they chose soldiers, and sent them away 
into Galilee. And Jesus indeed they did not find; but they 
found Joseph in Arimathea. 

When, therefore, the soldiers had returned, the chief priests, 
having ascertained that Joseph was found, brought the people 
together, and said: What shall we do to get Joseph to come 
to us? After deliberating, therefore, they wrote to him a 
letter to the following effect -—O father Joseph, peace [be] to 
thee and all thy house, and thy friends! We know that we 
have offended against God, and against thee His servant. On 
account of this, we entreat thee to come here to us thy chil- 
dren. For we have wondered much how thou didst escape 
from the prison, and we say in truth that we had an evil 
design against thee. But God, seeing that our designs against 
thee were unjust, has delivered thee out of our hands. But 
come to us, for thou art the honour of our people. 

This letter the Jews sent to Arimathea, with seven soldiers, 
friends of Joseph. And they went away and found him; and 
having respectfully saluted him, as they had been ordered, they 
gave him the letter. And after receiving it and reading it, he 
glorified God, and embraced the soldiers; and having set a table, 
ate and drank with them during all the day and the night. 

And on the following day he set out with them to Jeru- 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 167 


salem; and the people came forth to meet him, and embraced 
him. And Nicodemus received him into his own house. And 
the day after, Annas and Caiaphas, the chief priests, having 
summoned him to the temple, said to him: Give glory to the 
God of Israel, and tell us the truth. For we know that thou 
didst bury Jesus; and on this account we laid hold of thee, 
and locked thee up in the prison. Thereafter, when we sought 
to bring thee out to be put to death, we did not find thee, 
and we were greatly astonished and afraid. Moreover, we 
prayed to God that we might find thee, and ask thee. Tell 
us therefore the truth. 

Joseph said to them: In the evening of the preparation, 
when you secured me in prison, I fell a-praying throughout 
the whole night, and throughout the whole day of the Sab- 
bath. And at midnight I see the prison-house that four angels 
lifted it up,’ holding it by the four corners. And Jesus 
eame in lke lightning, and I fell to the ground from fear. 
Taking hold of me, therefore, by the hand, he raised me, say- 
ing, Fear not, Joseph. Thereafter, embracing me, he kissed 
me, and said, Turn thyself, and see who I am. Turning my- 
self, therefore, and looking, I said, My lord, I know not who 
thou art. He says, I am Jesus, whom thou didst bury the 
day before yesterday. I say to him, Show me the tomb, and 
then I shall believe. He took me, therefore, by the hand, and 
led me away to the tomb, which had been opened. And seeing 
the linen and the napkin, and recognising him, I said, Blessed 
is he that cometh in the name of the Lord; and I adored 
him. Then taking me by the hand, and accompanied by the 
angels, he brought me to my house in Arimathea, and said to 
me, Sit here for forty days; for I go to my disciples, in order 
that I may enable them fully to proclaim my resurrection. 


CuAP. 16.—When Joseph had thus spoken, the chief priests 
cried out to the people: We know that Jesus had a father and 
mother; how can we believe that he is the Christ? One of 
the Levites answered and said: I know the family of Jesus, 


1 ἐσίκωσαν, Which should be ἐσήκωσαν, is a modern Greek word, the aorist of 


σηπκόνω. 
2 Ps. exviii. 26 ; Matt. xxi. 9. 


168 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


noble-minded men,' great servants of God, and receiving tithes 
from the people of the Jews. And I know also Symeon the 
elder, that he received him when he was an infant, and said 
to him: Now thou sendest away Thy servant, O Lord. 

The Jews said: Let us now find the three men that saw him 
on the Mount of Olives, that we may question them, and learn 
the truth more accurately. They found them, and brought 
them before all, and made them swear to tell the truth. And 
they said: As the God of Israel liveth, we saw Jesus alive on 
the Mount of Olives, and going up into heaven. 

Then Annas and Caiaphas took the three apart, one by one, 
and questioned them singly in private. They agreed with one 
another, therefore, and gave, even the three, one account. The 
chief priests answered, saying: Our Scripture says that every 
word shall be established by two or three witnesses.” Joseph, 
then, has confessed that he, along with Nicodemus, attended 
to his body, and buried him, and how it is the truth that he 
has risen.° 


Or, literally, men of good family. 5 Deut. xix. 15; Matt. xviii. 16. 


8 This last clause would be better as a question: And how is it the truth ~ 


that he has risen ? 


rt 
{ 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 
PART IIl—THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO HELL. 


GREEK FORM. 


CHAPTER 1. (11) 


MOSEPH says: And why do you wonder that Jesus 
has risen? But it is wonderful that He has not 
risen alone, but that He has also raised many others 
of the dead, who have appeared in Jerusalem to 
many.’ And if you do not know the others, Symeon at least, 
who received Jesus, and his two sons whom He has raised up 
—them at least you know. for we buried them not long ago ; 
but now their tombs are seen open [and] empty, and they are 
alive, and dwelling in Arimathea. They therefore sent men, 
and they found their tombs open and empty. Joseph says: 
Let us go to Arimathea and find them. 

Then rose up the chief priests Annas and Caiaphas, and 
Joseph, and Nicodemus, and Gamaliel, and others with them, 
and went away to Arimathea, and found those whom Joseph 
spoke of. They made prayer, therefore, and saluted each other. 
Then they came with them to Jerusalem, and brought them 
into the synagogue, and secured the doors, and placed in the 
midst the old [covenant] of the Jews; and the chief priests 
said to them: We wish you to swear by the God of Israel and 
Adonai, and so that you tell the truth, how you have risen, and 
who has raised you from the dead. 

The men who had risen having heard this, made upon their 
faces the sign of the cross, and said to the chief priests: Give 


1 Matt. xxvii. 53. 
169 


170 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


us paper and ink and pen. These therefore they brought. 
And sitting down, they wrote thus :— 


Cuap. 2 (18).—O Lord Jesus Christ, the resurrection and 
the life of the world, grant us grace that we may give an ac- 
count of Thy resurrection, and Thy miracles which Thou didst 
in Hades. We then were in Hades, with all who had fallen 
asleep since the beginning of the world. And at the hour of 
midnight there rose a light as if of the sun, and shone into 
these dark [regions]; and we were all lighted up, and saw each 
other. And straightway our father Abraham was united with 
the patriarchs and the prophets, and at the same time they were 
filled with joy, and said to each other: This light is from a great 
source of light. The prophet Hesaias, who was there present, 
said: This light is from the Father, and from the Son, and from 
the Holy Spirit; about whom I prophesied when yet alive, 
saying, The land of Zabulon, and the land of Nephthalim, the 
people that sat in darkness, have seen a great light." 

Then there came into the midst another, an ascetic from the 
desert; and the patriarchs said to him: Who art thou? And 
he said: I am John, the last of the prophets, who made the 
paths of the Son of God straight,’ and proclaimed to the people 
repentance for the remission of sins.® And the Son of God 
came to me; and I, seeing Him a long way off, said to the 
people: Behold the Lamb of God, who taketh away the sin of 
the world* And with my hand I baptized Him in the river 
Jordan, and 1 saw like a dove also the Holy Spirit coming 
upon Him;° and I heard also the voice of God, even the Father,® 
thus saying: This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well 
pleased.’ And on this account He sent me also to you, to pro- 
claim how the only begotten Son of God is coming here, that 
whosoever shall believe in Him shall be saved, and whosoever 
shall not believe in Him shall be condemned. On this account 
I say to you all, in order that when you see Him you all may 
adore Him, that now only is for you the time of repentance 


1 Isa. ix. 1, 2. 2 Matt. iii. 3. 8 Mark i. 4. 4 John i. 29. 
® Or: and I saw, as it were, a dove and the Holy Spirit, ete. 
® Or, of the God and Father. 7 Luke iii. 22. 


8 [Mark xvi. 16]; John iii. 18. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 171 


for having adored idols in the vain upper world, and for the 
sins you have committed, and that this is impossible at any 
other time. 


Cuap. 3 (19)—wWhile John, therefore, was thus teaching 
those in Hades, the first created and forefather Adam heard, 
and said to his son Seth: My son, I wish thee to tell the fore- 
fathers of the race of men and the prophets where I sent thee, 
when it fell to my lot to die. And Seth said: Prophets and 
patriarchs, hear. When my father Adam, the first created, 
was about to fall once upon a time into death, he sent me to 
make entreaty to God very close by the gate of paradise, that 
He would guide me by an angel to the tree of compassion, and 
that I might take oil and anoint my father, and that he might 
rise up from his sickness: which thing, therefore, I also did. 
And after the prayer an angel of the Lord came, and said to 
me: What, Seth, dost thou ask? Dost thou ask oil which 
raiseth up the sick, or the tree from which this oil flows, on 
account of the sickness of thy father? This is not to be found 
now. Go, therefore, and tell thy father, that after the accom- 
plishing of five thousand five hundred years* from the creation 
of the world, then shall come into the earth the only begotten 
Son of God, being made man; and He shall anoint him with 
this oil, and shall raise him up; and shall wash clean, with 
water and with the Holy Spirit, both him and those out of 
him, and then shall he be healed of every disease; but now 
this is impossible.” 

When the patriarchs and the prophets heard these words, 
they rejoiced greatly. 


Cap. 4 (20).—And when all were in such joy, came Satan 
the heir of darkness, and said to Hades: O all-devouring and 
insatiable, hear my words. There is of the race of the Jews 
one named Jesus, calling himself the Son of God; and being a 
man, by our working with them the Jews have crucified him: 
and now when he is dead, be ready that we may secure him 


+5500 B.c. was the date commonly assigned to the creation. See Clem. 
Strom. i.; Theoph. Ant. ad Autol. iii. ; cf. Just. Apol. xxxix. 
* For this legend, see the Revelation of Moses. 


172 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


here. For I know that he is a man, and I heard him also say- 
ing, My soul is exceeding sorrowful, even unto death.* He 
has also done me many evils when living with mortals in the 
upper world. For wherever he found my servants, he perse- 
cuted them; and whatever men I made crooked, blind, lame, 
lepers, or any such thing, by a single word he healed them ; 
and many whom I had got ready to be buried, even these 
through a single word he brought to life again. 

Hades says: And is this [man] so powerful as to do such 
things by a single word? or if he be so, canst thou withstand 
him? It seems to me that, if he be so, no one will be able to 
withstand him. And if thou sayest that thou didst hear him 
dreading death, he said this mocking thee, and laughing, wish- 
ing to seize thee with the strong hand; and woe, woe to thee, 
to all eternity ! 

Satan says: O all-devouring and insatiable Hades, art thou 
so afraid at hearing of our common enemy? I was not afraid 
of him, but worked in the Jews, and they crucified him, and 
gave him also to drink gall with vinegar.? Make ready, then, 
in order that you may lay fast hold of him when he comes. 

Hades answered: Heir of darkness, son of destruction, devil, 
thou hast just now told me that many whom thou hadst made 
ready to be buried, he brought to life again by a single word. 
And if he has delivered others from the tomb, how and with 
what power shall he be laid hold of by us? For I not long 
ago swallowed down one dead, Lazarus by name; and not long 
after, one of the living by a single word dragged him up by 
force out of my bowels: and I think that it was he of whom 
thou speakest. If, therefore, we receive him here, I am afraid 
lest perchance we be in danger even about the rest. For, lo, 


all those that I have swallowed from eternity I perceive to be — 
in commotion, and I am pained in my belly. And the snatch- — 


ing away of Lazarus beforehand seems to me to be no good 
sion: for not like a dead body, but like an eagle, he flew out 
of me; for so suddenly did the earth throw him out. Where- 
fore also I adjure even thee, for thy benefit and for mine, not 
to bring him here; for I think that he is coming here to raise 


all the dead. And this I tell thee: by the darkness in which ~ 


1 Mark xv. 34. 2 Matt. xxvii. 34. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 173 


we live, if thou bring him here, not one of the dead will be 
left behind in it to me. 


Cuap. 5 (21)—While Satan and Hades were thus speaking 
to each other, there was a great voice like thunder, saying: 
Lift up your gates, O ye rulers; and be ye lifted up, ye ever- 
lasting gates; and the King of glory shall come in.* When 
Hades heard, he said to Satan: Go forth, if thou art able, 
and withstand him. Satan therefore went forth to the outside. 
Then Hades says to his demons: Secure well and strongly the 
gates of brass and the bars of iron, and attend to my bolts, and 
stand in order,’ and see to everything; for if he come in here, 
woe will seize us. 

The forefathers having heard this, began all to revile him, 
saying: O all-devouring and insatiable! open, that the King of 
glory may come in. David the prophet says: Dost thou not 
know, O blind, that I when living in the world prophesied this 
saying: Lift up your gates,O yerulers? Hesaias said: I, fore- 
‘seeing this by the Holy Spirit, wrote: The dead shall rise up, 
and those in their tombs shall be raised, and those in the earth 
shall rejoice.® And where, O death, is thy sting? where, O 
Hades, is thy victory ?* 

There came, then, again a voice saying: Lift up the gates. 
Hades, hearing the voice the second time, answered as if for- 
sooth he did not know, and says: Who is this king of glory ? 
The angels of the Lord say: The Lord strong and mighty, the 
Lord mighty in battle.” And immediately with these words 
the brazen gates were shattered, and the iron bars broken, and 
all the dead who had been bound came out of the prisons, and 
we with them. And the King of glory came in in the form of 
a man, and all the dark places of Hades were lighted up. 


CuHap. 6 (22).—Immediately Hades cried out: We have 
been conquered: woe to us! But who art thou, that hast such 
power and might? and what art thou, who comest here without 
sin, who art seen to be small and yet of great power, lowly and 
exalted, the slave and the master, the soldier and the king, 


ΠΡ XXIV. 7. 2 Lit., erect. 3 Isa. xxvi. 19, according to the LXX. 
4 Hos. xiii. 14. 5 Ps, xxiv. 8. 


174 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


who hast power over the dead and the living? Thou wast 
nailed on the cross, and placed in the tomb; and now thou art 
free, and hast destroyed all our power. Art thou then the 
Jesus about whom the chief satrap Satan told us, that through 
cross and death thou art to inherit the whole world 2 

Then the King of glory seized the chief satrap Satan by the 
head, and delivered him to His angels, and said: With iron 
chains bind his hands, and his feet, and his neck, and his 
mouth. Then He delivered him to Hades, and said: Take him, 
and keep him secure till my second appearing. 


Cuap. 7 (23)—And Hades receiving Satan, said to him: 
Beelzebul, heir of fire and punishment, enemy of the saints, 
through what necessity didst thou bring about that the King 
of glory should be crucified, so that he should come here and 
deprive us [of our power]? Turn and see that not one of the 
dead has been left in me, but all that thou hast gained through 
the tree of knowledge, all hast thou lost through the tree of the 
cross: and all thy joy has been turned into grief; and wishing 
to put to death the King of glory, thou hast put thyself to death. 
For, since I have received thee to keep thee safe, by experi- 
ence shalt thou learn how many evils I shall do unto thee. O 
arch-devil, the beginning of death, root of sin, end of all evil, 
what evil didst thou find in Jesus, that thou shouldst compass 
his destruction? how hast thou dared to do such evil? how 
hast thou busied thyself to bring down such a man into this 
darkness, through whom thou hast been deprived of all who 
have died from eternity ? 


Cup. 8 (24).—While Hades was thus discoursing to Satan, 
the King of glory stretched out His right hand, and took hold 
of our forefather Adam, and raised him. Then turning also to 
the rest, He said: Come all with me, as many as have died 
through the tree which he touched; for, behold, I again raise 
you all up through the tree of the cross. Thereupon He brought 
them all out, and our forefather Adam seemed to be filled with — 
joy, and said: I thank Thy majesty, O Lord, that Thou hast — 
brought me up out of the lowest Hades.’ Likewise also all 

1 Ps, Ixxxvi. 13. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 175 


the prophets and the saints said: We thank Thee, O Christ, 
Saviour of the world, that Thou hast brought our life up out of 
destruction.* 

And after they had thus spoken, the Saviour blessed Adam 
with the sign of the cross on his forehead, and did this also to 
the patriarchs, and prophets, and martyrs, and forefathers ; and 
He took them, and sprang up out of Hades. And while He was 
going, the holy fathers accompanying Him sang praises, saying: 
Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord :* Alleluia ; 
te Him be the glory of all the saints. 


Cuap. 9 (25)—And setting out to paradise, He took hold of 
our forefather Adam by the hand, and delivered him, and all 
the just, to the archangel Michael. And as they were going © 
into the door of paradise, there met them two old men, to 
whom the holy fathers said: Who are you, who have not seen 
death, and have not come down into Hades, but who dwell 
in paradise in your bodies and your souls? One of them 
answered, and said: I am Enoch, who was well-pleasing to 
God, and who was translated hither by Him; and this is 
Helias the Thesbite; and we are also to live until the end 
of the world; and then we are to be sent by God to with- 
stand Antichrist, and to be slain by him, and after three days 
to rise again, and to be snatched up in clouds to meet the 
Lord.® 


Cuap. 10 (26).— While they were thus speaking, there came 
another lowly man, carrying also upon his shoulders a cross, to 
whom the holy fathers said: Who art thou, who hast the look 
of a robber; and what is the cross which thou bearest upon 
thy shoulders? He answered: I, as you say, was a robber and 
a thief in the world, and for these things the Jews laid hold 
of me, and delivered me to the death of the cross, along with 
our Lord Jesus Christ. While, then, He was hanging upon 
the cross, I, seeing the miracles that were done, believed in 
Him, and entreated Him, and said, Lord, when Thou shalt 
be King, do not forget me. And immediately He said to 
me, Amen, amen: to-day, I say unto thee, shalt thou be with 

1 Cf. Ps. ciii. 4. 2 Ps. cxviii. 26. 31 Thess. iv. 17; Rev. xi. 3-12. 


176 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


me in paradise. Therefore I came to paradise carrying my 
eross; and finding the archangel Michael, I said to him, Our 
Lord Jesus, who has been crucified, has sent me here; bring 
me, therefore, to the gate of Eden. And the flaming sword, 
seeing the sign of the cross, opened to me, and I went in. 
Then the archangel says to me, Wait a little, for there cometh 
also the forefather of the race of men, Adam, with the just, 
that they too may come in. And now, seeing you, I came to 
meet you. 

The saints hearing these things, all cried out with a loud 
voice: Great is our Lord, and great is His strength.’ 


Cuap. 11 (27).—All these things we saw and heard; we, the 
' two brothers, who also have been sent by Michael the arch- 
angel, and have been ordered to proclaim the resurrection of 
the Lord, but first to go away to the Jordan and to be baptized. 
Thither also we have gone, and have been baptized with the 
rest of the dead who have risen. Thereafter also we came to 
Jerusalem, and celebrated the passover of the resurrection. 
But now we are going away, being unable to stay here. And 
the love of God, even the Father, and the grace of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and the communion of the Holy Spirit, be with 
you all.’ 

Having written these things, and secured the rolls, they gave 
the half to the chief priests, and the half to Joseph and Nico- 
demus. And they immediately disappeared: to the glory of 
our Lord Jesus Christ. Amen. 

1 Ps, cxlvii. 5. 22 Cor. xiii. 14. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 
PART I—ACTS OF PILATE. 


LATIN FORM. 


mE) AENEAS was at first a protector of the Hebrews, 
and follower of the law; then the grace of the 
Saviour and His great gift took possession of me. 
I recognised Christ Jesus in holy Scripture ; I came 
to Him, and embraced His faith, so that I might become 
worthy of His holy baptism. First of all I searched for the 
memoirs written in those times about our Lord Jesus Christ, 
which the Jews published in the age of Pontius Pilate, and 
we found them in Hebrew writings, drawn up in the age of 
the Lord Jesus Christ ; and I translated them into the language 
of the Gentiles, in the reign of the eminent Theodosius, who 
was fulfilling his seventeenth consulship, and of Valentinian, 
consul for the fifth time in the ninth indiction. Whosoever 
of you read this book, and transfer it to other copies, remember 
me, and pray for me, Atneas, least of the servants of God, that 
He be merciful to me, and pardon my sins which I have com- 
mitted against Him. Peace be to all who shall read these, and 
to all their house, for ever! Amen. 

Now it came to pass, in the nineteenth year of the reign of 
Tiberius Ceesar, emperor of the Romans, and of Herod, son of 
Herod king of Galilee, in the nineteenth year of his rule, on 
the eighth day before the kalends of April, which is the twenty- 
fifth day of the month of March, in the consulship of Rufinus 
and Rubellio, in the fourth year of the 202d Olympiad, under 
the rule of Joseph and Caiaphas, priests of the Jews: the things 


done by the chief priests and the rest of the Jews, which 
M 


178 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Nicodemus recorded after the cross and passion of the Lord, 
Nicodemus himself committed to Hebrew letters. 


Cuap. 1.—Annas and Caiaphas, Summas and Datam, Gamaliel, 
Judas, Levi, Neptalim, Alexander and Jairus, and the rest of the 
Jews, came to Pilate, accusing the Lord Jesus Christ of many 
things, and saying: We know him [to be] the son of Joseph the 
carpenter, born of Mary; and he says that he is the Son of God, 
and aking. Not only so, but he also breaks the Sabbath, and 
wishes to do away with the law of our fathers. Pilate says: 
What is it that he does, and wishes to destroy the law? The 
Jews say: We have a law, not to heal any one on the Sabbath ; 
but he, by evil arts, heals on the Sabbath the lame and the 
hunchbacked, the. blind, the palsied, the lepers, and the de- 
moniacs. Pilate says to them: By what evil arts? They say 
to him: He is a sorcerer; and by Beelzebub, prince of the 
demons, he casts out demons, and they are all subject to him. 
Pilate says to them: It is not in an unclean spirit to cast out 
demons, but in the god of Scolapius. 

The Jews say: We pray thy majesty to set him before thy 
tribunal to be heard. Pilate, calling the Jews to him, says to 


them: How can I, seeing that I am a governor,’ hear a king? © 


They say to him: We do not say that he is a king, but he 
himself says he is. And Pilate, calling a runner, says to him: 
Let Jestis be brought in with kindness. And the runner, going 
out and recognising Him, adored Him, and spread on the 
eround the cloak which he carried in his hand, saying: My 
lord, walk upon this, and come in, because the governor calls 
thee. But the Jews, seeing what the runner did, cried out 
against Pilate, saying: Why didst not thou make him come 
in by the voice of a crier, but by a runner? for the runner, 
too, seeing him, has adored him, and has spread out before 
him on the ground the cloak which he held in his hand, and 
has said to him: My lord, the governor calls thee. 

And Pilate, calling the runner, says to him: Wherefore hast 


thou done this, and honoured Jesus, who is called Christ? | 
The runner says to him: When thou didst send me into | 


for procurator. 


1 The word in the original is the general term preses, which the Vulgate uses | 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 179 


Jerusalem to Alexander, I saw him sitting upon an ass, and 
the children of the Hebrews breaking branches from the trees, 
strewing them in the way; and others held branches in their 
hands; and others spread their garments in the way, shouting 
and saying, Save, therefore, Thou who art in the highest ; 
blessed [is He] that cometh in the name of the Lord! 

The Jews cried out, saying against the runner: The children 
of the Hebrews indeed cried out in Hebrew. How canst thou, 
a Gentile, know this? The runner says to them: I asked one 
of the Jews, and said, What is it that they cry out in Hebrew ? 
and he explained to me. Pilate says to them: And how did 
they cry out in Hebrew? The Jews said: Osanna in the 
highest! Pilate says to them: What is the meaning of Osanna 
in the highest? They say to him: Save us, Thou who art in 
the highest. Pilate says to them: If you yourselves bear 
witness to the terms and words in which the children cried 
out, in what has the runner sinned? And they were silent. 
The governor says to the runner: Go out, and lead him in, 
in whatever way thou wilt. And the runner, going forth, did 
after the same form as before, and says to Jesus: My lord, 
go in, because the governor calls thee. 

As Jesus, then, was going in, and the standard-bearers 
bearing the standards, the heads of the standards were bowed 
of themselves, and adored Jesus. And the Jews, seeing the 
standards, how they bowed themselves and adored Jesus, cried 
out the more against the standard-bearers. And Pilate says 
to the Jews: Do you not wonder at the way in which the 
standards have bowed themselves and adored Jesus? The Jews 
say to Pilate: We saw how the men carrying the standards 
bowed themselves and adored Jesus. And the governor, call- 
ing the standard-bearers, says to them: Why have you so 
done? They say to Pilate: We are Gentile men, and slaves of 
the temples: how had we’ to adore him? for when we were 
holding the figures, they themselves bowed and adored him. 

Pilate says to the chiefs of the synagogue and the elders of 
the people: Choose ye men powerful and strong, and let them 
hold the standards, and let us see whether they will bow of 


‘i.e. was it possible for us, 
? Vultus. THe seems to have read πρόσωπα, and not rporouai, as in the Greek. 


180 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


themselves. And the elders of the Jews, taking twelve men 
very strong and powerful, made them hold the standards, six 
and six ; and they stood before the governor's tribunal. Pilate 
says to the runner: Take out Jesus outside of the pretorium, 
and bring him in again, in whatever way thou wilt. And Jesus 
and the runner went outside of the prztorium. And Pilate, 
calling those who had formerly held the standards, said to 
them: By the health of Czesar, if the standards do not bow 
themselves when Jesus comes in, I will cut off your heads. 
And the governor ordered Jesus to come in a second time. 
And the runner did after the same form as before, and besought 
Jesus much that He would go up and walk upon his cloak. 
And He walked upon it, and went in. And as Jesus was 
coing in, immediately the standards bowed themselves, and 
adored Jesus. 


Cuap. 2.—And Pilate seeing, fear seized him, and imme- 
diately he wished to rise from the tribunal. And while he was 
thinking of this, [viz.] to rise and go away, his wife sent to 
him, saying: Have nothing to do with that just man,’ for I 
have suffered much on account of him this night. And Pilate, 
calling the Jews, said to them: Ye know that my wife is a 
worshipper of God, and in Judaism thinks rather with you. 
The Jews say to him: So it is, and we know. Pilate says to 
them: Lo, my wife has sent to me, saying: Have nothing to 
do with that just man,’ for I have suffered much on account of 
him this night. And the Jews answering, said to Pilate: Did 
we not say to thee that he is a magician? Lo, he has sent a 
vision of dreams to thy wife. 

Pilate called Jesus, and said to him: What is it that these 
witness against thee, and sayst thou nothing to them? And 
Jesus answered: If they had not the power, they would not 
speak. Every one has power over his own mouth to say good 
and evil; let them see * [to it]. 

And the elders of the Jews answering, say to Jesus: What 
shall we see? First, that thou wast born of fornication ; 
second, that at thy birth in Bethlehem there took place a 


1 Lit., nothing to thee and that just man, 
2 Lit., they will see, 


tg Pt a 


Seto ae 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 181 


massacre of infants; third, that thy father Joseph and thy 
mother Mary fled into Egypt, because they had no confidence 
in the people. 

Some of the bystanders, kind [men] of the Jews, say: We 
say that he was not born of fornication; but we know that 
Mary was espoused to Joseph, and that he was not born of 
fornication. Pilate says to the Jews who said that he was of 
fornication: This speech of yours is not true, seeing that the 
betrothal took place, as these of your nation say. Annas and 
Caiaphas say to Pilate: We with all the multitude say that he 
was born of fornication, and that he is a magician; but these 
are proselytes, and his disciples. And Pilate, callmg Annas 
and Caiaphas, says to them: What are proselytes? They say 
to him: They have been born sons of the Gentiles, and then 
have become Jews. Then answered those who testified that 
Jesus was not born of fornication, Lazarus and Asterius, Anto- 
nius and James, Annes and Azaras, Samuel and Isaac, Finees 
and Crispus, Agrippa and Judas: We were not born proselytes, 
but are sons of the Jews, and we speak the truth; for we were 
present at the betrothal of Mary. 

And Pilate, calling to him those twelve men who proved 
that Jesus had not been born of fornication, said to them: I 
adjure you by the health of Czesar, tell me if it be true that 
Jesus was not born of fornication. They say to Pilate: We 
have a law not to swear, because it is a sin; but let them 
swear by the health of Czesar that it is not as we say, and we 
are worthy of death. Then said Pilate to Annas and Caiaphas: 
Answer you nothing to those things which these testify ?. Annas 
and Caiaphas say to Pilate: Those twelve are believed that he 
is not born of fornication ; we—all the people—cry out that he 
was born of fornication, and is a magician, and says that he 
himself is the Son of God and a king, and we are not believed. 

And Pilate ordered all the multitude to go outside, except 
the twelve men who said that He was not born of fornication, 
and ordered to separate Jesus from them. And Pilate says to 
them: Jor what reason do the Jews wish to put Jesus to death ? 
And they say to him: They are angry because he heals on the 
Sabbath. Pilate said: For a good work do they wish to put 
him to death? They say to him: Yes, my lord. 


182 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


Cup. 3.—Pilate, filled with fury, went forth outside of the pre- 
torium, and says to them: I take the sun to witness that I find 
in this man not even one fault. The Jews answered and said 
to the governor: If he were not an evil-doer, we should never 
have delivered him to thee. Pilate says to them: Take him, 
and judge him according to your law. The Jews answered: It 
is not permitted to us to put any one to death. Pilate says to 
them: Has God said to you not to put any one to death ? has 
He therefore said to me that I am to kill ? 

Pilate having again gone into the pretorium, called Jesus to 
him privately, and said to Him: Art thou the king of the 
Jews? Jesus answered Pilate: Speakest thou this of thyself, 
or have others said [it] to thee of me? Pilate answered: Am 
I a Jew? Thy nation and the chief priests have delivered 
thee to me. What hast thou done? Jesus answering, said: 
My kingdom is not of this world. If my kingdom were of this 
world, my servants would assuredly strive that I should not be 
delivered to the Jews; but now my kingdom is not from hence. 
Pilate said to Him: Art thou then a king? Jesus said to 
him: Thou sayest that 1 amaking. For I for this was born, 
and for this have I come, that I should bear witness to the 
truth; and every one who is of the truth hears my voice. 
Pilate says to him: What is truth ? Jesus says: Truth is from 
heaven. Pilate says: Is not there truth upon earth? Jesus 
says to Pilate: Notice how the truth-speaking are judged by 
those who have power upon earth. } 


Cuap. 4.—Pilate therefore, leaving Jesus within the pre- 
torium, went out to the Jews, and says to them: I find not 
even one fault in him. The Jews say to him: He said, I can 
destroy that temple, and in three days raise it again. Pilate 
said to them: What temple? The Jews say to him: [The 
temple] which Solomon built in forty and six years; and he 
says [that he can] destroy and build it in three days. Pilate 
says to them: I am innocent of the blood of this man; see ye 
[to it]. The Jews say to him: His blood [be] upon us, and 
upon our children. 

And Pilate, calling the elders and priests and Levites, says 
to them privately: Do not do so; for in nothing, though you 


me tah Pp 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 185 


accuse him, do I find him deserving of death, not even about 
the healing and the breaking of the Sabbath. The priests and 
Levites and elders say: Tell us, if any one blaspheme Cesar, 
is he deserving of death or not? Pilate says to them: He 
deserves to die. The Jews answered him: How much more 
is he who has blasphemed God deserving to die ! 

And the governor ordered the Jews to go outside of the 
preetorium ; and calling Jesus, said to Him: What am I to do 
to thte? Jesus says to Pilate: As it has been given [thee]. 
Pilate says: How has it been given? Jesus says: Moses and 
the prophets made proclamation of my death and resurrection. 
And the Jews, hearing this, say to Pilate: Why do you desire 
any more to hear blasphemy? And Pilate said: If this speech 
is blasphemous, do you take him, and lead him to your syna- 
gogue, and judge him according to your law. The Jews say to 
Pilate: Our law holds, If a man have sinned against a man, 
he is worthy to receive forty less one; but he who has blas- 
phemed against God, to be stoned. 

Pilate says to them: Then judge him according to your law. 
The Jews say to Pilate: We wish that he he crucified. Pilate 
says to them: He does not deserve to be crucified. 

And the governor, looking upon the people of the Jews 
standing round, saw very many of the Jews weeping, and said: 
All the multitude does not wish him to die. The elders say 
to Pilate: And for this reason have we come—the whole mul- 
titude—that he should die. Pilate said to the Jews: What 
has he done that he should die? They say: Because he said 
that he was the Son of God, and a king. 


Cuap. 5.—But one Nicodemus, a Jew, stood before the 
governor, and said: I entreat, mercifully allow me to say a 
few words. Pilate says to him: Say on. Nicodemus says: I 
said to the elders and the priests and the Levites, and to all 
the multitude of the Jews, in the synagogue, What have you 
[to do] with this man? This man does many wonders and 
signs, which no one of men has done or can do. Let him go, 
and do not devise any evil against him: if the signs which he 
does are of God, they will stand; but if of men, they will come 
to nothing. For Moses also, being sent by God into Egypt, 


184 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


did many signs, which God told him to do before Pharaoh king 
of Egypt. And'"the sorcerers Jamnes and Mambres were there 
healing, and they did, they also, the signs which Moses did, 
but not all; and the Egyptians deemed them as gods, Jamnes 
and Mambres. And since the signs which they did were not of 
God, they perished, both they and those who believed in them. 
And now let this man go, for he is not deserving of death. 

The Jews say to Nicodemus: Thou hast become his dis- 
ciple, and takest his part.t Nicodemus says to them: Has 
the governor also become his disciple, and does he take his 
part? Has not Cesar set him over that dignity? And the 
Jews were raging and gnashing with their teeth against Nico- 
demus. Pilate says to them: Why do you gnash with your 
teeth against him, [when you 816] hearing the truth? The 
Jews say to Nicodemus: Mayst thou receive his truth, and a 
portion with him! Nicodemus says: Amen, amen, amen; may 
I receive [it], as you have said! 


Cuap. 6.—And of the Jews a certain other one, starting up, 
asks the governor that he might say a word. ‘The governor 
says: What thou wishest to say, say. And he said: For thirty- 
eight years I lay in infirmity in my bed in very grievous pain. 
And at the coming of Jesus, many demoniacs, and [persons] 
held down by divers infirmities, were healed by him. And 
some young men had pity on me; and carrying me in my bed, 
laid me before him. And Jesus, seeing, had pity on me, and 
said the word to me, Take up thy bed, and walk. And im- 
mediately I was made whole; I took up my bed, and walked. 
The Jews say to Pilate: Ask him what was the day on which 
he was healed. He said: The Sabbath. The Jews say: Have 
we not so informed thee, that on the Sabbath he heals, and 
drives out demons ? . 

And a certain other Jew starting up, said: I was born blind; — 
I heard a voice, and saw no man. And as Jesus was passing — 
by, I eried out with a loud voice, Have pity upon me, thou — 
son of David. And he had pity upon me, and laid his hands — 
upon my eyes, and I saw immediately. And another Jew — 
starting up, said: I was hunchbacked, and he straightened me — 

1 Lit., makest a word for him. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 185 


with a word. And another said: I was leprous, and he healed 
me with a word. 


Cuap. 7—And also a certain woman, Veronica by name, 
from afar off cried out to the governor: I was flowing with 
blood for twelve years; and I touched the fringe of his gar- 
ment, and immediately the flowing of my blood stopped. The 
Jews say: We have a law, that a woman does not come to bear 
witness. 


Cuap. 8.—And certain others, a multitude of men and 
women, cried out, saying: That man is a prophet, and the 
demons are subject to him. Pilate says to those who said the 
demons are subject to him: And your masters, why are they 
not subject to him? They say to Pilate: We do not know. 
And others said to Pilate: He raised up dead Lazarus from 
the tomb after four days. The governor, hearing this, said 
trembling to all the multitude of the Jews: Why do you wish 
to shed innocent blood ? 


Cuap. 9.—And Pilate, calling Nicodemus and the twelve 
men who said that he was not born of fornication, says to them: 
What am I to do, seeing that there is a sedition among the 
people? They say to him: We do not know; let them see to it. 
Again Pilate, calling all the multitude of the Jews, said: You 
know that you have a custom during the day of unleavened 
bread, that I should release to you one that is bound. I havea 
notable one bound in the prison, a murderer who is called Bar- 
abbas, and Jesus who is called Christ,in whom I find no cause 
of death. Whom do you wish that I should release unto you ? 
And they all cried out, saying: Release unto us Barabbas. 
Pilate says to them: What, then, am I to do with Jesus who 
is called Christ? They all say: Let him be crucified. Again 
the Jews said: Thou art no friend of Cesar’s if thou release 
this man, for he called himself the Son of God, and a king; 
unless, perhaps, thou wishest this man to be king, and not 
Cesar. 

Then, filled with fury, Pilate said to them: Always has your 
nation been seditious, and always have you been opposed to 


186 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


those who were for you. The Jews answered: Who are for us ? 
Pilate says to them: Your God,—who rescued you from the 
hard slavery of the Egyptians, and led you forth out of Egypt 
through the sea as if through dry land, and fed you in the 
desert with manna and quail, and brought water to you out of 
the rock, and gave you to drink, and gave you a law; and in 
all these things you provoked your God, and sought for your- 
selves a god, a molten calf. And you exasperated your God, 
and He wished to slay you; and Moses made supplication for 
you, that ye should not die. And now you say that I hate the 
king. 

And rising up from the tribunal, he wished to go outside. 
And the Jews cried out, and said to him: We know that Cesar 
is king, and not Jesus. For the magi also presented gifts to 
him as to a king; and Herod, hearing from the magi that a 
king was born, wished to slay him. But when this was known, 
his father Joseph took him and his mother, and fled into Egypt; 
and Herod hearing, destroyed the infants of the Jews which 
were born in Bethlehem. 

Pilate hearing those words, was afraid. And silence being 
made among the people, who were crying out, Pilate said: This, 
then, is he whom Herod sought? They say to him: It is he. 
And taking water, Pilate washed his hands in presence of the 
people, saying: I am innocent of the blood of this just man; 
see ye to it. Again the Jews cried out, saying: His blood [be] 
upon us, and upon our children. 

Then Pilate ordered the veil to be loosened,’ and said to 
Jesus: Thine own nation have brought charges against thee as 
a king; and therefore I have sentenced thee first to be secourged 
on account of the statutes of the emperors, and then to be 
crucified on a cross. 


Cuap. 10.—And when Jesus was scourged, he delivered Him 
to the Jews to be crucified, and two robbers with Him; one 
by name Dismas, and the other by name Gestas. And when 
they came to the place, they stripped Him of His garments, 
and girt Him about with a linen cloth, and put a crown of 
thorns upon His head. Likewise also they hanged the two 


1 See note, p. 135. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 187 


robbers with Him, Dismas on the right and Gestas on the 
left. And Jesus said: Father, forgive them, for they know not 
what they do. And the soldiers parted His garments among 
them. And the people stood waiting; and their chief priests 
and judges mocked Him, saying among themselves: He saved 
others, now let him save himself; if he is the Son of God, let 
him come down from the cross. And the soldiers mocked 
Him, falling prostrate’ before Him, and offering vinegar with 
gall, and saying: If thou art the King of the Jews, set thyself 
free. 

And Pilate, after sentence, ordered a title to be written in 
Hebrew, Greek, and Latin letters, according to what the Jews 
said: This is the King of the Jews. 

And one of the robbers [who were] hanged, by name Gestas, 
said to Him: If thou art the Christ, free thyself and us. And 
Dismas answering, rebuked him, saying: Dost not even thou 
fear God, who art in this condemnation ? for we justly and de- 
servedly have received those things which we endure; but He 
has done no evil. And he kept saying to Jesus: Remember 
me, Lord, in Thy kingdom. And Jesus said to him: Verily I 
say unto thee, that to-day shalt thou be with me in paradise. 


Cuap. 11.—And it was about the sixth hour, and there was 
darkness over the whole earth; and the sun was obscured, and 
the veil of the temple was rent in the midst. And crying out 
with a loud voice, He said: Father, into Thy hands I commend 
my spirit. And thus saying, He gave up the ghost. And the 
centurion, seeing what was done, glorified God, saying: This 
was a just man. And all the people who were present at that 
spectacle, seeing what was done, beating their breasts, returned. 

And the centurion reported to the governor what was done. 
And the governor and his wife hearing, were very sorrowful, 
and neither ate nor drank that day. And Pilate, calling to- 
gether the Jews, said to them: Have you seen what has been 
done? And they said to the governor: There has been an 
eclipse of the sun, as is usual. 

And his acquaintances also stood afar off, and the women 


' Procidentes ; but this, according to the Greek, should be procedentes, coming 
before Him. 


188 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


who had followed Him from Galilee, seeing these things. And 
lo, a certain man, by name Joseph, holding office,a man good 
and just, who did not consent to their counsels nor their deeds, 
from Arimathea, a city of the Jews, waiting, he also, for the 
kingdom of God, went to Pilate and begged the body of Jesus. 
And taking Him down from the cross, he wrapt Him in clean 
linen, and laid Him in his own new tomb, in which no one 
had been laid. 


CuAp. 12.—And the Jews, hearing that Joseph had begged 
the body of Jesus, sought for him; and those twelve men who 
had said that He was not born of fornication, and Nicodemus, 
and many others, who had stood before Pilate and declared 
His good works. And all of them being hid, Nicodemus alone 
appeared to them, because he was a chief man of the Jews; 
and he says to them: How have ye come into the synagogue ? 
The Jews say to him: And thou, how hast thou come into the 
synagogue, seeing that thou consentest with him? May his 
portion be with thee in the world to come! Nicodemus said: 
Amen, amen, amen. Likewise also Joseph, coming forth, said 
to them: Why are you enraged against me because I begged 
the body of Jesus? Lo, I have laid him in my own new 
tomb, wrapping him in clean linen; and 1 have rolled a stone 
to the door of the cave. And ye have not acted well against 
a just man, since you have not borne in mind how you cruci- 
fied him, and pierced him with a lance. The Jews therefore, 
laying hold of Joseph, ordered him to be imprisoned because 
of the Sabbath-day ; and they say to him: Know that the hour 
compels us not to do anything against thee, because the Sab- 
bath is dawning. But understand that thou art worthy not 
even of burial, but we will give thy flesh to the birds of the 
air and the beasts of the earth. Joseph says to them: That is 
the speech of proud Goliath, who reviled the living God against 
holy David. And God hath said, Vengeance is mine; I will 
repay, saith the Lord. And Pilate, intercepted? in his heart, 


1 Another reading is compunctus, pricked. The reading in the text, obstructus, — 
is a curious mistranslation of the word in the Greek, r:prsrunuéves, cut away all 
round, i.e. circumcised ; or, by an obvious transition, hemmed in—the meaning 


adopted in the version before us. 


wie 


—_ 


_ i ar nd ot ay we 


i al LF 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 189 


took water, and washed his hands before the sun, saying, I 
am innocent of the blood of this just man ; see ye to it. And 
you answered and said to Pilate, His blood be upon us, and 
upon our children. And now I fear that some time or other 
the wrath of God will come upon you and your children, as 
you have said. And the Jews, hearing this, were embittered 
in heart; and taking Joseph, shut him up in a house where 
there was no window, and set guards at the gates, and sealed 
the gate where Joseph had been shut up. 

And on the Sabbath morning they took counsel with the 
priests and the Levites, that they should all be assembled after 
the Sabbath-day. And awaking at dawn, all the multitude in 
the synagogue took counsel by what death they should slay him. 
And when the assembly was sitting, they ordered him to be 
brought with much indignity ; and opening the gate, they found 
him not. All the people therefore were in terror, and wondered 
with exceeding astonishment, because they found the seals 
sealed, and because Caiaphas had the keys. And no longer 
did they dare to lay hand upon those who spoke before Pilate 
in Jesus’ defence. 


Cup. 13.—And while they were sitting in the synagogue, and 
recriminating about Joseph, there came certain of the guards 
whom they had asked from Pilate to guard the sepulchre of 
Jesus, lest His disciples coming should steal Him. And they 
reported, saying to the rulers of the synagogue, and the priests 
and the Levites, what had happened: how there had happened 
a great earthquake, and we saw how an angel of the Lord came 
down from heaven, and rolled away the stone from the door 
of the tomb, and sat upon it; and his countenance was like 
lightning, and his raiment like snow. And for fear, we be- 
came as dead. And we heard the voice of the angel speaking 
to the women who had come to the sepulchre, and saying, Be 
not ye afraid; for I know that ye seek Jesus who was cruci- 
fied: He is not here; He has risen, as He said: come and see 
the place where the Lord was laid. And go immediately and 
tell His disciples that He has risen from the dead, and will go 
before you into Galilee, as He said to you. 

The Jews say: To what women was he speaking? The 


190 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


soldiers say: We do not know who the women were. The 
Jews say: At what hour was it? The guards say: At mid- 
night. The Jews say: And why did you not detain them ? 
The guards say: We became as dead from fear of the angel, 
not hoping now to see the light of day; and how could we 
detain them? The Jews say: [As] the Lord God liveth, we 
do not believe you. And the guards said to the Jews: You 
have seen so great signs in that man, and have not believed; 
and how can you believe us, that the Lord lives? For well 
have ye sworn that the Lord Jesus Christ lives. Again the 
ouards say to the Jews: We have heard that you have shut up 
Joseph, who begged the body of Jesus, in the prison, and have 
sealed it with your rings; and on opening, that you have not 
found him. Give us i aseph, then, and we shall give you 
Jesus Christ. The Jews said: Joseph has gone to Arimathea, 
his own city. The guards say to the Jews: And Jesus, as we 
have heard from the angel, is in Galilee. 

And the Jews, hearing these sayings, feared exceedingly, 
saying: Lest at some time or other this saying be heard, and 
all believe in Jesus. And the Jews, taking counsel among 
themselves, brought forth a sufficient number of silver pices 
and gave to the soldiers, saying: Say that, while we slept, his 
disciples came and stole him. And if this be heard by the 
governor, we shall persuade’ him, and make you secure. And 
the soldiers, taking [the money], said as they were advised by 
the Jews; and their saying was spread abroad among all. 


Cuap. 14.—And Finees a certain priest, and Addas a teacher, 
and Egias a Levite, coming down from Galilee to Jerusalem, 
reported to the rulers of the synagogue, and the priests and 
the Levites, how they had seen Jesus sitting, and his disciples 
with him, on the Mount of Olivet, which is called Mambre, or 
Malech. And he said to his disciples: Go into all the world, 
and declare to every creature the gospel of the kingdom of God. 
He who believeth and is baptized shall be saved; but he who 
believeth not shall be condemned. And these signs shall follow 
them who believe: In my name shall they cast out demons ; 
they shall speak in new tongues; they shall take up ee) 

1 Confir settee, 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 191 


and if they have drunk any deadly thing, it shall not hurt 
them; they shall lay hands upon the sick, and they shall be 
well. And as Jesus was thus speaking to his disciples, we 
saw him taken up into heaven. 

The priests and the Levites and the elders say to them : Give 
glory to the God of Israel, and give confession to Him, whether 
you have both heard and seen those things which you have 
related. Those who had made the report say: As the Lord 
God of our fathers liveth, the God of Abraham, and the God 
of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, we have heard and seen. The 
Jews say to them: Have you come for this—to tell us? or 
have you come to give prayer to God? They said: We have 
come to give prayer to God. The elders and chief priests and 
Levites say to them: And if you have come to give prayer to 
God, why have you murmured before all the people about that 
foolish tale? Finees the priest, and Addas the teacher, and 
Egias the Levite, say to the rulers of the synagogue, and the 
priests and the Levites: If those words which we have spoken, 
which we have seen and heard, be sin, behold, we are in your 
presence ; do unto us according to that which is good in your 
eyes. And they, taking the law, adjured them to report the 
words to no one thereafter. And they gave them to eat and 
drink, and put them outside of the city, giving them silver 
pieces, and three men with them, who should conduct them as 
far as Galilee. 

Then the Jews took counsel among themselves when those 
men had gone up into Galilee ; and the rulers of the synagogue 
shut themselves in, and were cut up* with great fury, saying : 
What sign is this which hath come to pass in Israel? And 
Annas and Caiaphas say: Why are your souls sorrowful? Are 
we to believe the soldiers, that an angel of the Lord came down 
from heaven, and rolled away the stone from the door of the 
tomb? [No]; but that his disciples have given much gold to 
those who were guarding the sepulchre, and have taken Jesus 
away, and have taught them thus to say: Say ye that an angel 
of the Lord came down from heaven, and rolled away the stone 
from the door of the tomb. Do you not know that it is unlaw- 


' Concidebantur, a mistranslation from considering éxérrovro as passive, they 
were cut, instead of middle, they beat their breasts. 


192 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


ful for Jews to believe foreigners in a single word, knowing 
that these same who received sufficient gold from us have said 
as we taught them ? 


Cuap. 15.—And Nicodemus rising up, stood in the midst of 
the council, and said: You have said rightly. And are not the 
men who have come down from Galilee God-fearing, men of 
peace, hating a lie? And they recounted with an oath, how 
“we saw Jesus sitting on Mount Mambre with his disciples, 
and he taught them in our hearing,” and that they saw him 
taken up into heaven. And no one asked them this: How he 
was taken up into heaven. And, as the writing of the holy 
book teaches us, holy Elias too was taken up into heaven, and 
Eliseeus cried out with a loud voice, and Elias threw his sheep- 
skin over Eliszeus; and again Eliszeus threw that sheepskin 
over the Jordan, and went over and came to Jericho. And the 
sons of the prophets met him, and said to Eliseeus, Where is 
thy master Elias? And he said, He has been taken up’ into 
heaven. And they said to Eliszeus, Has a spirit snatched him 
away, and thrown him upon one of the mountains ? But rather 
let us take our boys’ with us and seek him. And they per- 
suaded Eliszeus, and he went with them. And they sought him 
for three days and three nights, and found him not, because he 
was taken up. And now, men, hear me, and let us send into 
all Israel, and see lest Jesus can have been taken up somewhere © 
or other, and thrown upon one of the mountains. And that 
saying pleased all. And they sent to all the mountains of 
Israel to seek Jesus, and they found Him not; but they found 
Joseph of Arimathea, and no one dared to lay hold of him. 

And they reported to the elders and priests and Levites: We 
have gone round all the mountains of Israel, and not found 
Jesus ; but we have found Joseph in Arimathea. And hearing 
of Joseph, they rejoiced, and gave glory to the God of Israel. 
And the rulers of the synagogue, and the priests and the Levites, 
taking counsel in what manner they should send to Joseph, 
took paper, and wrote to Joseph :— 

Peace to thee and all that is thine! We know that we have 
sinned against God, and against thee; and thou hast prayed to 

‘ie. servants, 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 198 


the God of Israel, and He has delivered thee out of our hands. 
And now deign to come to thy fathers and thy children, be- 
cause we have been vehemently grieved. We have all sought for 
thee—we who opened the door, and found thee not. We know 
that we counselled evil counsel against thee; but the Lord 
hath supplanted our counsel against thee. Thou art worthy to 
be honoured, father Joseph, by all the people. 

And they chose out of all Israel seven men friendly to Joseph, 
whom also Joseph knew to be friendly; and the rulers of the 
synagogue and the priests and the Levites say to them: See, if 
he take the letter and read it, for certain he will come with you 
tous; but if he do not read it, you may know that he is ill- 
disposed toward us, and, saluting him in peace, return to us. 
And blessing them, they sent them away. And they came to 
Arimathea to Joseph, and adored him on their face upon the 
eround, and said: Peace to thee and all thine! And Joseph 
said: Peace to you, and to all the people of Israel! And they 
gave him the roll of the letter. And Joseph took and read it, 
and rolled up the letter, and blessed God, and said: Blessed 
[be] the Lord God, who hath delivered Israel from shedding 
innocent blood ; and blessed [be] God, who sent His angel, and 
covered me under his wings. And he kissed them, and set a 
table for them; and they ate and drank, and slept there. 

And they rose in the morning; and Joseph saddled his ass, 
and travelled with them, and they came into the holy city 
Jerusalem. And there met them all the people, crying out, 
and saying: Peace [be] in thy coming in, father Joseph! To 
whom he answered and said: The peace of the Lord [be] upon > 
all the people! And they all kissed him. And they prayed 
with Joseph, and were terrified at the sight of him. And Nico- 
demus took him into his house, and made a great feast, and 
ealled Annas and Caiaphas, and the elders and chief priests 
and Levites, to his house. And making merry, and eating 
and drinking with Joseph, they blessed God, and went every 
one to his own house. And Joseph remained in the house of 
_ Nicodemus. 

And on the next day, which is the preparation, the priests 
: and the rulers of the synagogue and the Levites rose early, and 


' came to the house of Nicodemus. And Nicodemus met them, 
N 


194 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


and said to them: Peace to you! And they said to him: 
Peace to thee and Joseph, and to thy house and Joseph’s 
house! And Nicodemus brought them into his house. And the 
council sat; and Joseph sat between Annas and Caiaphas, and 
no one dared to say a word. And Joseph said to them: Why 
have you called me? And they made signs with their eyes 
to Nicodemus, that he should speak with Joseph. And Nico- 
demus opening his mouth, said: Father Joseph, thou knowest — 

that the reverend teachers, priests, and Levites seek to hear a 
word from thee. And Joseph said: Ask. And Annas and 
Caiaphas, taking up the law, adjured Joseph, saying: Give glory 
to the God of Israel, and give confession to Him, that thou wilt 
not hide any word’ from us. And they said to him: With 
orief were we grieved that thou didst beg the body of Jesus, 
and wrap it in clean linen, and lay it in a tomb. Therefore 
we shut thee up in a house where there was no window, and — 
put a lock and a seal on the gate; and on the first day of the — 
week we opened the gates, and found thee not. We were 
therefore exceedingly grieved, and astonishment came over all 
the people of God. And therefore hast thou been sent for; 
and now tell us what has happened. | 
Then said Joseph: On the day of the preparation, about the Ἵ 
tenth hour, you shut me in, and I remained there the whole | 
Sabbath in full) And when midnight came, as I was standing © | 
and praying, the house where you shut me in was hung up by 
the four corners, and there was a flashing of light in mine eyes. 
And I fell to the ground trembling. Then some one lifted me 
up from the place where I had fallen, and poured over me an 
abundance of water from the head even to the feet, and put 
round my nostrils the odour of a wonderful ointment, and 
rubbed my face with the water itself, as if washing me, and 
kissed me, and said to me, Joseph, fear not; but open thine 
eyes, and see who it is that speaks to thee. And looking, I saw 
Jesus; and being terrified, I thought it was a phantom. And 
with prayer and the commandments I spoke to him, and he 
spoke with me. And I said to him: Art thou Rabbi Elias? 
And he said to me: I am not Elias. And I said: Who art 
thou, my lord? And he said to me: I am Jesus, whose body | 
1 The Greek ῥῆμα means thing as well as word. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 195 


thou didst beg from Pilate, and wrap in clean linen; and thou 
didst lay a napkin on my face, and didst lay me in thy new 
tomb, and roll a stone to the door of the tomb. Then I said to 
him that was speaking to me: Show me, Lord, where I laid 
thee. And he led me, and showed me the place where I laid 
him, and the linen which I had put on him, and the napkin 
which I had wrapped upon his face; and I knew that it was 
Jesus. And he took hold of me with his hand, and put me in. 
the midst of my house though the gates were shut, and put me 
in my bed, and said to me: Peace to thee! And he kissed 
me, and said to me: For forty days go not out of thy house; 
for, lo, I go to my brethren into Galilee. 


Cuap. 16.—And the rulers of the synagogue, and the priests 
and the Levites, hearing these words from Joseph, became as it 
were dead, and fell to the ground, and fasted until the ninth 
hour. And Joseph and Nicodemus entreated them, saying: 
Arise and stand upon your feet, and taste bread, and comfort 
your souls, seeing that to-morrow is the Sabbath of the Lord. 
And they arose, and entreated the Lord, and ate and drank, 
and went every man to his own house. 

And on the Sabbath the teachers and doctors sat questioning 
each other, and saying: What is this wrath that has come 
upon us? because we know his father and mother. Levi the 
teacher said: I know that his parents fear God, and never 
depart from prayer, and give tithes thrice a-year. And when 
Jesus was born, his parents brought him up to this place, and 
gave to God sacrifices and burnt-offerings. And assuredly the 
great teacher Simeon took him into his arms, saying: Now 
Thou sendest away Thy servant, O Lord, according to Thy 
word, in peace; for mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which 
Thou hast prepared before the face of all peoples, a light 
for the revealing of the nations, and the glory of Thy people 
Israel. And he blessed Mary his mother, and said, I make 
an announcement to thee concerning this child. And Mary 
said, Well, my lord.* And Simeon said, Well. And he said 
again, Lo, he has been set for the fall and rising again of 
many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be spoken against; 

1 Perhaps this would be better as a question: Is it good? 


196 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


and a sword shall pierce thine own soul, that the thoughts of 
many hearts may be revealed. 

And the Jews said to Levi: And how knowest thou these 
things? Levi says: Do you not know that from him I learned 
the law? They of the council say: We wish to see thy 
father. And they searched out his father, and got information; 
for he said: Why did you not believe my son? The blessed 
and just Simeon taught him the law. The council says to 
Rabbi Levi: The saying which thou hast spoken is true. The 
chief priests and rulers of the synagogue, and Levites, said to 
each other: Come, let us send into Galilee to the three men 
who came hither and gave an account of his teaching and his 
being taken up, and let them tell us how they saw him taken 
up into heaven. And that saying pleased all. Then they sent 
three men into Galilee ; and Go, said they, say to Rabbi Addas 
and Rabbi Finees and Rabbi Egias, Peace to you and yours! 
Many investigations have been made in the council concerning 
Jesus; therefore have we been instructed to call you to the 
holy place, to Jerusalem. 

The men went to Galilee, and found them sitting, and medi- 
tating on the law. And they saluted them in peace. And 
they said: Why have you come? The messengers said: The 
council summon you to the holy city Jerusalem. And the men, 
hearing that they were sought for by the council, prayed to 
God, and reclined with the men, and ate and drank with them. 
And rising in the morning, they went to Jerusalem in peace. 

And on the morrow the council sat; and they questioned 
them, saying: Did you plainly see Jesus sitting on Mount 
Mambre teaching his disciples, and taken up into heaven ? 

First Addas the teacher says: I really saw him sitting on 
Mount Mambre teaching his disciples; and a shining cloud 
overshadowed him and his disciples, and he went up into 
heaven; and his disciples prayed upon their faces on the 
ground, And calling Finees the priest, they questioned him — 
also, saying: How didst thou see Jesus taken up? And he — 
said the same as the other. And again they called the third, 
Rabbi Egias, and questioned him, and he said the same as the 
first and second. And those who were in the council said: 
The law of Moses holds that by the mouth of two or three — 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 197 


every word should stand. Abudem, a teacher, one of the 
doctors, says: It is written in the law, Enoch walked with God, 
and was translated; for God took him. Jairus, a teacher, said: 
And we have heard of the death of holy Moses, and have not 
seen (it); for it is written in the law of the Lord, And Moses 
died according to the word* of the Lord, and no man knoweth 
of his burying even to the present day. Rabbi Levi said: 
What is it that Rabbi Simeon said: Lo, he lies for the fall and 
rising again of many in Israel, and for a sign which shall be 
spoken against? Rabbi Isaac said: It is written in the law, 
Lo, I send mine angel, who shall go before thy face to keep 
thee in every good way, because I have brought his? new 
name. 

Then Annas and Caiaphas said: Rightly have ye said that 
these things are written in the law of Moses, that no one saw 
the death of Enoch, and no one has named the burying of holy 
Moses. And Jesus gave account to® Pilate, and we saw him 
scourged, and receiving spitting on his face; and the soldiers 
put a crown of thorns on him, and he received sentence from 
Pilate; and then he was crucified, and they gave him gall and 
vinegar to drink, and two robbers were crucified with him, 
and the soldier Longinus pierced his side with a lance; and 
our honourable father Joseph begged his body, and he has risen 
again, and, as they say, the three teachers have seen him taken 
up into heaven. And Rabbi Levi has borne witness to what 
was said by Simeon the elder—that he has been set for the 
fall and rising again of many in Israel, and for a sign which 
shall be spoken against. 

Then Didas, a teacher, said to all the assembly: If all the 
things which these have borne witness to have come to pass 
in Jesus, they are from God, and let it not be wonderful in our 
eyes. The chiefs of the synagogue, and the priests and the 
Levites, said to each other how our law holds, saying: His 
name shall be blessed for ever: His place endureth before the 
sun, and His seat before the moon: and all the tribes of earth 
shall be blessed in Him, and all nations shall serve Him; and 
kings shall come from far, adoring and magnifying Him.° 


1 Lit., mouth. 2 Or, its. The text of the clause is corrupt. 
3 i.e. was tried before. * Cf. Ps. exviii. 23. OPas Tents 11,17, 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS, 
PART II.—CHRIST’S DESCENT INTO HELL. 


LATIN. FIRST VERSION. 


CHAPTER L (11) 


Rave ND Joseph rose up and said to Annas and Caiaphas : 

Aa) Truly and well do you wonder, since you have 
heard that Jesus has been seen alive from the 
dead, ascending up into heaven. But it is more 
to be wondered at that he is not the only one who has risen 


from the dead; but he has raised up alive out of their tombs — | 


many others of the dead, and they have been seen by many . 
in Jerusalem. And hear me now, that we all know the blessed 


Simeon, the great priest, who took up with his hands Jesus, | 


when an infant, in the temple. And Simeon himself had two 
sons, full brothers; and we all were at their falling asleep, and 
at their burial. Go, therefore, and see their tombs: for they 
are open, because they have risen; and, behold, they are in the © 
city of Arimathea, living together in prayers. And, indeed, 
they are heard crying out, but speaking with nobody, and 
they are silent as the dead. But come, let us go to them; © 
let us conduct them to us with all honour and respect. And 
if we adjure them, perhaps they will speak to us of the mystery 
of their resurrection. | 
At hearing this they all rejoiced. And Annas and Caia- 
phas, Nicodemus, and Joseph, and Gamaliel, went, and did not 
find them in their sepulchres; but, walking into the city of 


Arimathea, they found them there, on their bended knees, and 
198 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 199 


spending their time in prayer. And kissing them, they con- 
ducted them to Jerusalem, into the synagogue, with all venera- 
tion and fear of God. And shutting the doors, and lifting up 
the law of the Lord, they put it in their hands, adjuring them 
by the God Adonai, and the God of Israel, who by the law 
and the prophets spoke to our fathers, saying: Do you believe 
that it was Jesus who raised you from the dead? Tell us how 
you have risen from the dead. 

Karinus and Leucius, hearing this adjuration, trembled in 
their body, and groaned, being disturbed in heart. And together 
they looked towards heaven, and with their fingers made the 
sign of the cross on their tongues, and immediately they spoke 
together, saying: Give each of us sheets of paper, and let us 
write what we have seen and heard. And they gave it to 
them. And they sat down, and each of them wrote, saying: 


Cup. 2 (18).—O Lord Jesus Christ, the resurrection and the 
life of the dead, permit us to speak mysteries through the death 
of Thy cross, because we have been adjured by Thee. For 
Thou didst order Thy servants to relate to no one the secrets 
of Thy divine majesty which Thou didst in Hades. And 
when we were, along with all our fathers, lying in the deep, in 
the blackness of darkness, suddenly there appeared a golden 
heat* of the sun, and a purple royal light shining upon us. 
And immediately the father of all the human race, with all 
the patriarchs and prophets, exulted, saying: That light is the 
source of eternal light, which hath promised to transmit to us 
co-eternal light. And Esaias cried out, and said: This is the 
light of the Father, the Son of God, as I predicted when I was 
alive upon earth: The land of Zabulon and the land of Neph- 
thalim across Jordan, Galilee of the nations, the people who sat 

in darkness, have seen a great light; and light was shining 
among those who are in the region of the shadow of death. 
And now it has come and shone upon us sitting in death. 

And when we were all exulting in the light which shone 
over us, there came up to us our father Simeon; and he said, 
exulting: Glorify the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God; 
because I took Him up when born, an infant, in my hands in 

* Calor ; another ms. has color, hue. 


200 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


the temple; and instigated by the Holy Spirit, I said to Him, 
confessing: Now mine eyes have seen Thy salvation, which 
Thou hast prepared in the sight of all peoples, a light for the 
revealing of the nations, and the glory of Thy people Israel. 
When they heard this, all the multitude of the saints exulted 
more. 

And after this there comes up, as it were, a dweller in the 
desert; and he is asked by all: Who art thou? To whom 
he says in answer: I am John, the voice and prophet of the 
Most High, going before the face of His coming to prepare His 
ways, to give the knowledge of salvation to His people for 
the remission of their sins. And seeing Him coming to me, 
instigated by the Holy Spimt, I said: Behold the Lamb of 
God! behold Him who taketh away the sins of the world! 
And I baptized Him in the river of Jordan, and I saw the 
Holy Spirit descending upon Him in the form of a dove; and 
I heard a voice from the heavens saying, This is my beloved 
Son, in whom I am well pleased. And now I have gone before 
His face, and have descended to announce to you that the 
rising Son of God is close at hand to visit us, coming from 
on high to us sitting in darkness and the shadow of death. 


CuAp. 3 (19)—And when the first created, father Adam, 
had heard this, that Jesus was baptized in Jordan, he cried out 
to his son Seth: Tell thy sons, the patriarchs and the prophets, 
all that thou heardest from Michael the archangel when I sent 
thee to the gates of paradise to implore God that He might 
send thee His angel to give thee oil from the tree of mercy, 
with which to anoint my body when I was sick. Then Seth, 
coming near to the holy patriarchs and prophets, said: When 
I, Seth, was praying to the Lord at the gates of paradise, behold 
Michael, the angel of the Lord, appeared to me, saying, I have 
been sent to thee by the Lord. I am set over the human race.! 
And to thee, Seth, I say, do not labour with tears in prayers 
and supplications on account of the oil of the tree of mercy to 
anoint thy father Adam for the pain of his body, because in 
no wise shalt thou receive of it, except in the last days and 
times, except when five thousand and five hundred years have 

1 Lit., body. 


i | en ws 


See"  - = 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 201 


been fulfilled: then will come upon the earth the most beloved 
Son of God, to raise up again the body of Adam, and the bodies 
of the dead; and He, when He comes, will be baptized in 
Jordan. And when He shall have come out of the water of 
Jordan, then with the oil of His mercy shall He anoint all 
that believe on Him; and that oil of mercy shall be for the 
generation of those who shall be born out of water and the 
Holy Spirit into life eternal. Then, descending upon earth, 
Christ Jesus, the most beloved Son of God, will lead our father 
Adam into paradise to the tree of mercy. 

And when they heard all these things from Seth, all the 
patriarchs and prophets exulted with great exultation. 


Cuap. 4 (20)—And when all the saints were exulting, lo, 
Satan, the prince and leader of death, said to Hades: Make 
thyself ready to receive Jesus, who boasts himself to be the 
Son of God, and is a man fearing death, and saying, My soul 
is sorrowful, even unto death. And he has withstood me 
much, doing me evil; and many whom I made blind, lame, 
deaf, leprous, and demoniac, he has healed with a word; and 
those whom I have brought to thee dead, he has dragged away 
from thee. 

Hades, answering, said to Prince Satan: Who is he that is 
so powerful, when he is a man in fear of death? Jor all the 
powerful of the earth are kept in subjection by my power, 
whom thou hast brought into subjection by thy power. If, 
then, thou art powerful, what is that man Jesus like, who, 
though fearing death, withstands thy power? If he is so 
powerful in humanity, verily I say unto thee, he is all-power- 
ful in divinity, and his power can no one resist. And when 
he says that he fears death, he wishes to lay hold on thee, and 
woe will be to thee to the ages of eternity. And Satan, prince 
of Tartarus, answered and said: Why hast thou doubted, and 
feared to receive this Jesus, thy adversary and mine? For I 
have tempted him, and I have roused up my ancient people 
the Jews with hatred and anger against him; I have sharpened 
a lance to strike him; I have mixed gall and vinegar to give 
him to drink; and I have prepared wood to crucify him, and 


202 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


nails to pierce him, and his death is near at hand, that I may 
bring him to thee, subject to thee and me. 

Tartarus answered and said: Thou hast told me that it is 
he himself who has dragged away the dead from me. Now 
there are many who are here kept by me, who, while they 
lived on earth, took the dead from me, not by their own 
powers, but by godly prayers, and their almighty God dragged 
them away from me. Who is that Jesus, who by his word 
has withdrawn the dead from me without prayers? Perhaps 
he is the same who, by the word of his command, brought alive 
Lazarus, after he had been four days in stench and corruption, 
whom I kept dead. Satan, prince of death, answered and said: 
That Jesus is the same. And when Hades heard this, he said 
to him: I adjure thee by thy powers and mine, do not bring 
him to me. For I at that time, when I heard the command 
of his word, trembled with terror and dismay, and all my 
officers at the same time were confounded along with me. 
Nor could we keep that Lazarus; but, shaking himself like an 
eagle, he sprang out, and went forth from us with all activity 
and speed, and the same ground which held the dead body of 
Lazarus immediately gave him- forth alive. So now, I know 
that that man who could do these things is God, strong in 
authority, powerful in humanity, and He is the Saviour of the 
human race. But if thou bring Him to me, all who are here 
shut up in the cruelty of the prison, and bound by their sins 
in chains that cannot be loosened, He will let loose, and will 
bring to the life of His divinity for ever. 


Cuap. 5 (21).—And as Prince Satan and Hades were thus 
speaking to each other in turn, suddenly there was a voice as 


of thunders, and a shouting of spirits: Lift up your gates, ye i 


princes; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting gates; and the 
King of glory shall come in.t Hades hearing this, said to — 
Prince Satan: Retire from me, and go outside of my realms: | 
if thou art a powerful warrior, fight against the King of glory. — 
But what hast thou to do with Him? And Hades thrust 
Satan outside of his realms. And Hades said to his impious 
officers: Shut the cruel gates of brass, and put up the bars of 
Cy he so) Ay 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 203 


iron, and resist bravely, that we, holding captivity, may not 
take [ Him] captive.’ 

And all the multitude of the saints, hearing this, said to 
Hades, with the voice of reproach: Open thy gates, that the 
King of glory may come in. And David cried out, saying: 
Did I not, when I was alive upon earth, prophesy to you: Let 
them confess to the Lord His tender mercies and His wonder- 
-ful works to the children of men: for He has shattered the 
brazen gates, and burst the iron bars; He has taken them up 
out of the way of their imiquity?? And after this, in lke 
manner, Esaias said: Did not I, when I was alive upon earth, 
prophesy to you: The dead shall rise up, and those who are 
in their tombs shall rise again, and those who are upon earth 
shall exult; because the dew, which is from the Lord, is their 
health?* And again I said, Where, O Death, is thy sting? 
where, O Hades, is thy victory ?* 

And when all the saints heard this from Esaias, they said 
to Hades: Open thy gates. Since thou art now conquered, 
thou wilt be weak and powerless. And there was a great 
voice, as of thunders, saying: Lift up your gates, ye princes ; 
and be ye lifted up, ye infernal gates; and the King of glory 
shall come in. Hades, seeing that they had twice shouted 
out this, says, as if not knowing: Who is the king of glory? 
David says, in answer to Hades: I recognise those words of 
the shout, since I prophesied the same by His Spirit. And 
_now, what I have said above I say to thee, The Lord strong 
and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle; He is the King of 
glory.” And the Lord Himself hath looked down from heaven 
upon earth, to hear the groans of the prisoners, and to release 
the sons of the slain.© And now, most filthy and most foul 
Hades, open thy gates, that the King of glory may come in. 
While David was thus speaking, there came to Hades, in the 
form of a man, the Lord of majesty, and lighted up the eternal 
darkness, and burst asunder the indissoluble chains; and the 


Ps. lxviii. 18. Captivemus in the text is probably a misprint for captivenur, 
may not be taken captive. 

* Ps. evii. 15-17, according to the LXX. and the Vulgate. 

3 Isa, xxvi. 19, according to the LXX. 4 Hos. xiii. 14; 1 Cor. xv. 55. 

5 Ps. xxiv. 7, 8. 6 Ps. cii. 19, 20. 


204 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


aid of unconquered power visited us, sitting in the profound 
darkness of transgressions, and in the shadow of death of sins." 


Cuap. 6 (22)—When this was seen by Hades and Death, 
and their impious officers, along with their cruel servants, they 
trembled at perceiving in their own dominions the clearness of 
so great a light, when they saw Christ suddenly in their abodes; 
and they cried out, saying: We have been overcome by thee. 
Who art thou, that to the Lord directest our confusion 12 Who 
art thou, that, undestroyed by corruption, the uncorrupted proof 
of thy majesty, with fury condemnest our power? Who art 
thou, so great and little, lowly and exalted, soldier and com- 
mander, wonderful warrior in the form of a slave, and the king 
of glory dead and alive, whom slain the cross has carried ? 
Thou, who didst lie dead in the sepulchre, hast come down to 
us alive; and in thy death every creature trembled, and the 
stars in a body were moved; and now thou hast been made 
free among the dead, and disturbest our legions. Who art 
thou, that settest free those who art held captive, bound by 
original sin, and recallest them to their former liberty? Who 
art thou, who sheddest a divine, and splendid, and illuminating 
light upon those who have been blinded by the darkness of 
their sins? In like manner, also, all the legions of the demons, 
terror-stricken with lke fear from their fearful overthrow, cried 
out, saying: Whence art thou, O Jesus, a man so powerful and 
splendid in majesty, so excellent, without spot, and free from 
euilt? For that world of earth which has been subject to us 
always until now, which used to pay tribute for our usés, has 
never sent us such a dead man, has never destined such gifts 
for the powers below. Who therefore art thou, that hast so 
intrepidly entered our bounds, and who hast not only no fear 
of our punishments, but, moreover, attemptest to take all away 
from our chains? Perhaps thou art that Jesus of whom our 
prince Satan said, that by thy death of the cross thou wast 
destined to receive the dominion of the whole world. 


1 Cf. Isa. ix. 2; Lukei. 79. 

* Some Mss. have: Who art thou, O man, that to God directest thy prayer to 
our confusion? The correct reading may be: Who art thou, that bringest con- 
fusion upon our master ? 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 205 


Then the King of glory, trampling on death by His majesty, 
and seizing Prince Satan, delivered him to the power of Hades, 
and drew Adam to His brightness. 


Cuap. 7 (23).—Then Hades, receiving Prince Satan, said to 
him, with vehement revilings: O prince of perdition, and leader 
of extermination, Beelzebub, derision of angels, to be spit wpon 
by the just, why didst thou wish to do this? Didst thou wish 
to crucify the King of glory, in whose death thou didst promise 
us so great spoils? Like a fool, thou didst not know what thou 
wast doing. For, behold, that Jesus by the splendour of His 
divinity is putting to flight all the darkness of death, and He 
has broken into the strong lowest depths of our dungeons, and 
has brought out the captives, and released those who were 
bound. And all who used to groan under our torments insult 
us, and by their prayers our dominions are taken by storm, 
and our realms conquered, and no race of men has now any 
respect for us. Moreover, also, we are grievously threatened 
by the dead, who have never been haughty to us, and who have 
not at any time been joyful as captives. O Prince Satan, father 
of all impious wretches and renegades, why didst thou wish to 
do this? Of those who from the beginning, even until now, 
have despaired of salvation and life, no bellowing after the 
usual fashion is now heard here; and no groaning of theirs 
resounds, nor in any of their faces is a trace of tears found. 
O Prince Satan, possessor of the keys of the lower regions, all 
thy riches which thou hadst acquired by the tree of trans- 
eression and the loss of paradise, thou hast now lost by the 
tree of the cross, and all thy joy has perished. When thou 
didst hang up that Christ Jesus the King of glory, thou wast 
acting against thyself and against me. Henceforth thou shalt 
know what eternal torments and infinite punishments thou art 
to endure in my everlasting keeping. O Prince Satan, author 
of death, and source of all pride, thou oughtest first to have 
inquired into the bad cause of that Jesus. Him in whom thou 
perceivedst no fault, why, without reason, didst thou dare 
unjustly to crucify ? and why hast thou brought to our regions 
one innocent and just, and lost the guilty, the impious, and the 
unjust of the whole world ? 


206 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


And when Hades had thus spoken to Prince Satan, then the 
King of glory said to Hades: Satan the prince will be in thy 
power for ever, in place of Adam and his sons, my just ones. 


Cuar. 8 (24).—And the Lord stretched out His hand, and 
said: Come to me, all my saints, who have my image and like- 
ness. Do you, who have been condemned through the tree 
and the devil and death, now see the devil and death con- 
demned through the tree. Immediately all the saints were 
brought together under the hand of the Lord. And the Lord, 
holding Adam by the right hand, said to him: Peace be to 
thee, with all thy children, my righteous ones! And Adam fell 
down at the knees of the Lord, and with tearful entreaty pray- 
ing, said with a loud voice: I will extol Thee, O Lord; for Thou 
hast lifted me up, and hast not made my foes to rejoice over 
me. O Lord God, I cried unto Thee, and Thou hast healed me. 
O Lord, Thou hast brought out my soul from the powers below; 
Thou hast saved me from them that go down into the pit. Sing 


praises to the Lord, all His saints, and confess to the memory _ i 


of His holiness ; since there is anger in His indignation, and life 
in His goodwill. In like manner also all the saints of God, 
falling on their knees at the feet of the Lord, said with one 
voice: Thou hast come, O Redeemer of the world: as Thou hast 
foretold by the law and Thy prophets, so hast Thou fulfilled by 
Thy deeds. Thou hast redeemed the living by Thy cross; and — 
by the death of the cross Thou hast come down to us, to rescue 
us from the powers below, and from death, by Thy majesty. O 
Lord, as Thou hast set the title of thy glory in heaven, and hast 
erected as the title of redemption Thy cross upon earth, so, Ὁ 
Lord, set in Hades the sign of the victory of Thy cross, that 
death may no more have dominion. | 

And the Lord, stretching forth His hand, made the sign of 
the cross upon Adam and upon all His saints; and holding _ 
Adam by the right hand, went up from the powers below: and — 
all the saints followed Him. Then holy David cried out aloud, 


saying: Sing unto the Lord a new song, for He hath done 


wonderful things; His right hand and His holy arm have © 
brought salvation to Himself. The Lord hath made known 
1 Ps, xxx. 1-6 (Vulg.). 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 207 


His salvation; His righteousness hath He revealed in the sight 
of the heathen.!’ And all the multitude of the saints answered, 
saying: This is glory to all His saints. Amen, alleluia. 

And after this the prophet Habacue cried out, saying: Thou 
wentest forth for the salvation of Thy people, to deliver Thine 
elect.2 And all the saints answered, saying: Blessed is He 
who cometh in the name of the Lord; God is the Lord, and 
He hath shone upon us.* Amen, alleluia. In like manner 
after this the prophet Michzas also cried out, saying: Who is 
a God like unto thee, O Lord, taking away iniquities and pass- 
ing by sins? And now Thou dost withhold Thine anger for a 
testimony [against us], because Thou delightest in mercy. And. 
Thou turnest again, and hast compassion upon us, and pardonest 
all our iniquities; and all our sins hast Thou sunk in the multi- 
tude of death,* as Thou hast sworn unto our fathers in the days 
of old. And all the saints answered, saying: This is our God 
to eternity, and for ever and ever; and He will direct us for 
evermore.®° Amen, alleluia. So also all the prophets, quoting 
the sacred [ writings] concerning His praises,’ and all the saints 
erying, Amen, alleluia, followed the Lord. 


Cuap. 9 (25).—And the Lord, holding the hand of Adam, 
delivered him to Michael the archangel: and all the saints 
followed Michael the archangel, and he led them all into the 
glorious grace of paradise. And there met them two men, 
ancient of days. The saints asked them: Who are you, that 
have not yet been dead along with us in the regions below, and 
have been placed in paradise in the body? One of them 
answered, and said: I am Enoch, who by the word of the Lord 
have been translated hither; and he who is with me is Elias 
the Thesbite, who was taken up by a fiery chariot. Here also 
even until now we have not tasted death, hut have been reserved. 
to the coming of Antichrist, by divine signs and wonders to do 
battle with him, and, being killed by him in Jerusalem, after 


Ps. xeviii. 1, 2. 2 Hab. iii. 13. 3 Ps. cxviii. 26, 27. 
4So the text, multitudine mortis ; but the mss. must have had altitudine 
maris, in the depth of the sea, with the LXX. and the Hebrew. 
5 Mic. vii. 18-20. 6 Ps. xlviii. 14, 
7 Or, bringing sacred words from their praises. 


208 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


three days and half a day to be taken up alive again in the 
clouds.’ 


Crap. 10 (26).—And while the saints Enoch and Elias were 
thus speaking, behold, there came up another man, most 
wretched, carrying on his shoulders the sign of the cross. And 
seeing him, all the saints said to him: Who art thou? because 
thy appearance is that of a robber. And what is the sign 
which thou ecarriest on thy shoulders? In answer to them, he 
said: Truly have you said that I was a robber, doing all sorts 
of evil upon the earth. And the Jews crucified me along with 
Jesus; and I saw the miracles in created things which were 
done through the cross of Jesus crucified, and I believed Him to 
be the Creator of all created things, and the King omnipotent ; 
and I entreated Him, saying, Be mindful of me, Lord, when 
Thou shalt have come into Thy kingdom. Immediately He 
accepted my entreaty, and said to me, Amen; I say to thee, 
To-day shalt thou be with me in paradise. And He gave me 
this sign of the cross, saying, Walk into paradise carrying 
this; and if the guardian angel of paradise will not let thee go 
in, show him the sign of the cross, and thou shalt say to him, 
Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who has now been crucified, has 
sent me. Having done so, I said all this to the guardian angel 
of paradise. And when he heard this, he immediately opened, 
~and led me in, and placed me at the right of paradise, saying, 
Lo, hold a little, and there will come in the father of the whole 
human race, Adam, with all his children, holy and just, after 
the triumph and glory of the ascension of Christ the crucified 
Lord. Hearing all these words of the robber, all the holy 
patriarchs and prophets with one voice said: Blessed art Thou, 
O Lord Almighty, Father of everlasting benefits, and Father of 
mercies, who hast given such grace to Thy sinners, and hast 
brought them back into the grace of paradise, and into Thy 
rich pastures ; for this is spiritual life most sure. Amen, amen. 


Cuap. 11 (27).—These are the divine and sacred mysteries 
which we saw and heard, I Karinus, and Leucius. More we 
are not allowed to tell of the other mysteries of God,as Michael 

* Rey. xi. 3-12; 1 Thess. iv. 17. * Luke xxiii, 42, 48. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 209 


the archangel adjured us, and said: You shall go into Jerusalem 
with your brethren, and continue in prayers, and you shall cry 
out, and glorify the resurrection of the Lord Jesus Christ, who 
has raised you up again from the dead with Himself. And with 
none of men shall you speak; and you shall sit as if dumb, 
until the hour shall come when the Lord Himself shall permit 
you to relate the mysteries of His divinity. And Michael the 
archangel ordered us to walk across Jordan into a place rich 
and fertile, where there are many who rose again along with us 


for an evidence of the resurrection of Christ the Lord; because 


only three days were allowed to us who have risen from the 
dead to celebrate in Jerusalem the passover of the Lord, with 
our living relations, for an evidence of the resurrection of Christ 
the Lord: and we have been baptized in the holy river of 
Jordan, receiving each of us white robes. And after three 
days, when we had celebrated the passover of the Lord, all 
who rose again along with us were snatched up into the clouds, 
and taken across the Jordan, and were no longer seen by any 
one. But we were told to remain in the city of Arimathea in 
prayers. 

These are the things which the Lord commanded us to relate 
to you. Give Him praise and confession, and be penitent, that 
He may have mercy upon you. Peace be to you from the 
same Lord Jesus Christ, and the Saviour of all of us! Amen. 

And after they had finished all, writing on separate sheets of 
paper, they arose. And Karinus gave what he wrote into the 
hands of Annas and Caiaphas and Gamaliel; in like manner 
also Leucius gave what he wrote into the hands of Nicodemus 
and Joseph. And being suddenly transfigured, they became 
exceedingly white, and were seen no more. And their writings 
were found exactly the same, not one letter more or less. 

All the synagogue of the Jews, hearing all these wonderful 
sayings of Karinus and Leucius, said to each other: Truly all 
these things have been done by the Lord, and blessed be the 
Lord for ever and ever. Amen. And they all went out with 
great anxiety, beating their breasts with fear and trembling; 
and they went away, each to his own house. 

All these things which were said by the Jews in their 


_ Synagogue Joseph and Nicodemus immediately reported to the 


O 


210 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


proconsul. And Pilate himself wrote all which had been done ~ 
and said concerning Jesus by the Jews, and he placed all the © 
words in the public records of his preetorium. 


Cusp. 12 (28)—After this, Pilate going into the temple of — 
the Jews, assembled all the chief priests, and learned men, and — 
scribes, and teachers of the law, and went in with them into the — 
sanctuary of the temple, and ordered that all the gates should 
be shut, and said to them: We have heard that you have a 
certain great collection of books in this temple: therefore I ask 
you that it be presented before us. And when four officers — 
brought in that collection of books, adorned with gold and pre-— 
cious gems, Pilate said to all: I adjure you by the God of your — 
fathers, who ordered you to build this temple in the place of — 
his sanctuary, not to conceal the truth from me. You all | 
know what is written in that collection of books; but now say 
whether you have found in the writings that Jesus, whom you 
have crucified, to be the Son of God that was to come forthe | 
salvation of the human race, and in how many revolutions of 1 
the seasons he ought to come. Declare to me whether you 
crucified him in ignorance of this, or knowing it. | 

| 
| 


Being thus adjured, Annas and Caiaphas ordered all the 
others aha were with them to go out of the sanctuary; and 
themselves shut all the gates of the temple and the sanctuary, — 
and said to Pilate: We have been adjured by thee, O good — 
judge, by the building of this temple, to give thee the truth, and 
a clear account [of this matter]. After we had crucified Jesus, — 
not knowing Him to be the Son of God, thinking that He did — 
miracles by : means of some charm, we made a great synagogue © 
in this temple. And conferring with each αἰνῶς of the signs of | 
the miracles which Jesus had done, we found many witnesseail| 
of our nation who said that they had seen Jesus alive — 
suffering death, and that He had penetrated into the height οἱ 
heaven. And we have seen two witnesses, whom Jesus raised | 
up again from the dead, who told us many wonderful things | 
that Jesus did among the dead, which we have in our hands, | 
written out. And our custom is, every year before our syna- — 
gogue, to open that holy collection of books, and seek out the — 
testimony of God. And we have found in the first book of the — 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 211 


LXX., where the archangel Michael spoke to the third son of 
Adam, the first man, of five thousand and five hundred years, 
in which the Christ, the most beloved Son of God, was to come 
from the heavens ; and upon this we have considered that per- 
haps He was the God of Israel who said to Moses,‘ Make to 
thee the ark of the covenant, two cubits and a half in length, 
one cubit and a half in breadth, one cubit and a half in height. 
In these five and a half cubits we have understood and recog- 
nised, from the structure of the ark of the old covenant, that 
in five and a half thousands of years, Jesus Christ was to come 
in the ark of the body; and we have found Him to be the God 
of Israel, the Son of God. Because after His passion, we, the 


chief priests, wondering at the signs which happened on account 


of Him, opened this collection of books, searching out all the 
generations, even to the generation of Joseph, and reckoning 
that Mary the mother of Christ was of the seed of David ; 
and we have found that from the time that God made the 
heaven and the earth and the first man, to the deluge, are two 
thousand two hundred and twelve* years ; and from the deluge 
to the building of the tower, five hundred and thirty-one® 
years ; and from the building of the tower to Abraham, six 
hundred and six* years; and from Abraham to the arrival of 
the children of Israel from Egypt, four hundred and seventy 
years ; from the coming of the children of Israel out of Egypt 
to the building of the temple, five hundred and eleven years ; 
and from the building of the temple to the destruction of the 
same temple, four hundred and sixty-four years. Thus far 
have we found in the book of Esdras. After searching, we find 
that from the burning of the temple to the advent of Christ, 
and His birth, there are six hundred and thirty-six? years, which 
together were five thousand five hundred years, as we have 
found written in the book that Michael the archangel foretold 
to Seth the third son of Adam, that in five and a half thousands 
of years Christ the Son of God would come.® Even until now 
we have told no one, that there might be no dissension in our 
synagogues. And now thou hast adjured us, O good judge, by 


1 Ex. xxv. 10. 2 Should be 2262---βσοβ in place of βσιβ. 
3 This includes the second Cainan. 4 Should be 676. 
6 Should be 586—nLXxxvI. instead of DcXxXxXVI. 6 Lit., has come. 


212 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


this holy book of the testimonies of God, and we make it mani- 
fest to thee. And now we adjure thee, by thy life and safety, 
to make manifest these words to no one in Jerusalem. 


Cup. 13 (29).—Pilate, hearing these words of Annas and 
Caiaphas, laid them all up in the acts of our Lord and Saviour, 
in the public records of his preetorium, and wrote a letter to 
Claudius, king of the city of Rome, saying :— 

Pontius Pilate to Claudius his king, greeting. It has lately 
happened, as I myself have also proved, that the Jews, through 
envy, have punished themselves and their posterity by a cruel 
condemnation. In short, when their fathers had a promise 
that their God would send them from heaven his holy one, 
who should deservedly be called their king, and promised 
that he would send him by a virgin upon the earth: when, 
therefore, while I was procurator, he had come into Judea, 
and when they saw him enlightening the blind, cleansing the 
lepers, curing the paralytics, making demons flee from men, 
even raising the dead, commanding the winds, walking dry- 
shod upon the waves of the sea, and doing many other signs of 
miracles ; and when all the people of the Jews said that he was 
the Son of God, the chief priests felt envy against him, and 
seized him, and delivered him to me; and, telling me one lie 
after another, they said that he was a sorcerer, and was acting 
contrary to their law. 

And I believed that it was so, and delivered him to be 
scourged, according to their will. And they crucified him, and 
set guards over him when buried. And he rose again on the 
third day, while my soldiers were keeping guard. But so fla- 
erant was the iniquity of the Jews, that they gave money to 
my soldiers, saying, Say that his disciples have stolen his body. 
But after receiving the money they could not keep secret what 
had been done ; for they bore witness both that he had risen 
again, that they had seen him, and that they had received 
money from the Jews. 

This accordingly I have done, lest any one should give a 
different and a false account of it, and lest thou shouldst think 
that the lies of the Jews are to be believed. 

‘Or, that they had seen that he rose from the dead. 


hf Se ὡν 


a MEL St et ey 


Oe Ona 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 
PART IL—THE DESCENT OF CHRIST INTO HELL. 


LATIN. SECOND VERSION. 


CHAPTER I. (17). 


sss TIEN Rabbi Addas, and Rabbi Finees, and Rabbi 

Ἢ Egias, the three men who had come from Galilee, 
testifying that they had seen Jesus taken up into 
heaven, rose up in the midst of the multitude of the 
chiefs of the Jews, and said before the priests and the Levites, 
who had been called together to the council of the Lord: When 
we were coming from Galilee, we met at the Jordan a very 
ereat multitude of men, fathers * who had been some time dead. 
And present among them we saw Karinus and Leucius. And 
they came up to us, and we kissed each other, because they 
were dear friends of ours; and we asked them, Tell us, friends 
and brothers, what is this breath of life and flesh? and who 
are those with whom you are going? and how do you, who 
have been some time dead, remain in the body ? 

And they said in answer: We have risen again along with 
Christ from the lower world, and He has raised us up again 
from the dead. And from this you may know that the gates 
of death and darkness have been destroyed, and the souls of the 
saints have been brought out thence, and have ascended into 
heaven along with Christ the Lord. And indeed to us it has 
been commanded by the Lord Himself, that for an appointed 
time we should walk over the banks of Jordan and the moun- 
tains; not, however, appearing to every one, nor speaking to 

1 Abbatorum. 
210 


214 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


every one, except to those to whom He has permitted us. And 
just now we could neither have spoken nor appeared to you, 
unless it had been allowed to us by the Holy Spirit. 

And when they heard this, all the multitude who were pre- 
sent in the council were struck with fear and trembling, and 
wondered whether these things had really happened which 
these Galileans testified. Then Caiaphas and Annas said to 
the council: What these have testified, first and last, must 
shortly be altogether made clear: If it shall be found to be 
true that Karinus and Leucius remain alive in the body, and 
if we shall be able to behold them with our own eyes, then 
what they testify is altogether true; and if we find them, they 
will inform us of everything; but if not, you may know that it 
is all lies. 

Then the council having suddenly risen, it pleased them to 
choose men fit for the duty, fearing God, and who knew when 
they died, and where they were buried, to inquire diligently, 
and to see whether it was as they had heard. The men there- 
fore proceeded to the same place, fifteen in number, who through 
all were present at their falling asleep, and had stood at their 
feet when they were buried, and had beheld their tombs. And 
they came and found their tombs open, and very many others 
besides, and found a sign neither of their bones nor of their 
dust. And they returned in all haste, and reported what they 
had seen. 

Then all their synagogue was in great grief and perplexity, 
and they said to each other: What shall we do? Annas and 
Caiaphas said: Let us turn to where we have heard that they 
are, and let us send to them men of rank, asking and entreating 
them: perhaps they will deign to come to us. Then they sent 
to them Nicodemus and Joseph, and the three men, the Galilean 
rabbis who had seen them, asking that they should deign to 
come to them. And they went, and walked round all the 
region of Jordan and of the mountains, and they were coming 
back without finding them. 

And, behold, suddenly there appeared coming down from 
Mount Amalech a very great number, as it were, twelve 
thousand men, who had risen with the Lord. And though 
they recognised very many there, they were not able to say 


Ι 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 215 


anything to them for fear and the angelic vision; and they 
stood at a distance gazing and hearing them, how they walked 
along singing praises, and saying: The Lord has risen again 
from the dead, as He had said; let us all exult and be glad, 
since He reigns for ever. Then those who had been sent 
were astonished, and fell to the ground for fear, and received 
the answer from them, that they should see Karinus and 
Leucius in their own houses. 

And they rose up and went to their houses, and found them 
spending their time in prayer. And going in to them, they 
fell on their faces to the ground, saluting them; and being 
raised up, they said: O friends of God, all the multitude of 
the Jews have directed us to you, hearing that you have risen 
from the dead, asking and beseeching you to come to them, 
that we all may know the great things of God which have 
happened around us in our times. And they immediately, at 
a sion from God, rose up, and came with them, and entered ; 
their synagogue. Then the multitude of the Jews, with the 
priests, put the books of the law in their hands, and adjured 
them by the God Heloi, and the God Adonai, and by the law 
and the prophets, saying: Tell us how you have risen from 
the dead, and what are those wonderful things which have 
happened in our times, such as we have never heard to have 
happened at any other time; because already for fear all our 
bones have been benumbed, and have dried up, and the earth 
moves itself under our feet: for we have joined all our hearts 
to shed righteous and holy blood. 

Then Karinus and Leucius signed to them with their hands 
to give them a sheet of paper and ink. And this they did, 
because the Holy Spirit did not allow them to speak to them. 
And they gave each of them paper, and put them apart, the 
one from the other in separate cells. And they, making with 
their fingers the sign of the cross of Christ, began to write on 
the separate sheets; and after they had finished, as if out of 
one mouth from the separate cells, they cried out, Amen. And 
rising up, Karinus gave his paper to Annas, and Leucius to 
Caiaphas ; and saluting each other, they went out, and returned 
to their sepulchres. 

Then Annas and Caiaphas, opening the sheet of paper, began 


216 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


each to read it in secret. But all the people took it ill, and so 
all cried out: Read these writings to us openly ; and after they 
have been read through we shall keep them, lest perchance 
this truth of God be turned through wilful blindness, by un- 
clean and deceitful men, into falsehood. At this Annas and 
Caiaphas fell a-trembling, and delivered the sheet of paper to 
tabbi Addas, and Rabbi Finees, and Rabbi Egias, who had 
come from Galilee, and announced that Jesus had been taken 
up into heaven. All the multitude of the Jews trusted to 
them to read this writing. And they read the paper containing 
these words :— 


Cuap. 2 (18).—I Karinus. O Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the 
living God, permit me to speak of Thy wonders which Thou 
hast done in the lower world. When, therefore, we were kept 
in darkness and the shadow of death in the lower world, 
suddenly there shone upon us a great light, and Hades and 
the gates of death trembled. And then was heard the voice 
of the Son of the Father most high, as if the voice of a great 
thunder; and loudly proclaiming, He thus charged them: Lift 
up your gates, ye princes; lift up the everlasting gates; the 
King of glory, Christ the Lord, will come up to enter in. 

Then Satan, the leader of death, came up, fleeimg in terror, 
saying to his officers and the powers below: My officers, and 
all the powers below, run together, shut your gates, put up 
the iron bars, and fight bravely, and resist, lest they lay hold 
of us, and keep us captive in chains. Then all his impious 
officers were perplexed, and began to shut the gates of death 
with all diligence, and by little and little to fasten the locks 
and the iron bars, and to hold all their weapons’ grasped 
in their hands, and to utter howlings in a direful and most 
hideous voice. 


Cuap. 3 (19)—Then Satan said to Hades: Make thyself 
ready to receive him whom I shall bring down to thee. There- 
upon Hades thus replied to Satan: That voice was from nothing 
else than the cry of the Son of the Father most high, because 
the earth and all the places of the world below so trembled 

‘ Ornamenta ; another Ms. has armamenta. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 217 


under it: wherefore I think that myself and all my dungeons 
are now lying open. But I adjure thee, Satan, head of all 
evils,! by thy power and my own, bring him not to me, lest, 
while we wish to take him, we be taken captive by him. For 
if, at his voice only, all my power has been thus destroyed, 
what do you think he will do when he shall come in person ? 

To him Satan, the leader of death, thus replied: What art 
thou crying out about? Do not be afraid, my old most wicked 
friend, because I have stirred up the people of the Jews against 
him; I have told them to strike him with blows on the face, 
and I have brought upon him betrayal by one of his disciples ; 
and he. is a man in great fear of death, because from fear 
he said, My soul is sorrowful, even unto death; and I have 
brought him to this, that he has just been lifted up and hanged 
on the cross. 

Then Hades said to him: If he be the same who, by the 
mere word of his command, made Lazarus fly away lke an 
eagle from my bosom, when he had already been dead four 
days, he is not a man in humanity, but God in majesty. I 
entreat thee not to bring him to me. And Satan says to him: 
Make thyself ready nevertheless ; be not afraid; because he is 
already hanging on the cross, I can do nothing else. Then 
Hades thus rephed to Satan: If, then, thou canst do nothing 
else, behold, thy destruction is at hand. I, in short, shall 
remain cast down and dishonoured; thou, however, wilt be 
tortured under my power. 


CaP. 4 (20).—And the saints of God heard the wrangling 
of Satan and Hades. They, however, though as yet not at all 
recognising each other, were, notwithstanding, in the possession 
of their faculties. But our holy father Adam thus replied to 
Satan at once: O captain of death, why dost thou fear and 
tremble? Behold, the Lord is coming, who will now destroy 
all thy inventions; and thou shalt be taken by Him, and bound 
throughout eternity. 

Then all the saints, hearing the voice of our father Adam, 
how boldly he replied to Satan in all points, were strengthened 
in joy; and all running together to father Adam, were crowded ~ 

1 Or, of all the wicked. 


218 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


in one place. Then our father Adam, gazing on all that multi- 
tude, wondered greatly whether all of them had been begotten 
from him into the world. And embracing those who were 
standing everywhere around him, and shedding most bitter 
tears, he addressed his son Seth, saying: Relate, my son Seth, 
to the holy patriarchs and prophets what the guardian of 
paradise said to thee, when I sent thee to bring to me of that 
oil of compassion, in order to anoint my body when I was ill. 

Then he answered: I, when thou sentest me before the gates 
of paradise, prayed and entreated the Lord with tears, and 
called upon the guardian of paradise to give me of it therefrom. 
Then Michael the archangel came out, and said to me, Seth, 
why then dost thou weep? Know, being informed beforehand, 
that thy father Adam will not receive of this oil of compassion 
now, but after many generations of time. For the most beloved 
Son of God will eome down from heaven into the world, and 
will be baptized by John in the river Jordan; and then shall 
thy father Adam receive of this oil* of compassion, and all that 
believe in him. And of those who have believed in him, their 
kingdom will endure for ever. 


Cuap. 5 (21).—Then all the saints, hearing this again, exulted 
in joy. And one of those standing round, Isaias by name, 
cried out aloud, and thundered: Father Adam, and all standing 
round, hear my declaration. When I was on earth, and by the 
teaching of the Holy Spirit, in prophecy I sang of this light : 
The people who sat in darkness have seen a great light; to them 
dwelling in the region of the shadow of death light has arisen. 
At these words father Adam, and all of them, turned and asked 
him: Who art thou? because what thou sayest is true. And 
he subjoined, and said: My name is Isaias. 

Then appeared another near him, as if a hermit. And they 
asked him, saying: Who art thou, who bearest such an appear- 
ance in thy body ?? And he firmly answered: I am John the 
Baptist, voice and prophet of the Most High. I went before 
the face of the same Lord, that I might make the waste and 
rough places into plain ways. 1 with my finger pointed out 


' The text has deo, God, obviously a misprint for oleo, oil. 
* Or, who wearest such (things) on thy body. 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. , fae 


and made manifest the Lamb of the Lord, and Son of God, to 
the inhabitants of Jerusalem. I baptized Him in the river 
Jordan. I heard the voice of the Father from heaven thun- 
_ dering over Him, and proclaiming, This is my beloved Son, 
in whom I am well pleased. I received from Him the answer 
that He would descend to the lower world. 
Then father Adam, hearing this, cried with a loud voice, ex- 
_ claiming: Alleluia! which is, interpreted, The Lord is certainly 
coming. 


Cuap. 6 (22).—After that, another standing there, pre-emi- 
nent as it were, with a certain mark of an emperor, David by 
name, thus cried out, and said: When I was upon earth, 1 
made revelations to the people of the mercy of God and His 

_visitation, prophesying future joys, saying through all ages, 
Let them make confession to the Lord of His tender mercy and 
His wonderful works to the sons of men, because He has shat- 
tered the gates of brass, and broken the bars of iron. Then the 
holy patriarchs and prophets began mutually to recognise each 
other, and each to quote his prophecies. 

Then holy Jeremias, examining his prophecies, said to the 
patriarchs and prophets: When I was upon earth, I prophesied 
of the Son of God, that He was seen upon earth, and dwelt with 
men. 

Then all the saints, exulting in the light of the Lord, and 
in the sight of father Adam, and in the answering of all the 
patriarchs and prophets, cried out, saying: Alleluia! blessed is 
He who cometh in the name of the Lord; so that at their cry- 
ing out Satan trembled, and sought a way of escape. And he 
could not, because Hades and his satellites kept him bound in 
the lower regions, and suarded at all points. And they said to 
him: Why dost thou tremble? We by no means allow thee 
to go forth hence. But receive this, as thou art worthy, from 
Him whom thou didst daily assail ; but if not, know that thou, 
bound by Him, shall be in my keeping. 


Cup. 7 (23).—And again there came the voice of the Son of 
the Father most high, as it were the voice of a great thunder, 
saying: Lift up your gates, ye princes; and be ye lifted up, ye 


220 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


everlasting gates, and the King of glory will come in. Then 
Satan and Hades cried out, saying: Who is the king of glory? 
And it was answered to them in the voice of the Lord: The 
Lord strong and mighty, the Lord mighty in battle. 

After this voice there came a man, whose appearance was 
that of a robber, carrying a cross on his shoulder, crying from 
the outside of the door, and saying: Open to me, that I may 
come in. And Satan, opening to him a little, brought him 
inside into his dwelling,’ and again shut the door after him. 


oO 


And all the saints saw him most clearly, and said to him forth- 


with: Thy appearance is that of a robber. Tell us what it is 
that thou carriest on thy back. And he answered, and said 


with humility: Truly I was a robber altogether ; and the Jews 
hung me up on a cross, along with my Lord Jesus Christ, the 
Son of the Father most high. I, in fine, have come heralding? 
Him; He indeed is coming immediately behind me. 

Then holy David, inflamed with anger against Satan, cried 
out aloud: Open thy gates, most vile wretch, that the King of 
glory may come in. In like manner also all the saints of God 
rose up against Satan, and would have seized him, and divided 
him among them. And again a cry was heard within: Lift 
up your gates, ye princes; and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting 
gates ; and the King of glory shall come in. Hades and Satan, 
at that clear voice, again asked, saying: Who is this king of 
elory? And it was said to them by that wonderful voice: 
The Lord of powers, He is the King of glory. 


Cuar. 8 (24).—And, behold, suddenly Hades trembled, and 
the gates of death and the bolts were shattered, and the iron 
bars were broken and fell to the ground, and everything was 
laid open. And Satan remained in the midst, and stood con- 
founded and downeast, bound with fetters on his feet. And, 
behold, the Lord Jesus Christ, coming in the brightness of light _ 
from on high, compassionate, great, and lowly, carrying a chain” 
in His hand, bound Satan by the neck; and again tying his 
hands behind him, dashed him on his back into Tartarus, and — 
placed His holy foot on his throat, saying: Through all ages _ 


| 
| 


1 HTospitio. . 
2 Preconcitus, corrected to preconatus, or ans. | 


THE GOSPEL OF NICODEMUS. 221 


thou hast done many evils; thou hast not in any wise rested. 
To-day I deliver thee to everlasting fire. And Hades being 
suddenly summoned, He commanded him, and said: Take this 
most wicked and impious one, and have him in thy keeping 
even to that day in which I shall command thee. And he, as 
soon as he received him, was plunged under the feet of the 
Lord along with him into the depth of the abyss. 


Cup. 9 (25).—Then the Lord Jesus, the Saviour of all, affec- 
tionate and most mild, saluting Adam kindly, said to him: 
Peace be to thee, Adam, with thy children, through immeasur- 
able ages of ages! Amen. Then father Adam, falling forward 
at the feet of the Lord, and being raised erect, kissed His hands, 
and shed many tears, saying, testifying to all: Behold the hands 
which fashioned me! And he said to the Lord: Thou hast 
come, O King of glory, delivering men, and bringing them into 
Thy everlasting kingdom. Then also our mother Eve in like 
manner fell forward at the feet of the Lord, and was raised 
erect, and kissed His hands, and poured forth tears in abun- 
dance, and said, testifying to all: Behold the hands which 
made me! 

Then all the saints, adoring Him, cried out, saying: Blessed 
is He who cometh in the name of the Lord! The Lord God 
hath shone upon us—amen—through all ages. Alleluia for 
ever and ever! Praise, honour, power, glory! because Thou 
hast come from on high to visit us. Singing Alleluia con- 
tinually, and rejoicing together concerning His glory, they ran 
together under the hands. of the Lord. Then the Saviour, in- 
quiring thoroughly about all, seized "Hades, immediately threw 
some down into Tartarus, and led some with Him to the upper 
world. 


CuAp. 10 (26).—Then all the saints of God asked the Lord 
to leave as a sign of victory the sign of His holy cross in the 
lower world, that its most impious officers might not retain as 
an offender any one whom the Lord had absolved. And so it 
was done. And the Lord set His cross in the midst of Hades, 


1 Momordidit infernum, which is obviously corrupt. The translator may 
have read δέδηχε ἅδην, bit Hades, for δέδειχε ἅδην, brought Hades to light. 


222 THE APOCRYPHAL GOSPELS. 


which is the sign of victory, and which will remain even to 
eternity. 

Then we all went forth thence along with the Lord, leaving 
Satan and Hades in Tartarus. And to us and many others it 


was commanded that we should rise in the body, giving in the ~ 


world a testimony of the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and of those things which had been done in the lower world. 

These are the things, dearest brethren, which we have seen, 
and which, adjured by you, we testify, He bearing witness who 
died for us, and rose again; because, as it was written, so has it 
been done in all points. 


Cuap. 11 (27).—And when the paper was finished and read 
through, all that heard it fell on their faces, weeping bitterly, | 
and cruelly beating their breasts, crying out, and saying through 
all: Woe to us! Why has this happened to us wretched ? 
Pilate flees; Annas and Caiaphas flee; the priests and Levites 
flee ; moreover also the people of the Jews, weeping and saying, 
Woe to us wretched! we have shed sacred blood upon the 
earth. 

For three days, therefore, and three nights, they did not taste 
bread and water at all; nor did any of them return to the syna- 
gogue. But on the third day again the council was assembled, 
and the other paper of Leucius was read through ; -and it was 
found neither more nor less, to a single letter, than that which 
the writing of Karinus contained. Then the synagogue was 
perplexed ; and they all lamented forty days and forty nights, 
looking for destruction from God, and the vengeance of God. 
But He, pitier affectionate and most high, did not immediately 
destroy them, bountifully giving them a place of repentance. 
But they were not found worthy to be turned to the Lord. 

These are the testimonies of Karinus and Leucius, dearest 
brethren, concerning Christ the Son of God, and His holy 


deeds in the lower world; to whom let us all give praise and _ 


glory through immeasurable ages of ages. Amen. 


THE LETTER OF PONTIUS PILATE, 


WHICH HE WROTE TO THE ROMAN EMPEROR, CONCERNING 
OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST. 


greeting. 

Upon Jesus Christ, whose case I had clearly set 
forth to thee in my last, at length by the will of the 
people a bitter punishment has been inflicted, myself being in a 
sort unwilling and rather afraid. A man, by Hercules, so pious 
and strict, no age has ever had nor will have. But wonderful 
were the efforts of the people themselves, and the unanimity 
of all the scribes and chief men and elders, to crucify this 
ambassador of truth, notwithstanding that their own prophets, 
and after our manner the sibyls, warned them.against it; and 
supernatural signs appeared while he was hanging, and, in the 
opinion of philosophers, threatened destruction to the whole 
world. His disciples are flourishing, in their work and the 
regulation of their lives not belying their master; yea, in his 
name most beneficent. Had I not been afraid of the rising of 
a sedition among the people, who were just on the point of 
breaking out, perhaps this man would still have been alive to 
us; although, urged more by fidelity to thy dignity than in- 
duced by my own wishes, I did not according to my strength 
resist that innocent blood free from the whole charge [brought 
against it], but unjustly, through the malignity of men, should 
be sold and suffer, yet, as the Scriptures signify, to their own 
destruction. Farewell. 28th March. 


Te ONTIUS PILATE to Tiberius Cesar the emperor, 


ΡΥ 
rene 


223 


THE REPORT OF PiLATE THE PROCURATOR 


CONCERNING OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST, 


SENT TO THE AUGUST! CASAR IN ROME, 


FIRST GREEK FORM. 


ΠΑΝ those days, our Lord Jesus Christ having been 
ἢ crucified under Pontius Pilate, procurator of Pales- 
tine and Pheenicia, these records were made in Jeru- 
salem as to what was done by the Jews against the 
Lord. Pilate therefore, along with his private report, sent them 
to the Cesar in Rome, writing thus :-— 

To the most mighty, venerable, most divine, and most ter- 
rible, the august* Cesar, Pilate the governor of the East [sends 
ereeting]. I have, O most mighty, a narrative to give thee, on 
account of which I am seized with fear and trembling. For in 
this government of mine, of which one of the cities is called 
Jerusalem, all the people of the Jews have delivered to me a 
man named Jesus, bringing many charges against him, which 
they were not able to convict him of by the consistency of their 
evidence. And one of the heresies they had against him was, 
that Jesus said that their Sabbath should not be a day of 
leisure, and should not be observed. For he performed many 
cures on that day: he made the blind receive their sight, the 
lame walk; he raised up the dead, he cleansed the lepers; he 
healed paralytics that were not at all able to make any move- 
ment of their body, or to keep their nerves steady, but who had 
only speech and the modulation of their voice, and he gave 
them the power of walking and running, removing their illness 
by a single word. Another thing again, more powerful still, 


1 Or, Augustus. 
224 


es ee 
ε ys 


THE REPORT OF PILATE. 225 


which is strange even with our gods: he raised up one that 
had been dead four days, summoning him by a single word, 
when the dead man had his blood corrupted, and when his 
body was destroyed by the worms produced in it, and when 
it had the stink of a dog. And seeing him lying in the tomb, 
he ordered him to run. Nor had he anything of a dead body 
about him at all; but as a bridegroom from the bridal chamber, 
so he came forth from the tomb filled with very great fragrance. 
And strangers that were manifestly demoniac, and that had 
their dwelling in deserts, and ate their own flesh, living like 
beasts and creeping things, even these he made to be dwellers 
in cities, and by his word restored them to soundness of mind, 
and rendered them wise and able and reputable, eating with all 
the enemies of the unclean spirits that dwelt in them for their 
destruction, which he cast down into the depths of the sea. 
And again there was another having a withered hand; and not 
the hand only, but rather the half of the body of the man, was 
petrified, so that he had not the form of a man, or the power of 
moving his body. And him by a word he healed, and made 
sound. And a woman that had an issue of blood for many 
years, and whose joints’ and veins were drained by the flowing 
of the blood, so that she did not present the appearance of a 
human being, but was like a corpse, and was speechless every 
day, so that all the physicians of the district could not cure her. 
For there was not any hope of life left to her. And when 
Jesus passed by, she mysteriously received strength through 
his overshadowing her; and she took hold of his fringe behind, 
and immediately in the same hour power filled up what in her 
was empty, so that, no longer suffering any pain, she began to 
run swiftly to her own city Kepharnaum, so as to accomplish 
the journey in six days. 

And these are the things which I lately had in my mind to 
report, which Jesus accomplished on the Sabbath. And other 
signs greater than these he did, so that I have perceived that 
the wonderful works done by him are greater than can be done 
by the gods whom we worship. 

And him Herod and Archelaus and Philip, Annas and 
Caiaphas, with all the people, delivered to me, making a great 


' Codex A has a better reading—arteries. 
» 


226 THE REPORT OF PILATE 


uproar against me that I should try him. I therefore ordered 
him to be crucified, having first scourged him, and having 
found against him no cause of evil accusations or deeds. 

And at the time he was crucified there was darkness over 
all the world, the sun being darkened at mid-day, and the stars 
appearing, but in them there appeared no lustre ; and the moon, 
as if turned into blood, failed in her light. And the world was 
swallowed up by the lower regions, so that the very sanctuary 
of the temple, as they call it, could not be seen by the Jews in 
their fall; and they saw below them a chasm of the earth, with 
the roar of the thunders that fell upon it." And in that terror 
dead men were seen that had risen, as the Jews themselves 
testified; and they said that it was Abraham, and Isaac, and 
Jacob, and the twelve patriarchs, and Moses and Job, that had 
died, as they say, three thousand five hundred years before. 
‘And there were very many whom I also saw appearing in the 
body; and they were making a lamentation about the Jews, on 
account of the wickedness that had come to pass through them, 
and the destruction of the Jews and of their law. 

And the fear of the earthquake remained from the sixth 
hour of the preparation until the ninth hour. And on the 
evening of the first day of the week there was a sound out of 
the heaven, so that the heaven became enlightened sevenfold 
more than all the days. And at the third hour of the night 
also the sun was seen brighter than it had ever shone before, 
lighting up all the heaven. And as lightnings come suddenly 
in winter, so majestic men appeared? in glorious robes, an in- 
numerable multitude, whose voice was heard as that of a very 
ereat thunder, crying out: Jesus that was crucified is risen: 
come up out of Hades, ye that have been enslaved in the under- 
eround regions of Hades. And the chasm of the earth was as 
if it had no bottom ; but it was as if the very foundations of the 
earth appeared along with those that cried out in the heavens, 
and walked about in the body in the midst of the dead that 
had risen. And he that raised up all the dead, and bound 
Hades, said: Say to my disciples, He goes before you into 
Galilee; there shall you see him. 

And all that night the light did not cease shining. And 


1 The text here is very corrupt. ? Or, so men appeared on high. 


CONCERNING OUR LORD JESUS CHRIST. 227 


many of the Jews died, swallowed up in the chasm of the earth, 
so that on the following day most of those who had been 
against Jesus could not be found. Others saw the appearing 
of those that had risen, whom no one of us had ever seen.t 
And only one’ synagogue of the Jews was left in this Jeru- 
- salem, since all disappeared in that fall. 
With that terror, being in perplexity, and seized with a most 
frightful trembling, I have written what I saw at that time, 
and have reported to thy majesty. Having set in order also 
what was done by the Jews against Jesus, I have sent it, my 
lord, to thy divinity. 
» ) , 1 This sentence also is very corrupt. 
») ? Another and more probable reading is, not one. 


THE REPORT OF PONTIUS PILATE, 
PROCURATOR OF JUDEA, 
SENT TO ROME TO TIBERIUS CASAR. 


«- : :.-.»Ἠθ 
SECOND GREEK FORM. 


=|) the most mighty, venerable, awful, most divine, the 
| august,—Pilatus Pontius, the governor of the East : 

I have to report to thy reverence, through this 
writing of mine, being seized with great trembling 
and fear, O most mighty emperor, the conjuncture of the pre- 
sent times, as the end of these things has shown. For while I, 
my lord, according to the commandment of thy clemency, was 
discharging the duties of my government, which is one of the 
cities of the East, Jerusalem by name, in which is built the 
temple of the Jewish nation, all the multitude of the Jews 
came together, and delivered to me a certain man named Jesus, 
bringing against him many and groundless charges; and they 
were not able to convict him in anything. And one heresy of 
theirs against him was, that he said that the Sabbath was not 
their right rest. And that man wrought many cures, in addition 
to good works. He made the blind see; he cleansed lepers; he 
raised the dead; he healed paralytics who could not move at 
all, except that they only had their voice, and the joining of 
their bones; and he gave them the power of walking about and 
running, commanding [them] by a single word. And another 
mightier work he did, which was strange even with our gods: 
he raised up a dead man, Lazarus, who had been dead four 
days, by a single word ordering the dead man to be raised, 
although his body was already corrupted by the worms that 
grow in wounds ; and that ill-smelling body lying in the tomb 
he ordered to run; and as a bridegroom from the bridal cham- 
ber, so he came forth out of the tomb, filled with exceeding 


fragrance. And some that were cruelly vexed by demons, and 
228 


THE REPORT OF PILATE. 229 


had their dwellings in deserts, and ate the flesh of their own 
limbs, and lived along with reptiles and wild beasts, he made 
to be dwellers in cities in their own houses, and by a word he 
rendered them sound-minded ; and he made those that were 
troubled by unclean spirits to be intelligent and reputable ; and 
sending away the demons in them into a herd of swine, he 
suffocated them in the sea. Another man, again, who had a 
withered hand, and lived in sorrow, and had not even the half 
of his body sound, he rendered sound by a single word. And 
a woman that had a flow of blood for many years, so that, in 
consequence of the flowing of her blood, all the joinings of her 
bones appeared, and were transparent like glass ; and assuredly 
all the physicians had left her without hope, and had not 
cleansed her, for there was not in her a single hope of health: 
once, then, as Jesus was passing by, she took hold of the 
fringe of his clothes behind, and that same hour the power of 
her body was completely restored, and she became whole, as 
if nothing were the matter with her, and she began to run 
swiftly to her own city Paneas.* 

And these things indeed were so. And the Jews gave in- 
formation that Jesus did these things on the Sabbath. And I 
also ascertained that the miracles done by him were greater 
than any which the gods whom we worship could do. 

Him then Herod and Archelaus and Philip, and Annas and 
Caiaphas, with all the people, delivered to me to try him. And 
as many were exciting an insurrection against me, I ordered 
him to be crucified. 

And when he had been crucified, there was darkness over 
the whole earth, the sun having been completely hidden, and 
the heaven appearing dark though it was day, so that the stars 
appeared, but had at the same time their brightness darkened, 
as I suppose your reverence is not ignorant of, because in all 
the world they lighted lamps from the sixth hour until even- 
ing. And the moon, being like blood, did not shine the whole 
night, and yet she happened to be at the full. And the stars 
also, and Orion, made a lament about the Jews, on account of 
the wickedness that had been done by them.’ 


? This is a conjecture of Thilo’s. The mss. have Spania. 
2 Instead of this last sentence, one of the mss. has: And the whole world was 


230 THE REPORT OF PILATE. 


And on the first of the week, about the third hour of the 
night, the sun was seen such as it had never at any time shone, 
and all the heaven was lighted up. And as lightnings come 
on in winter, so majestic men of indescribable splendour of 
dress and of glory appeared in the air, and an innumerable 
multitude of angels crying out, and saying: Glory in the 
highest to God, and on earth peace, among men goodwill: 
come up out of Hades, ye who have been kept in slavery in 
the underground regions of Hades. And at their voice all the 
mountains and hills were shaken, and the rocks were burst 
asunder; and great chasms were made in the earth, so that 
also what was in the abyss appeared. 

And there were seen in that terror dead men raised up,’ as 
the Jews that saw them said: We have seen Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob, and the twelve patriarchs, that died two 
thousand five hundred years ago; and we have seen Noah 
manifestly in the body. And all the multitude walked about, 
and sang praises to God with a loud voice, saying: The Lord 
our God that has risen from the dead has brought to life all 
the dead, and has plundered Hades, and put him to death. 

All that night therefore, my lord, O king, the light ceased 
not. And many of the Jews died, and were engulphed and 
swallowed up in the chasms in that night, so that not even 
their bodies appeared. Those, I say, of the Jews suffered that 
had spoken against Jesus. And one synagogue was left in 
Jerusalem, since all those synagogues that had been against 
Jesus were engulphed. 

From that fear, then, being in perplexity, and seized with 
much trembling, at that same hour I ordered what had been 
done by them all to be written; and I have reported it to thy 
mightiness. F 


shaken by unspeakable miracles, and all the creation was like to be swallowed 
up by the lower regions ; so that also the sanctuary of their temple was rent — 
from top to bottom. And again there was thunder, and a mighty noise from 
heaven, so that all our land shook and trembled. Another: And there began 
to be earthquakes in the hour in which the nails were fixed in Jesus’ hands and 
feet, until evening. 

* One Ms. adds: To the number of five hundred. 


THE GIVING UP OF PONTIUS PILATE. 


----.9..--- 


SND the writings having come to the city of the 
Romans, and having been read to the Cesar, with 
not a few standing by, all were astounded, because 
through the wickedness of Pilate the darkness and 
the earthquake had come over the whole world. And the 
Ceesar, filled with rage, sent soldiers, and ordered them to bring 
Pilate a prisoner. 

And when he was brought to the city of the Romans, the 
Cesar, hearing that Pilate had arrived, sat in the temple of the 
gods, in the presence of all the senate, and with all the army, 
and all the multitude of his power; and he ordered Pilate to 
stand forward.t And the Cesar says to him: Why hast thou, 
O most impious, dared to do such things, having seen so great 
miracles in that man? By daring to do an evil deed, thou hast 
destroyed the whole world. 

And Pilate said: O almighty” king, Iam innocent of these 
things ; but the multitude of the Jews are violent and guilty. 
And the Cesar said: And who are they? Pilate says: Herod, 
Archelaus, Philip, Annas and Caiaphas, and all the multitude 
of the Jews. The Cesar says: For what reason didst thou 
follow out their counsel? And Pilate says: Their nation is 
rebellious and insubmissive, not submitting themselves to thy 
power. And the Cesar said: When they delivered him to 
thee, thou oughtest to have made him secure, and to have sent 
him to me, and not to have obeyed them in crucifying such a 
man, righteous as he was, and one that did such good miracles, 
as thou hast said in thy report. For from such miracles Jesus 
was manifestly the Christ, the King of the Jews. 

And as the Cesar was thus speaking, when he named the 
name of Christ, all the multitude of the gods fell down in a 


1 Or, in the entrance. 2 αὐτοκράτωρ. 
231 


232 THE GIVING UP OF PILATE. 


body, and became as dust, where the Cesar was sitting with 
the senate. And the people standing beside the Cesar all 
began to tremble, on account of the speaking of the word, and 
the fall of their gods; and being seized with terror, they all 
went away, each to his own house, wondering at what had 
happened. And the Cesar ordered Pilate to be kept in secu- 
rity, in order that he might know the truth about Jesus. 

And on the following day, the Cesar, sitting in the Capitol 
with all the senate, tried again to question Pilate. And the 
Ceesar says: Tell the truth, O most impious, because through 
thy impious action which thou hast perpetrated against Jesus, 
even here the doing of thy wicked deeds has been shown by 
the gods having been cast down. Say, then, who is he that 
has been crucified; because even his name has destroyed all 
the gods? Pilate said: And indeed the records of him are 
true; for assuredly I myself was persuaded from his works 
that he was greater than all the gods whom we worship. And 
the Cesar said: For what reason, then, didst thou bring against 
him such audacity and such doings, if thou wert not ignorant 
of him, and altogether devising mischief against my kingdom ? 
Pilate said: On account of the wickedness and rebellion of the 
lawless and ungodly Jews, I did this. 

And the Cesar, being filled with rage, held a council with all 
his senate and his power, and ordered a decree to be written 
against the Jews as follows :—To Licianus, the governor of the 
chief places of the East, greeting. The reckless deed which 
has been done at the present time by the inhabitants of Jeru- 
salem, and the cities of the Jews round about, and their wicked 
action, has come to my knowledge, that they have forced Pilate 
to crucify a certain god named Jesus, and on account of this 
ereat fault of theirs the world has been darkened and dragged 
to destruction. Do thou then speedily, with a multitude of 
soldiers, go to them there, and make them prisoners, in accord- 
ance with this decree. Be obedient, and take action against 
them, and scatter them, and make them slaves among all the 
nations; and having driven them out of the whole of Judea, 
make them the smallest of nations, so that it may not any 
longer be seen at all, because they are full of wickedness.* 

1 The text is very corrupt. 


THE GIVING UP OF PILATE. 233 


And this decree having come into the region of the East, 
Licianus, obeying from fear of the decree, seized all the nation 
of the Jews; and those that were left in Judea he scattered 
among the nations, and sold for slaves:' so that it was known 
to the Cesar that these things had been done by Licianus 
against the Jews in the region of the East; and it pleased him, 

And again the Cesar set himself to question Pilate; and he 
orders a captain named Albius to cut off Pilate’s head, saying: 
Just as he laid hands upon the just man named Christ, in like 
manner also shall he fall, and not find safety. 

And Pilate, going away to the place, prayed in silence, 
saying: Lord, do not destroy me along with the wicked 
Hebrews, because I would not have laid hands upon Thee, 
except for the nation of the lawless Jews, because they were 
exciting rebellion against me. But Thou knowest that I did 
it in ignorance. Do not then destroy me for this my sin; but 
remember not evil against me, O Lord, and against Thy servant 
Procla, who is standing with me in this the hour of my death, 
whom Thou didst appoint to prophesy that Thou shouldest be 
nailed to the cross. Do not condemn her also in my sin; but 
pardon us, and make us to be numbered in the portion of Thy 
righteous. 

And, behold, when Pilate had finished his prayer, there came 
a voice out of the heaven, saying: All the generations and 
families of the nations shall count thee blessed, because under 
thee have been fulfilled all those things said about me by the 
prophets; and thou thyself shalt be seen as my witness at my 
second appearing, when I shall judge the twelve tribes of Israel, 
and those that have not owned my name. And the prefect 
struck off the head of Pilate ; and, behold, an angel of the Lord 
received it. And his wife Procla, seeing the angel coming and 
receiving his head, being filled with joy herself also, immediately 
gave up the ghost, and was buried along with her husband.’ 


1 Lit., he made to be slaves in the dispersion of the Gentiles. 

2 One of the mss. adds: By the will and good pleasure of our Lord Jesus 
Christ, to whom be the glory of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, 
now and ever, and to ages of ages. Amen. 


THE DEATH OF PILATE WHO CONDEMNED JESUS. 


----.---- 


ΠΕΡ ND when Tiberius Cesar, the emperor of the Romans, 
j| was labouring under a grievous disease, and under- 
standing that there was at Jerusalem a certain 
physician, Jesus by name, who by a single word 
cured all infirmities, he, not knowing that the Jews and Pilate 
had put Him to death, ordered a certain friend of his named 
Volusianus: Go as quickly as possible across the seas; and. 
thou shalt tell Pilate, my servant and friend, to send me 
this physician, that he may restore me to my former health. 
And this Volusianus, having heard the emperor’s command, 
immediately departed, and came to Pilate, as he had been 
commanded. And he related to the same Pilate what had 
been entrusted to him by Tiberius Cesar, saying: Tiberius 
Cesar, the emperor of the Romans, thy master, having heard 
that in this city there is a physician who by his word alone 
heals infirmities, begs thee earnestly to send him to him for 
the curing of his infirmity. Pilate, hearing this, was very 
much afraid, knowing that through envy he had caused Him 
to be put to death. Pilate answered the same messenger thus, 
saying: This man was a malefactor, and a man who drew to 
himself all the people; so a council of the wise men of the 
city was held, and I caused him to be crucified. And this 
messenger returning to his inn, met a certain woman named 
Veronica, who had been a friend of Jesus; and he said: O 
woman, a certain physician who was in this city, who cured 
the sick by a word alone, why have the Jews put him to 
death? And she began to weep, saying: Ah me! my lord, 
my God and my Lord, whom Pilate for envy delivered, con- 
demned, and ordered to be crucified. Then he, being exceed- 
ingly grieved, said: I am vehemently grieved that I am unable 
to accomplish that for which my lord had sent me. And 
Veronica said to him: When my Lord was going about 
preaching, and I, much against my will, was deprived of His 
presence, I wished His picture to be painted for me, in order 
234 


σι Oe Pe Ba ΝΞ ΝΣ 


~ 2. he ae ες. 


THE DEATH OF PILATE. 235 


that, while I was deprived of His presence, the figure of His 
picture might at least afford me consolation. And when I was 
carrying the canvas to the painter to be painted, my Lord met 
me, and asked whither I was going. And when I had disclosed 
to Him the cause of my journey, He asked of me the cloth, 
and gave it back to me impressed with the image of His vene- 
rable face. Therefore, if thy lord will devoutly gaze upon His 
face, he shall obtain forthwith the benefit of health. And he 
said to her: Is a picture of such a sort procurable by gold or 
silver? She said to him: No; but by the pious influence of 
devotion. I shall therefore set out with thee, and shall carry 
the picture to be seen by Cesar, and shall come back again. 

Volusianus therefore came with Veronica to Rome, and said 
to Tiberius the emperor: Jesus, whom thou hast been longing 
for, Pilate and the Jews have delivered to an unjust death, 
and have through envy affixed to the gibbet of the cross. 
There has therefore come with me a certain matron, bringing 
a picture of Jesus himself; and if thou wilt devoutly look upon 
it, thou shalt immediately obtain the benefit of thy health. 
Cesar therefore ordered the way to be strewn with silk cloths, 
and the picture to be presented to him; and as soon as he had 
looked upon it, he regained his former health. 

Pontius Pilate, therefore, by the command of Ceesar, is taken 
and brought through to Rome. Cvesar, hearing that Pilate had 
arrived at Rome, was filled with exceeding fury against him, 
and caused him to be brought to him. But Pilate brought 
down with him the seamless tunic of Jesus; and he wore it on 
him in presence of the emperor. And as soon as the emperor 
saw him, he laid aside all his anger, and forthwith rose up to 
meet him. Nor was he able to speak harshly to him in any- 
thing; and he who seemed so terrible and fierce in his absence, 
now in his presence is somehow found to be mild. And when 
he had sent him away, immediately he blazed out against him 
terribly, crying out that he was a wretch, inasmuch as he had 
not at all shown him the fury of his heart. And immediately 
he made him be called back, swearing and declaring that he 
was the son of death, and that it was infamous that he should 
live upon the earth. And as soon as he saw him, he forthwith 

1 Or, upon the sight of this. 


236 THE DEATH OF PILATE. 


saluted him, and threw away all the ferocity of his mind. All 
wondered; and he himself wondered that he should thus blaze 
out against Pilate when he was absent, and that while he was 
present he could say nothing to him roughly. Then, by a 
divine impulse, or perhaps by the advice of some Christian,’ he 
caused him to be stripped of that tunic, and immediately re- 
sumed against him his former ferocity of mind. And when at 
this the emperor wondered very much, it was told him that 
that tunic had belonged to the Lord Jesus. Then the emperor 
ordered him to be kept in prison, until he should deliberate in 
a council of the wise men what ought to be done with him. 
And a few days after, sentence was therefore passed upon 
Pilate, that he should be condemned to the most disgraceful 
death. Pilate, hearing this, killed himself with his own knife, 
and by such a death ended his life. 

When Cesar knew of the death of Pilate, he said: Truly he 
has died by a most disgraceful death, whom his own hand has 
not spared. He is therefore bound to a great mass, and sunk 
into the river Tiber. But malignant and filthy spirits in his 
malignant and filthy body, all rejoicing together, kept moving 
themselves in the waters, and in a terrible manner brought 
lightnings and tempests, thunders and hail-storms, in the air, 
so that all men were kept in horrible fear. Wherefore the 
Romans, drawing him out of the river Tiber, in derision carried 
him down to Vienna, and sunk him in the river Rhone. For 
Vienna is called, as it were, [ Via Gehenne ], the way of Gehenna, 
because it was then a place of cursing. But there evil spirits 
were present, working the same things in the same place. 
Those men therefore, not enduring such a visitation of demons, 
removed from themselves that vessel of malediction, and sent 
him to be buried in the territory of Losania.’ And they, seeing 
that they were troubled by the aforesaid visitations, removed 
him from themselves, and sunk him in a certain pit surrounded 
by mountains, where to this day, according to the account of 
some, certain diabolical machinations are said to bubble up. 


1 This is the first appearance of the word Christian in these writings. 

? Losonium was the Roman name of Lausanne. For a discussion of this 
legend concerning Mont Pilate, near Lucerne, see Smith’s Dictionary of the Bible, 
under Pilate. 


THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 


NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH OF ARIMATHEA, THAT BEGGED THE 
LORD’S BODY; IN WHICH ALSO HE BRINGS IN THE 
CASES OF THE TWO ROBBERS. 


CHAPTER I. 


[AM] Joseph of Arimathea, who begged from Pilate 

ἡ the body of the Lord Jesus for burial, and who for 
this cause was kept close in prison by the mur- 
derous and God-fighting* Jews, who also, keeping 
to the law, have by Moses himself become partakers in tribu- 
lation ; and having provoked their Lawgiver to anger, and not 
knowing that He was God, crucified Him, and made Him mani- 
fest to those that knew God. In those days in which they 
condemned the Son of God to be crucified, seven days before 
Christ suffered, two condemned robbers were sent from Jericho 
to the procurator Pilate ; and their case was as follows :— 

The first, his name Gestas, put travellers to death, murdering 
them with the sword, and others he exposed naked. And he 
hung up women by the heels, head down, and cut off their 
breasts, and drank the blood of infants’ limbs, never having 
known God, not obeying the laws, being violent from the be- 
ginning, and doing such deeds. 

And the case of the other was as follows: He was called 
Demas, and was by birth a Galilean, and kept an inn. He 
made attacks upon the rich, but was good to the poor—a thief 
like Tobit, for he buried the bodies of the poor. And he set 
his hand to robbing the multitude of the Jews, and stole the 


1 MS. C has God-killing. 2 Tobit i. 17, 18. 
237 


238 THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 


law? itself in Jerusalem, and stripped naked the daughter of 
Caiaphas, who was priestess of the sanctuary, and took away 
from. its place the mysterious deposit itself placed there by 
Solomon. Such were his doings. 

And Jesus also was taken on the third day before the pass- 
over, in the evening. And to Caiaphas and the multitude of 
the Jews it was not a passover, but it was a great mourning to 
them, on account of the plundering of the sanctuary by the 
robber. And they summoned Judas Iscariot, and spoke to him, 
for he was [son] of the brother? of Caiaphas the priest. He 
was not a disciple before the face of Jesus; but all the multi- 
tude of the Jews craftily supported him, that he might follow 
Jesus, not that he might be obedient to the miracles done by 
Him, nor that he might confess Him, but that he might betray 
Him to them, wishing to catch up some lying word of Him, 
giving him gifts for such brave, honest conduct to the amount 
of a half shekel of gold each day. And he did this for two 
years with Jesus, as says one of His disciples called John. 


And on the third day, before Jesus was laid hold of, Judas 


says to the Jews: Come, let us hold a council; for perhaps it 
was not the robber that stole the law, but Jesus himself, and 
T accuse him. And when these words had been spoken, Nico- 
demus, who kept the keys of the sanctuary, came in to us, and 
said to all: Do not do such a deed. For Nicodemus was true, 
more than all the multitude of the Jews. And the daughter of 
Caiaphas, Sarah by name, cried out, and said: He himself said 
before all against this holy place, I am able to destroy this 
temple, and in three days to raise it. The Jews say to her: 
Thou hast credit with all of us. For they regarded her as a 
prophetess. And assuredly, after the council had been held, 
Jesus was laid hold of. 


Cup. 2.—And on the following day, the fourth day of the 
week, they brought Him at the ninth hour into the hall of Caia- 
phas. And Annas and Caiaphas say to Him: Tell us, why hast 
thou stolen our law, and renounced® the ordinances of Moses 


1 Perhaps the true reading is ναόν, and not νόμον : plundered the temple. 
? MS. B has: And they say that he was of the family of the sister, ete. 
3 Tischendorf suggests ἀσέκρυψας, hidden, for ἀσεκήρυξας. 


THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 239 


and the prophets? And Jesus answered nothing. And again 
a second time, the multitude also being present, they say to 
Him: The sanctuary which Solomon built in forty and six 
years, why dost thou wish to destroy in one moment ? And to 
these things Jesus answered nothing. For the sanctuary of the 
synagogue had been plundered by the robber. 

And the evening of the fourth day being ended, all the mul- 
titude sought to burn the daughter of Caiaphas, on account of 
the loss of the law; for they did not know how they were to 
keep the passover. And she said to them: Wait, my children, 
and let us destroy this Jesus, and the law will be found, and 
the holy feast will be fully accomplished. And secretly Annas 
and Caiaphas gave considerable money to Judas Iscariot, saying: 
Say as thou saidst to us before, I know that the law has been 
stolen by Jesus, that the accusation may be turned against 
him, and not against this maiden, who is free from blame. And 
Judas having received this command, said to them: Let not all 
the multitude know that I have been instructed by you to do 


this against Jesus ; but release Jesus, and I persuade the mul- 


titude that it is so. And craftily they released Jesus. 

And Judas, going into the sanctuary at the dawn of the fifth 
day, says to all the peeple: What will you give me, and I will 
give up to you the overthrower’ of the law, and the plunderer 
of the prophets? The Jews say to him: If thou wilt give him 
up to us, we will give thee thirty pieces of gold. And the 
_ people did not know that Judas was speaking about Jesus, for 
many of them confessed that he was the Son of God. And 
Judas received the thirty pieces of gold. 

And going out at the fourth hour, and at the fifth, he finds 
Jesus walking in the street. And as evening was coming on, 
Judas says to the Jews: Give me the aid of soldiers with swords 
and staves, and I will give him up to you. They therefore 
gave him officers for the purpose of seizing Him. And as they 
were going along, Judas says to them: Lay hold of the man 
whom I shall kiss, for he has stolen the law and the prophets. 
Going up to Jesus, therefore, he kissed Him, saying: Hail, 
Rabbi! it being the evening of the fifth day. And having laid 
hold of Him, they gave Him up to Caiaphas and the chief priests, 


1 Or, taker away. 


240 THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 


Judas saying: This is he who stole the law and the prophets. 
And the Jews gave Jesus an unjust trial, saying: Why hast 
thou done these things? And he answered nothing. 

And Nicodemus and I Joseph, seeing the seat of the plagues," 
stood off from them, not wishing to perish along with the 
counsel of the ungodly. 


Cuap. 3.—Having therefore done many and dreadful things 
against Jesus that night, they gave Him up to Pilate the pro- 
curator at the dawn of the preparation, that he might crucify | 
Him; and for this purpose they all came together. After a 
trial, therefore, Pilate the procurator ordered Him to be nailed 
to the cross, along with the two robbers. And they were nailed 
up along with Jesus, Gestas on the left, and Demas on the 
right. 

And he that was on the left began to cry out, saying to 
Jesus: See how many evil deeds I have done in the earth; and 
if I had known that thou wast the king, I should have cut off 
thee also. And why dost thou call thyself Son of God, and 
canst not help thyself in necessity ? how canst thou afford it 
to another one praying for help? If thou art the Christ, come 
down from the cross, that I may believe in thee. But now I 
see thee perishing along with me, not like a man, but like a 
wild beast. And many other things he began to say against 
Jesus, blaspheming and gnashing his teeth upon Him. For the 
robber was taken alive in the snare of the devil.” 

But the robber on the right hand, whose name was Demas, 
seeing the Godlike grace of Jesus, thus cried out: I know Thee, 
Jesus Christ, that Thou art the Son of God. I see Thee, Christ, 
adored by myriads of myriads of angels. Pardon me my sins 
which I have done. Do not in my trial make the stars come 
against me, or the moon, when Thou shalt judge all the world; 
because in: the night I have accomplished my wicked purposes. 
Do not urge the sun, which is now darkened on account of 
Thee, to tell the evils of my heart, for no gift can I give Thee © 
for the remission of my sins. Already death is coming upon — 
me because of my sins ; but Thine is the propitiation. Deliver — 
me, O Lord of all, from Thy fearful judgment. Do not give the — 

1 Following the reading of the LXX. in Ps. i. 1. *2 Tim. ii, 26. 


THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 241 


enemy power to swallow me up, and to become heir of my soul, 
as of that of him who is hanging on the left ; for I see how the 
devil joyfully takes his soul, and his body disappears. Do not 
even order me to go away into the portion of the Jews; for I 
see Moses and the patriarchs in great weeping, and the devil 
rejoicing over them. Before, then, O Lord, my spirit departs, 
order my sins to be washed away, and remember me the sinner 
in Thy kingdom, when upon the great most lofty throne * Thou 
shalt judge the twelve tribes of Israel. For Thou hast pre- 
pared great punishment for Thy world on account of Thyself. 

And the robber having thus spoken, Jesus says to him: 
Amen, amen; I say to thee, Demas, that to-day thou shalt be 
with me in paradise. And the sons of the kingdom, the chil- 
dren of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and Moses, shall be 
cast out into outer darkness; there shall be weeping and gnash- 
ing of teeth. And thou alone shalt dwell in paradise until my 
second appearing, when I am to judge those who do not confess 
my name. And He said to the robber: Go away, and tell the 
cherubim and the powers, that turn the flaming sword, that 
guard paradise from the time that Adam, the first created, was 
in paradise, and sinned, and kept not my commandments, and 1 
east him out thence. And none of the first shall see paradise 
until I am to come the second time to judge living and dead. 
And He wrote thus: Jesus Christ the Son of God, who have 
come down from the heights of the heavens, who have come 
forth out of the bosom of the invisible Father without being 
separated from Him,’ and who have come down into the world 
to be made flesh, and to be nailed to a cross, in order that I 
might save Adam, whom I fashioned,—to my archangelic powers, 
the gatekeepers of paradise, to the officers of my Father: I will 
and order that he who has been crucified along with me should 
go in, should receive remission of sins through me ; and that he, 
having put on an incorruptible body, should go in to paradise, 
and dwell where no one has ever been able to dwell. 

And, behold, after He had said this, Jesus gave up the ghost, 
on the day of the preparation, at the ninth hour. And there 
was darkness over all the earth; and from a great earthquake 

1 Or, upon the great throne of the Most High. 2 Matt. xix. 28. 

3 Luke xxiii. 43, 4 Matt. viii. 11, 12. 5 Lit., inseparably. 

Q 


242 THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 


that happened, the sanctuary fell down, and the wing of the © 
temple. 


Cuap. 4.—And I Joseph begged the body of Jesus, and put 
it in a new tomb, where no one had been put. And of the 
robber on the right the body was not found; but of him on the 
left, as the form of a dragon, so was his body. ΕῚ 

And after I had begged the body of Jesus to bury, the Jews, 
carried away by hatred and rage, shut me up in prison, where 
evil-doers were kept under restraint. And this happened to — 
me on the evening of the Sabbath, whereby our nation trans- 
gressed the law. And, behold, that same nation of ours en- — 
dured fearful tribulations on the Sabbath. ql 

And now, on the evening of the first of the week, at the fifth © 
hour of the night, Jesus comes to me in the prison, along with 
the robber who had been crucified with Him on the right, whom ~ 
He sent into paradise. And there was a great light in the 
building. And the house was hung up by the four corners, 
and the place was opened, and I came out. Then I first recog- | 
nised Jesus, and again the robber, bringing a letter to Jesus. 
And as we were going into Galilee, there shone a great light, 
which the creation did not produce. And there was also with — 
the robber a great fragrance out of paradise. 

And Jesus, having sat down in a certain place, thus read: | 
We, the cherubim and the six-winged, who have been ordered — 
by Thy Godhead to watch the garden of paradise, make the 
following statement through the robber who was crucified along 
with Thee, by Thy arrangement: When we saw the print of the 
nails of the robber crucified along with Thee, and the shining 
light of the letter of Thy Godhead, ‘the fire indeed was extin-— 
guished, not being able to bear the splendour of the print;? 
and we crouched down, being in great fear. For we heard that 
the Maker of heaven and earth, and of the whole creation, had _ 
come down from on high to dwell in the lower parts of the — 
earth, on account of Adam, the first created. And when we 
beheld the undefiled cross shining like lightning from the 


1 Or, the shining light of the letter, the fire of the Godhead, we indeed were 
extinguished. | 
2 i.e, of the nails. 


— 


THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 243 


robber, gleaming with sevenfold the light of the sun, trembling 
fell upon us. We felt a violent shaking of the world below - 
and with a loud voice, the ministers of Hades said, along with 
us: Holy, holy, holy is He who in the beginning was in the 
highest. And the powers sent up a cry: O Lord, Thou hast 
been made manifest in heaven and in earth, bringing joy to the 
world ; and, a greater gift than this, Thou hast freed Thine own 
image from death by the invisible purpose of the ages. 


Cup. 5.—After I had beheld these things, as I was going 
into Galilee with Jesus and the robber, Jesus was transfigured, 
and was not as formerly, before He was crucified, but was alto- 
gether light; and angels always ministered to Him, and Jesus 

‘spoke with them. And I remained with Him three days. 
And no one of His disciples was with Him, except the robber 
alone. 

And in the middle of the feast of unleavened bread, His dis- 
ciple John comes, and we no longer beheld the robber as to 
what took place. And John asked Jesus: Who is this, that 
Thou hast not made me to be seen by him? But Jesus 
answered him nothing. And falling down before Him, he said: 
Lord, I know that Thou hast loved me from the beginning, and 
why dost Thou not reveal to me that man? Jesus says to him: 
Why dost thou seek what is hidden? Art thou still without 
understanding? Dost thou not perceive the fragrance of para- 
dise fillmg the place? Dost thou not know who it is? The 
robber on the cross has become heir of paradise. Amen, amen; 
I say to thee, that it shall belong to him alone until that the 
great day shall come. And John said: Make me worthy to 
behold him. 

And while John was yet speaking, the robber suddenly 
appeared ; and John, struck with astonishment, fell to the 
earth. And the robber was not in his first form, as before John 
came; but he was like a king in great power, having on him the 
cross. And the voice of a great multitude was sent forth: Thou 
hast come to the place prepared for thee in paradise. We have 
been commanded by Him that has sent thee, to serve thee 
until the great day. And after this voice, both the robber and 


1 The text is here corrupt; but this seems to be the meaning. 


244 THE NARRATIVE OF JOSEPH. 


I Joseph vanished, and I was found in my own house; and I 
no longer saw Jesus. 

And I, having seen these things, have written them down, in 
order that all may believe in the crucified Jesus Christ our 
Lord, and may no longer obey the law of Moses, but may be- 
lieve in the signs and wonders that have happened through 
Him, and in order that we who have believed may inherit 
eternal life, and be found in the kingdom of the heavens. For 
to Him are due glory, strength, praise, and majesty for ever and 
ever. Amen. 


- 


THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


[Tus version of the legend of Veronica is written in very 
barbarous Latin, probably of the seventh or eighth century. 
An Anglo-Saxon version, which Tischendorf concludes to be 
derived from the Latin, was edited and translated for the 
Cambridge Antiquarian Society, by C. W. Goodwin, in 1851. 
The Anglo-Saxon text is from a MS. in the Cambridge Library, 
one of a number presented to the Cathedral of Exeter by 
Bishop Leofric in the beginning of the eleventh century. 

The reader will observe that there are in this document two 
distinct legends, somewhat clumsily joined together—that of 
Nathan’s embassy, and that of Veronica. | 


HERE BEGINNETH THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


MeN the days of the Emperor Tiberius Cesar, when 
Ϊ Herod was tetrarch, Christ was delivered under 
Pontius Pilate by the Jews, and revealed by 
Tiberius. 

In those days Titus’ was a prince under Tiberius in the 
region of Equitania, in a city of Libia which is called Burgi- 
dalla. And Titus had a sore in his right nostril, on account 
of a cancer, and he had his face torn even to the eye. There 
went forth a certain man from Judea, by name Nathan the 
son of Nahum; for he was an Ishmaelite who went from land 
to land, and from sea to sea, and in all the ends of the earth. 
Now Nathan was sent from Judea to the Emperor Tiberius, 
to carry their treaty to the city of Rome. And Tiberius was 


1 The Saxon version has Tirus. 
245 


246 THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


ill, and full of ulcers and fevers, and had nine kinds of leprosy. 
And Nathan wished to go to the city of Rome. But the north 
wind blew and hindered his sailing, and carried him down to 
the harbour of a city of Libia. Now Titus, seeing the ship 
coming, knew that it was from Judea; and they all wondered, 
and said that they had never seen any vessel so coming from 
that quarter. And Titus ordered the captain to come to him, 
and asked him who he was. And he said: I am Nathan the 
son of Nahum, of the race of the Ishmaelites, and I am a sub- 
ject of Pontius Pilate in Judea. And I have been sent to go 
to Tiberius the Roman emperor, to carry a treaty from Judea. 
And a strong wind came down upon the sea, and has brought 
me to a country that I do not know. 

And Titus says: If thou couldst at any time find anything 
either of cosmetics or herbs which could cure the wound that 
I have in my face, as thou seest, so that I should become 
whole, and regain my former health, I should bestow upon 
thee many good things. And Nathan said to him: I do not 
know, nor have I ever known, of such things as thou speakest 
to me about. But for all that, if thou hadst been some time 
ago in Jerusalem, there thou wouldst have found a choice 
prophet, whose name was Emanuel, for He will save His people 
from their sins. And He, as His first miracle in Cana of Galilee, 
made wine from water; and by His word He cleansed lepers, He 
enlightened the eyes of one born blind, He healed paralytics, 
He made demons flee, He raised up three dead; a woman caught 
in adultery, and condemned by the Jews to be stoned, He 
set free; and another woman, named Veronica, who suffered 
twelve years from an issue of blood, and came up to Him 
behind, and touched the fringe of His garment, He healed ; and 
with five loaves and two fishes He satisfied five thousand men, 
to say nothing of little ones and women, and there remained 
of the fragments twelve baskets. All these things, and many 
others, were accomplished before His passion. After His re- 
surrection we saw Him in the flesh as He had been before. 


And Titus said to him: How did he rise again from the — 
dead, seeing that he was dead? And Nathan answered and 
said: He was manifestly dead, and hung up on the eross, and — 
again taken down from the cross, and for three days He lay 1 


| 


THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 247 


in the tomb; thereafter He rose again from the dead, and went 
down to Hades, and freed the patriarchs and the prophets, 
and the whole human race; thereafter He appeared to His 
disciples, and ate with them; thereafter they saw Him going 
up into heaven. And so it is the truth, all this that I tell 
you. For I saw it with my own eyes, and all the house of 
Israel. And Titus said in his own words: Woe to thee, O 
Emperor Tiberius, full of ulcers, and enveloped in leprosy, 
because such a scandal has been committed in thy kingdom ; 
because thou hast made such laws? in Judea, in the land of 
the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, and they have seized the 
King, and put to death the Ruler of the peoples ; and they have 
not made Him come to us to cure thee of thy leprosy, and 
cleanse me from mine infirmity: on which account, if they 
had been before my face, with my own hands I should have 
slain the carcases of those Jews, and hung them up on the 
eruel tree, because they have destroyed my Lord, and mine 
eyes have not been worthy to see His face. And when he 
had thus spoken, immediately the wound fell from the face 
of Titus, and his flesh and his face were restored to health. 
And all the sick who were in the same place were made 
whole in that hour. And Titus cried out, and all the rest 
with him, in a loud voice, saying: My King and my God, 
because I have never seen Thee, and Thou hast made me 
whole, bid me go with the ship over the waters to the land 
of Thy birth, to take vengeance on Thine enemies; and help 
me, O Lord, that I may be able to destroy them, and avenge 
Thy death: do Thou, Lord, deliver them into my hand. And 
having thus spoken, he ordered that he should be baptized. 
And he called Nathan to him, and said to him: How hast 
thou seen those baptized who believe in Christ? Come to 
me, and baptize me in the name of the Father, and of the Son, 
and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.’ For I also firmly believe 
in the Lord Jesus Christ with all my heart, and with all my 


1 Reges, kings, instead of leges, as suggested by Mr. Cowper, is a much better 
reading. 

* Sax. : Then Nathan came, and baptized him in the name of the Father, 
and the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and took away from him his name of Tirus, 
and called him in his baptism Titus, which is in our language Pius, 


248 THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


soul ; because nowhere in the whole world is there another who 
has created me, and made me whole from my wounds. 

And having thus spoken, he sent messengers to Vespasian 
to come with all haste with his bravest men, so prepared as 
if for war. 

Then Vespasian brought with him five thousand armed men, 
and they went to meet Titus. And when they had come to 
the city of Libia, he said to Titus: Why is it that thou hast 
made me come hither? And he said: Know that Jesus has 
come into this world, and has been born in Judea, in a place © 
which is called Bethlehem, and has been given up by the Jews, 
and scourged, and crucified on Mount Calvary,’ and has risen 
again from the dead on the third day. And His disciples have 
seen Him in the same flesh in which He was born, and He has 
shown Himself to His disciples, and they have believed in Him. 
And we indeed wish to become His disciples. Now, let us go 
and destroy His enemies from the earth, that they may now 
know that there is none like the Lord our God on the face of 
the earth. 

With this design, then, they went forth from the city of 
Libia which is called Burgidalla,? and went on board a ship, 
and proceeded to Jerusalem, and surrounded the kingdom of 
the Jews, and began to send them to destruction. And when 
the kings of the Jews heard of their doings, and the wasting of — 
their land, fear came upon them, and they were in great per- — 
plexity. Then Archelaus* was perplexed in his words, and 
said to his son: My son, take my kingdom and judge it; and 
take counsel with the other kings who are in the land οὗ 
Judah, that you may be able to escape from our enemies. — 
And having thus said, he unsheathed his sword and leant upon 
it; and turned his sword, which was very sharp, and thrust it 
into his breast, and died. And his son allied himself with the 
other kings who were under him, and they took counsel among 
themselves, and went into Jerusalem with their chief men who 
were in their counsel, and stood in the same place seven years. 
And Titus and Vespasian took counsel to surround their city, — 


1 Note the popular but erroneous appellation of Mount. 

? Sax. omits which is called Burgidalla. 

3 Sax. : And Herod the king was so terrified, that he said to Archelaus his son. _ 
ἃ 
Ϊ 


᾿ 


THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 249 


And they did so. And the seven years being fulfilled, there 
was a very sore famine, and for want of bread they began to 
eat earth. Then all the soldiers who were of the four kings 
took counsel among themselves, and said: Now we are sure 
to die: what will God do to us? or of what good is our life 
to us, because the Romans have come to take our place and 
nation? It is better for us to kill each other, than that the 
Romans should say that they have slain us, and gained the 
victory over us. And they drew their swords and smote them- 
selves, and died, to the number of twelve thousand men of them. 
Then there was a great stench in that city from the corpses of 
those dead men. And their kings feared with a very great fear 
even unto death; and they could not bear the stench of them, 
nor bury them, nor throw them forth out of the city. And they 
said to each other: What shall we do? We indeed gave up 
Christ to death, and now we are given up to death ourselves. 
Let us bow our heads, and give up the keys of the city to the 
Romans, because God has already given us up to death. And 
immediately they went up upon the walls of the city, and all 
cried out with a loud voice, saying: Titus and Vespasian, take 
the keys of the city, which have been given to you by Messiah, 
who is called Christ. 

Then they gave themselves up into the hands of Titus and 
Vespasian, and said: Judge us, seeing that we ought to die, 
because we judged Christ ; and he was given up without cause. 
Titus and Vespasian seized them, and some they stoned, and 
some they hanged on a tree, feet up and head down, and struck 
them through with lances ; and others they gave up to be sold, 
and others they divided among themselves, and made four parts 
of them, just as they had done of the garments of the Lord. 
And they said: They sold Christ for thirty pieces of silver, 
and we shall sell thirty of them for one denarius. And so 
they did. And having done so, they seized all the lands of 
Judea and Jerusalem. 

Then they made a search about the face or portrait? of Jesus, 
how they might find it? And they found a woman named 
Veronica who had it. Then they seized Pilate, and sent him 

1 Lit., countenance. 

* Sax. : And they inquired diligently whether perchance there were there any 


250 THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


to prison, to be guarded by four quaternions of soldiers at the 
door of the prison. Then they forthwith sent their messengers 
to Tiberius, the emperor of the city of Rome, that he should 
send Velosianus to them. And he said to him: Take all that 
is necessary for thee in the sea, and go down into Judea, and 
seek out one of the disciples of him who was called Christ 
and Lord, that he may come to me, and in the name of his 
God cure me of the leprosy and the infirmities by which I 
am daily exceedingly burdened, and of my wounds, because 
I am ill at ease. And send upon the kings of the Jews, who 
are subject to my authority, thy forces and terrible engines, 
because they have put to death Jesus Christ our Lord, and 
condemn them to death. And if thou shalt there find such a 
man as may be able to free me from this infirmity of mine, I 
will believe in Christ the Son of God, and will baptize myself 
in his name. And Velosianus said: My lord emperor, if I find 
such a man as may be able to help and free us, what reward 
shall I promise him? Tiberius said to him: The half of my 
kingdom, without fail, to be in his hand. 

Then Velosianus immediately went forth, and went on board 
the ship, and hoisted the sail in the vessel, and went on sailing 
through the sea. And he sailed a year and seven days, after 
which he arrived at Jerusalem. And immediately he ordered 
some of the Jews to come to his power, and began carefully to 
ask what had been the acts of Christ. Then Joseph, of the 
city of Arimathea, and Nicodemus, came at the same time. 
And Nicodemus said: I saw Him, and I know indeed that He 
is the Saviour of the world. And Joseph said to him: And I 
took Him down from the cross, and laid Him in a new tomb, 
which had been cut out of the rock. And the Jews kept me 
shut up on the day of the preparation, at evening ; and while 
I was standing in prayer on the Sabbath-day, the house was 
hung up by the four corners, and I saw the Lord Jesus Christ 
like a gleam of light, and for fear I fell to the ground. And 
He said to me, Look upon me, for I am Jesus, whose body 
thou buriedst in thy tomb. And I said to Him, Show me 
the sepulchre where I laid Thee. And Jesus, holding my 


one who had miraculous relics of the Saviour, of His clothing, or other precious 
things ; and they sought so diligently, that they found a woman, ete. 


THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 251 


hand in His right hand, Jed me to the place where I buried 
Him." 

And there came also the woman named Veronica, and said 
to him: And I touched in the crowd the fringe of His garment, 
because for twelve years I had suffered from an issue of blood ; 
and He immediately healed me. Then Velosianus said to 
Pilate: Thou, Pilate, impious and cruel, why hast thou slain 
the Son of God? And Pilate answered: His own nation, 
and the chief priests Annas and Caiaphas, gave him to me. 
Velosianus said: Impious and cruel, thou art worthy of death 
and cruel punishment. And he sent him back to prison. And 
Velosianus at last sought for the face or the countenance of 
the Lord. And all who were in that same place said: It is 
the woman called Veronica who has the portrait of the Lord 
in her house. And immediately he ordered her to be brought 
before his power. And he said to her: Hast thou the por- 
trait of the Lord in thy house? But she said, No. Then 
Velosianus ordered her to be put to the torture, until she 
should give up the portrait of the Lord. And she was forced 
to say: I have it in clean linen, my lord, and I daily adore it. 
Velosianus said: Show it tome. Then she showed the portrait 
of the Lord. When Velosianus saw it, he prostrated himself 
on the ground; and with a ready heart and true faith he took 
hold of it, and wrapped it in cloth of gold, and placed it ina 
casket, and sealed it with his ring. And he swore with an 
oath, and said: As the Lord God liveth, and by the health of 
Czesar, no man shall any more see it upon the face of the 
earth, until I see the face of my lord Tiberius. And when 
he had thus spoken, the princes, who were the chief men of 
Judea, seized Pilate to take him to a seaport. And he took 
the portrait of the Lord, with all His disciples, and all in his 
pay, and they went on board the ship the same day. Then 
the woman Veronica, for the love of Christ, left all that she 

1 In the Saxon, Joseph’s speech is: I know that they took Him down from 
the cross, and laid Him in the tomb which I had cut out of the rock, And I 
was one of those who guarded His tomb ; and I bent my head and thought I 
should see Him, but I beheld nothing of Him, but saw two angels, one at the 
head and the other at the foot, and they asked me whom I was seeking. I 


answered and said to them, I seek Jesus who was crucified. Again they said 
to me, Go into Galilee; there shall you see Him, as He said to you before. 


252 THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


possessed, and followed Velosianus. And Velosianus said to 
her: What dost thou wish, woman, or what dost thou seek ? 
And she answered: I am seeking the portrait of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, who enlightened me, not for my own merits, but 
through His own holy affection.t Give back to me the portrait 
of my Lord Jesus Christ; for because of this I die with a 
righteous longing. But if thou do not give it back to me, I 
will not leave it until I see where thou wilt put it, because 
I, most miserable woman that I am, will serve Him all the 
days of my life; because I believe that He, my Redeemer, 
liveth for everlasting. 

Then Velosianus ordered the woman Veronica to be taken 
down with him into the ship. And the sails being hoisted, 
they began to go in the vessel in the name of the Lord, and 
they sailed through the sea. But Titus, along with Vespasian, 
went up into Judea, avenging all nations upon their land? At 
the end of a year Velosianus came to the city of Rome, brought 
his vessel into the river which is called Tiberis, or Tiber, and 
entered the city which is called Rome. And he sent his 
messenger to his lord Tiberius the emperor in the Lateran 
about his prosperous arrival. 

Then Tiberius the emperor, when he heard the message of 
Velosianus, rejoiced greatly, and ordered him to come before 
his face. And when he had come, he called him, saying: 
Velosianus, how hast thou come, and what hast thou seen in 
the region of Judea of Christ the Lord and his disciples ? 
Tell me, I beseech thee, that he is going to cure me of mine 
infirmity, that I may be at once cleansed from that leprosy 
which I have over my body, and I give up my whole kingdom 
into thy power and his. 

And Velosianus said: My lord emperor, I found thy servants 
Titus and Vespasian in Judea fearing the Lord, and they were 


"A few lines of the text are here very corrupt, and are omitted by Tischendorf. 
The meaning of them is: And woe’s me, because, contrary to the law, thou 
hast treated me most unjustly. Ah! woe’s me, because thou hast taken my 
Lord from me ; just as the Jews did contrary to the law in crucifying in this 
world the Lord Jesus Christ, whom the eyes of your Cesar have not seen. But 
woe’s me! have I done contrary to the law? Have I deserved to suffer this 
punishment ¢ 

* Or, taking vengeance upon all the nations of their land. 


THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 253 


cleansed from all their ulcers and sufferings. And I found 
that all the kings and rulers of Judea have been hanged by 
Titus; Annas and Caiaphas have been stoned, Archelaus has 
killed himself with his own lance; and I have sent Pilate to 
Damascus in bonds, and kept him in prison under safe keeping. 
But I have also found out about Jesus, whom the Jews most 
wickedly attacked with swords, and staves, and weapons; and 
they crucified him who ought to have freed and enlightened 
us, and to have come to us, and they hanged him on a tree. 
And Joseph came from Arimathea, and Nicodemus with him, 
bringing a mixture of myrrh and aloes, about a hundred pounds, 
to anoint the body of Jesus ; and they took him down from the 
cross, and laid him ina new tomb. And on the third day he 
most assuredly rose again from the dead, and showed himself 
to his disciples in the same flesh in which he had been born. 
At length, after forty days, they saw him going up into heaven. 
Many, indeed, and other miracles did Jesus before his passion 
and after. First, of water he made wine; he raised the dead, 
he cleansed lepers, he enlightened the blind, he cured paralytics, 
he put demons to flight; he made the deaf hear, the dumb 
speak ; Lazarus, when four days dead, he raised from the tomb; 
the woman Veronica, who suffered from an issue of blood twelve 
years, and touched the fringe of his garment, he made whole. 
Then it pleased the Lord in the heavens, that the Son of God, 
who, sent into this world as the first-created, had died upon 
earth, should send his angel; and he commanded Titus and 
Vespasian, whom I knew in that place where thy throne is. 
And it pleased God Almighty that they went into Judea and 
Jerusalem, and seized thy subjects, and put them under that 
sentence, as it were, in the same manner as they did when thy 
subjects seized Jesus and bound him. And Vespasian after- 
wards said: What shall we do about those who shall remain ? 
Titus answered: They hanged our Lord on a green tree, and 
struck him with a lance; now let us hang them on a dry tree, 
and pierce their bodies through and through with the lance. 
And they did so. And Vespasian said: What about those 
who are left? Titus answered: They seized the tunic of our 
Lord Jesus Christ, and of it made four parts; now let us seize 
them, and divide them into four parts,—to thee one, to me 


254 THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 


one, to thy men another, and to my servants the fourth part. 


And they did so. And Vespasian said: But what shall we do 


about those who are left? Titus answered him: The Jews 
sold our Lord for thirty pieces of silver: now let us sell thirty 
of them for one piece of silver. And they did so. And they 
seized Pilate, and gave him up to me, and I put him in prison, 
to be guarded by four quaternions of soldiers in Damascus. 
Then they made a search with great diligence to seek the 
portrait of the Lord ; and they found a woman named Veronica 
who had the portrait of the Lord. Then the Emperor Tiberius 
said to Velosianus: How hast thou it? And he answered: I 
have it in clean cloth of gold, rolled up inashawl. And the 
Emperor Tiberius said: Bring it to me, and spread it before 
my face, that I, falig to the ground and bending my knees, 
may adore it on the ground. Then Velosianus spread out his 
shawl with the cloth of gold on which the portrait of the Lord 
had been imprinted; and the Emperor Tiberius saw it. And 
he immediately adored the image of the Lord with a pure heart, 
and his flesh was cleansed as the flesh of a little child. And 
all the blind, the lepers, the lame, the dumb, the deaf, and 
those possessed by various diseases, who were there present, 
were healed, and cured, and cleansed. And the Emperor 
Tiberius bowed his head and bent his knees, considering that 
saying: Blessed is the womb which bore Thee, and the breasts 
which Thou hast sucked; and he groaned to the Lord, saying 
with tears: God of heaven and earth, do not permit me to 
sin, but confirm my soul and my body, and place me in Thy 
kingdom, because in Thy name do I trust always: free me 
from all evils, as Thou didst free the three children from the 
furnace of blazing fire. 

Then said the Emperor Tiberius to Velosianus: Velosianus, 
hast thou seen any of those men who saw Christ? Velosianus 
answered: I have. He said: Didst thou ask how they baptize 
those who believed in Christ? Velosianus said: Here, my 
lord, we have one of the disciples of Christ himself. Then he 
ordered Nathan to be summoned to come to him. Nathan 
therefore came and baptized him in the name of the Father, and 
of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen. Immediately the 
Emperor Tiberius, made whole from all his diseases, ascended 


THE AVENGING OF THE SAVIOUR. 255 


upon his throne, and said: Blessed art Thou, O Lord God 
Almighty, and worthy to be praised, who hast freed me from 
the snare of death, and cleansed me from all mine iniquities ; 
because I have greatly sinned before Thee, O Lord my God, 
and I am not worthy to see Thy face. And then the Emperor 
Tiberius was instructed in all the articles of the faith, fully, and 
with strong faith. 

May that same God Almighty, who is King of kings and 
Lord of lords, Himself shield us in His faith, and defend us, 
and deliver us from all danger and evil, and deign to bring us 
to life everlasting, when this life, which is temporary, shall 
fail; who is blessed for ever and ever. Amen. 


ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 
PETER AND PAUL. 


Gaudomeleta,* that he came to Italy; and it was 
heard of by the Jews who were in Rome, the elder 
of the cities, that Paul demanded to come to Ceesar. 
Having fallen, therefore, into great grief and much despond- 
ency, they said among themselves: It does not please him that 
he alone has afflicted all our brethren and parents in Judea 
and Samaria, and in all Palestine; and he has not been pleased 
with these, but, behold, he comes here also, having through 
imposition asked Cesar to destroy us. 

Having therefore made an assembly against Paul, and having 
considered many proposals,’ it seemed good to them to go to 
Nero the emperor, [to ask him] not to allow Paul to come 
to Rome. Having therefore got in readiness not a few pre- 
sents, and having carried them with them, with supplication 
they came before him, saying: We beseech thee, O good 
emperor, send orders into all the governments of your worship, 
to the effect that Paul is not to come near these parts ; because 
this Paul, having aftlicted all the nation of our fathers, has been 
seeking to come hither to destroy us also. And the affliction, 
QO most worshipful emperor, which we have from Peter is 
enough for us. 

And the Emperor Nero, having heard these things, answered 


1 Lambecius proposes to read Gaudos and Melita. In the Latin version of 
the famous Greek scholar Lascaris, 1490, it is a Melita et Gaudisio insulis. 
2 σρακταΐσαντες : from the Byzantine verb τρακταΐζειν = tractare. The various 
readings in the Mss. are: Being very disorderly; having been much disturbed. 
256 


ACTS OF PETER AND PAUL. 257 


them: It is? according to your wish. And we write to all 
our governments that he shall not on any account come to 
anchor in the parts of Italy. And they also informed Simon 
the magian, having sent for him, that, as has been said, he should 
not come into the parts of Italy. 

And while they were thus doing, some of those that had 
repented out of the nations, and that had been baptized at the 
preaching of Peter, sent elders to Paul with a letter to the 
following effect: Paul, dear servant of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
and brother of Peter, the first of the apostles, we have heard 
from the rabbis of the Jews that are in this Rome, the greatest 
of the cities, that they have asked Cvesar to send into all his 
governments, in order that, wherever thou mayst be found, thou 
_ mayst be put to death. But we have believed, and do believe, 
that as God does not separate the two great lights which He 
has made, so He is not to part you from each other, that is, 
neither Peter from Paul, nor Paul from Peter; but we positively 
believe in our Lord Jesus Christ, into whom we have been 
baptized, that we have become worthy also of your teaching. 

And Paul, having received the two men sent with the letter 
on the twentieth of the month of May, became eager [to gol], 
and gave thanks to the Lord and Master Jesus Christ. And 
having sailed from Gaudomeleta, he did not now come through 
Africa to the parts of Italy, but ran to Sicily, until he came to 
the city of Syracuse with the two men who had been sent from 
Rome to him. And having sailed thence, he came to Rhegium 
of Calabria, and from Rhegium he crossed to Mesina, and there 
ordained a bishop, Bacchylus by name. And when he came 
out of Mesina he sailed to Didymus, and remained there one 
night. _And having sailed thence, he came to Pontiole’ on the 
second day. 

And Dioscorus the shipmaster, who brought him to Syracuse, 
sympathizing with Paul because he had delivered his son from 
death, having left his own ship in Syracuse, accompanied him 
to Pontiole. And some of Peter’s disciples having been found 
there, and having received Paul, exhorted him to stay with 
them. And he stayed a week, in hiding, because of the com- 
mand of Cesar. And all the toparchs were watching to seize 


* Various reading: Let it be . . . and we will write, ete. 2 Puteoli. 
KR 


258 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


and kill him. But Dioscorus the shipmaster, being himself 
also bald, wearing his shipmaster’s dress, and speaking boldly, 
on the first day went out into the city of Pontiole. Thinking 
therefore that he was Paul, they seized him, and beheaded him, 
and sent his head to Cesar. 

Cesar therefore, having summoned the first men of the Jews, 
announced to them, saying: Rejoice with great joy, for Paul 
your enemy is dead. And he showed them the head. Having 
therefore made great rejoicing on that day, which was the 
fourteenth of the month of June, each of the Jews fully be- 
lieved it. 

And Paul, being in Pontiole, and having heard that Dioscorus 
had been beheaded, being grieved with great grief, gazing into 
the height of the heaven, said: O Lord Almighty in heaven, 
who hast appeared to me in every place whither I have gone 
on account of Thine only-begotten Word, our Lord Jesus Christ, 
punish this city, and bring out all who have believed in God 
and followed His word. He said to them therefore: Follow 
me. And going forth from Pontiole with those who had be- 
lieved in the word of God, they came to a place called Baias ;* 
and looking up with their eyes, they all see that city called 
Pontiole sunk into the sea-shore about one fathom; and there 
it is until this day, for a remembrance, under the sea. 

And having gone forth from Baias, they went to Gaitas, and 
there he taught the word of God. And he stayed there three 
days in the house of Erasmus, whom Peter sent from Rome to 
teach the gospel of God. And having come forth from Gaitas, 
he came to the castle called Taracinas, and stayed there seven 
days in the house of Cesarius the deacon, whom Peter had 
ordained by the laying on of hands. And sailing thence, he 
came by the river to a place called Tribus Tabernes. 

And those who had been saved out of the city of Pontiole, 
that had been swallowed up, reported to Cesar in Rome that 
Pontiole had been swallowed up, with all its multitude. And — 
the emperor, being in great grief on account of the city, having — 
summoned the chief of the Jews, said to them: Behold, on — 
account of what I heard from you, I have caused Paul to be — 


1 The geographical names are given in the peculiar forms of the text. Occa- 
sionally the usual forms, such as Bais, occur. 


PETER AND PAUL. 259 


beheaded, and on account of this the city has been swallowed 
up. And the chief of the Jews said to Cesar: Most worshipful 
emperor, did we not say to thee that he troubled all the country 
of the East, and perverted our fathers? It is better therefore, 
most worshipful emperor, that one city be destroyed, and not 
the seat of thine empire; for this had Rome to suffer. And 
the emperor, having heard their words, was appeased. 

And Paul stayed in Tribus Tabernes four days. And depart- 
ing thence, he came to Appi Forum, which is called Vicusa- 
rape; and having slept there that night, he saw one sitting on 
a golden chair, and a multitude of blacks standing beside him, 
saying: I have to-day made a son murder his father. Another 
said: And I have made a house fall, and kill parents with chil- 
dren. And they reported to him many evil deeds—some of 
one kind, some of another. And another coming, reported to 
him: I have managed that the bishop Juvenalius, whom Peter 
ordained, should sleep with the abbess Juliana. And having 
heard all these things when sleeping in that Appii Forum, near 
Vicusarape, straightway and immediately he sent to Rome one 
of those who had followed him from Pontiole to the bishop 
Juyenalius, telling him this same thing which had just been 
done. And on the following day, Juvenalius, running, threw 
himself at the feet of Peter, weeping and lamenting, and saying 
what had just befallen; and he recounted to him the matter, 
and said: I believe that this is the light which thou wast 
awaiting. And Peter said to him: How is it possible that it 
is he when he is dead? And Juvenalius the bishop took to 
Peter him that had been sent by Paul, and he reported to him 
that he was alive, and on his way, and that he was at Appi 
Forum. And Peter thanked and glorified the God and Father 
of our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Then having summoned his.disciples that believed, he sent 
them to Paul as far as Tribus Tabernes. And the distance 
from Rome to Tribus Tabernes is thirty-eight miles.’ And 
Paul seeing them, having given thanks to our Lord Jesus Christ, 
took courage ; and departing thence, they slept in the city 
called Aricia. 


1 The distance was thirty-three miles. In the Antonine Itinerary, “To Aricia 
is sixteen miles, to Tres Taberne seventeen miles, to Appii Forum ten miles.” 


260 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


And a report went about in the city of Rome that Paul the 
brother of Peter was coming. And those that believed in God 
rejoiced with great joy. And there was great consternation 
among the Jews ; and having gone to Simon the magian, they 
entreated him, saying: Report to the emperor that Paul is not 
dead, but that he is alive, and has come. And Simon said to 
the Jews: What head is it, then, which came to Cesar from 
Pontiole ? Was it not bald also ? 

And Paul having come to Rome, great fear fell upon the 
Jews. They came together therefore to him, and exhorted him, 
saying: Vindicate the faith in which thou wast born; for 
it is not right that thou, being a Hebrew, and of the Hebrews, 
shouldst call thyself teacher of Gentiles, and vindicator of 
the uncircumcised ; and, being thyself circumcised, that thou 
shouldst bring to nought the faith of the circumcision.’ And 
when thou seest Peter, contend against his teaching, because 
he has destroyed all the bulwarks of our law; for he has 
prevented the keeping of Sabbaths and new moons, and the 
holidays appointed by the law. And Paul, answering, said to 
them: That I am a true Jew, by this you can prove; because 
also you have been able to keep the Sabbath, and to observe 
the true circumcision; for assuredly on the day of the Sabbath 
God rested from all His works. We have fathers, and patri- 
archs, and the law. What, then, does Peter preach in the king- 
dom of the Gentiles? But if he shall wish to bring in any 
new teaching, without any tumult, and envy, and trouble, send 
him word, that we may see, and in your presence I shall convict 
him. Butif his teaching be true, supported by the book and 
testimony of the Hebrews, it becomes all of us to submit to him. 

Paul saying these and such lke things, the Jews went and 
said to Peter: Paul of the Hebrews has come, and entreats thee 
to come to him, since those who have brought him say that he 
cannot meet whomsoever he may wish until he appear before 
Cesar. And Peter having heard, rejoiced with great joy; and 
rising up, immediately went to him. And seeing each other, 
they wept for joy ; and long embracing each other, they bedewed 
each other with tears. 

And when Paul had related to Peter the substance? of all 

1 Or, do away with belief in circumcision. 2 Lit., web or tissue. 


PETER AND PAUL. 261 


his doings, and how, through the disasters of the ship, he had 
come, Peter also told him what he had suffered from Simon 
the magian, and all his plots. And having told these things, 
he went away towards evening. 

And in the morning of the following day, at dawn, behold, 
Peter coming, finds a multitude of the Jews before Paul’s door. 
And there was a great uproar between the Christian Jews and 
the Gentiles. For, on the one hand, the Jews said: We area 
chosen race, a royal priesthood, the friends of Abraham, and 
Isaac, and Jacob, and all the prophets, with whom God spake, 
to whom He showed His own mysteries and His great wonders. 
But you of the Gentiles are no great thing in your lineage ; if 
otherwise, you have become polluted and abominable by idols 
and graven images. 

While the Jews were saying such things, and such-like, those 
of the Gentiles answered, saying: We, when we heard the 
truth, straightway followed it, having abandoned our errors. 
But you, both knowing the mighty deeds of your fathers, and 
seeing the signs of the prophets, and having received the law, 
and gone through the sea with dry feet, and seen your enemies 
sunk in its depths, and the pillar of fire by night and of cloud 
by day shining upon you, and manna having been given to 
you out of heaven, and water flowing to you out of a rock,— 
after all these things you fashioned to yourselves the idol of 
a calf, and worshipped the graven image. But we, having seen 
none of the signs, believe to be a Saviour the God whom you 
have forsaken in unbelief. 

While they were contending in these and such-lke words, 
the Apostle Paul said that they ought not to make such attacks 
upon each other, but that they should rather give heed to 
this, that God had fulfilled His promises which He swore to 
Abraham our father, that in his seed he should inherit all the 
nations." For there is no respect of persons with God. As 
many as have sinned in law shall be judged according to law, 
‘and as many as have sinned without law shall perish without 
law. But we, brethren, ought to thank God that, according 
to His mercy, He has chosen us to be a holy people to Him; 

1 Gen. xii. 3, xvii. 5. 

2 Rom. ii. 11; Eph. vi. 9; Col. iii. 25; Jas. ii. 1. ’ Rom. ii. 12. 


262 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


self: so that in this we ought to boast, whether Jews or Greeks ; 
for you are all one in the belief of His name. 

And Paul having thus spoken, both the Jews and they of 
the Gentiles were appeased. But the rulers of the Jews as- 
sailed Peter. And Peter, when they accused him of having 
renounced their synagogues, said: Hear, brethren, the Holy 
Spirit about the patriarch David, promising, Of the fruit of thy 
womb shall He set upon thy throne." Him therefore to whom 
the Father said, Thou art my Son, this day have I begotten 
Thee, the chief priests through envy crucified; but that He 
might accomplish the salvation of the world, it was allowed 
that He should suffer all these things.? Just as, therefore, 
from the side of Adam Eve was created, so also from the side 
of Christ was created the church, which has no spot nor 
blemish. In Him,’ therefore, God has opened an entrance to all 
the sons of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, in order that they 
may be in the faith of profession towards Him,‘ and have life 
and salvation in His name. ‘Turn, therefore, and enter into the 
joy of your father Abraham, because God hath fulfilled what 
He promised to him. Whence also the prophet says, The 
Lord hath sworn, and will not repent: Thou art a priest for 
ever, after the order of Melchizedec.*® For a priest He became 
upon the cross, when He offered the whole burnt-offering of 
His own body and blood as a sacrifice for all the world. 

And Peter saying this and such-lke, the most part of the 
people believed. And it happened also that Nero’s wife Libia, 
and the yoke-fellow of Agrippa the prefect, Agrippina by name, 
thus believed, so that also they went away from beside their own 
husbands. And on account of the teaching of Paul, many, despis- 
ing military life, clung to God; so that even from the emperor’s 
bed-chamber some came to him, and having become Christians, 
were no longer willing to return to the army or the palace. 

When, consequently, the people were making a seditious mur-— 
muring, Simon, moved with zeal, rouses himself, and began to 


ἐν, exxxii. 11. 
2 Or, He allowed Himself to suffer all these things. 3 Or, by Him. 


44.¢e,, That all may profess their faith in Him. For similar expressions, see 


2 Cor. ix. 18, Heb. x. 23. 
5 Ps. cx. 4; Heb. vii. 21. 


PETER AND PAUL. 263 


say many evil things about Peter, saying that he was a wizard 
and acheat. And they believed him, wondering at his miracles ; 
for he made a brazen serpent move itself, and stone statues to 
laugh and move themselves, and himself to run and suddenly to 
be raised into the air. But as a set-off to these, Peter healed 
the sick by a word, by praying made the blind to see, put 
demons to flight by a command; sometimes he even raised the 
dead. And he said to the people that they should not only 
fiee from Simon’s deceit, but also that they should expose him, 
that they might not seem to be slaves to the devil. 

And thus it happened that all pious men abhorred Simon 
the magian, and proclaimed him impious. but those who 
adhered to Simon strongly affirmed Peter to be a magian, bear- 
ing false witness as many of them as were with Simon the 
magian ; so that the matter came even to the ears of Nero the 
Ceesar, and he gave order to bring Simon the magian before 
him. And he, coming in, stood before him, and began suddenly 
to assume different forms, so that on a sudden he became a 
child, and after a little an old man, and at other times a young 
man; for he changed himself both in face and stature into 
different forms, and was in a frenzy, having the devil as his 
servant. And Nero beholding this, supposed him to be truly 
the son of God; but the Apostle Peter showed him to be both 
a liar and a wizard, base and impious and apostate, and in all 
things opposed to the truth of God, and that nothing yet re- 
mained except that his wickedness, being made apparent by the 
command of God, might be made manifest to them all. 

Then Simon, having gone in to Nero, said: Hear, O good 
emperor: I am the son of God come down from heaven. Until 
now I have endured Peter only calling himself an apostle; 
but now he has doubled the evil: for Paul also himself teaches 
the same things, and having his mind turned against me, is 
said to preach along with him; in reference to whom, if thou 
shalt not contrive their destruction, it is very plain that thy 
kingdom cannot stand. 

Then Nero, filled with concern, ordered to bring them speedily 
before him. And on the following day Simon the magian, and 
Peter and Paul the apostles of Christ, having come in to Nero, 
Simon said: These are the disciples of the Nazarene, and it is 


264 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


not at all well that they should be of the people of the Jews. 
Nero said: What is a Nazarene? Simon said: There is a city 
of Judah which has always been opposed to us, called Nazareth, 
and to it the teacher of these men belonged. Nero said: God 
commands us to love every man; why, then, dost thou perse- 
cute them? Simon said: This is a race of men who have 
turned aside all Judea from believing in me. Nero said to 
Peter: Why are you thus unbelieving, according to your race 2? 
Then Peter said to Simon: Thou hast been able to impose 
upon all, but upon me never; and those who have been de- 
ceived, God has through me recalled from their error. And 
since thou hast learned by experience that thou canst not get 
the better of me, I wonder with what face thou boastest thyself 
before the emperor, and supposest that through thy magic art 
thou shalt overcome the disciples of Christ. Nero said: Who 
is Christ? Peter said: He is what this Simon the magian 
affirms himself to be; but this is a most wicked man, and his 
works are of the devil. But if thou wishest to know, O good 
emperor, the things that have been done in Judea about Christ, 
take the writings of Pontius Pilate sent to Claudius, and thus 
thou wilt know all. And Nero ordered them to be brought, 
and to be read in their presence; and they were to the follow- 
ing effect :°— 

Pontius Pilate to Claudius, greeting. There has lately hap- 
pened an event which I myself was concerned in. For the 
Jews through envy have inflicted on themselves, and those 
coming after them, dreadful judgments. Their fathers had 
promises that their God would send them his holy one from 
heaven, who according to reason should be called their king, 
and he had promised to send him to the earth by means of a 
virgin, He, then, when I was procurator, came into Judea. 
And they βὰν ὃ him enlightening the blind, cleansing lepers, 
healing paralytics, expelling demons from men, raising the 
dead, subduing the winds, walking upon the waves of the sea, 


‘ 7.e., How do you happen, as a race, to be so unbelieving? The Latin trans- 
lation has: against your race—xara σοῦ γένους for xara τὸ γένος. 

2 For another translation of this letter, see Latin Gospel of Nicodemus, ch, 
xiii. (xxix. ) 

3 Or, I saw. 


PETER AND PAUL. 265 


and doing many other wonders, and all the people of the Jews 
calling him Son of God. Then the chief priests, moved with 
envy against him, seized him, and delivered him to me; and 
telling one lie after another, they said that he was a wizard, 
and did contrary to their law. And I, having believed that 
these things were so, gave him up, after scourging him, to their 
will;! and they crucified him, and after he was buried set guards 
over him. But he, while my soldiers were guarding him, rose 
on the third day. And to such a degree was the wickedness 
of the Jews inflamed against him, that they gave money to the 
soldiers, saying, Say his disciples have stolen his body. But 
they, having taken the money, were not able to keep silence as 
to what had happened; for they have testified that they have 
seen him (after he was) risen, and that they have received 
money from the Jews. These things, therefore, have I reported, 
that no one should falsely speak otherwise, and that thou 
shouldest not suppose that the falsehoods of the Jews are to be 
believed. 

And the letter having been read, Nero said: Tell me, Peter, 
were all these things thus done by him? Peter said: They 
were, with your permission, O good emperor. For this Simon 
is full of lies and deceit, even if it should seem that he is what 
he is not—a god. And in Christ there is all excellent victory 
through God and through man,’ which that incomprehensible 
glory assumed which through man deigned to come to the 
assistance of men. But in this Simon there are two essences, 
of man and of devil, who through man endeavours to ensnare 
men. 

Simon said: I wonder, O good emperor, that you reckon this 
man of any consequence—a man uneducated, a fisherman of 
the poorest, and endowed with power neither in word nor by 
rank. But, that I may not long endure him as an enemy, I 
shall forthwith order my angels to come and avenge me upon 
him. Peter said: I am not afraid of thy angels; but they 
shall be much more afraid of me in the power and trust of my 
Lord Jesus Christ, whom thou falsely declarest thyself to be. 

Nero said: Art thou not afraid, Peter, of Simon, who con- 
firms his godhead by deeds? Peter said: Godhead is in Him 

1 Or, to their council. 2 2,6. human nature, 


266 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES © 


who searcheth the hidden things of the heart.’ Now then, tell 
me what I am thinking about, or what I am doing. I disclose 
to thy servants who are here what my thought is, before he 
tells lies about it, in order that he may not dare to le as to 
what I am thinking about. Nero said: Come hither, and tell 
me what thou art thinking about. Peter said: Order a barley 
loaf to be brought, and to be given to me secretly. And when 
he ordered it. to be brought, and secretly given to Peter, Peter 
said: Now tell us, Simon, what has been thought about, or 
what said, or what done. 

Nero said: Do you mean me to believe that Simon does not 
know these things, who both raised a dead man, and presented 
himself on the third day after he had been beheaded, and who 
has done whatever he said he would do? Peter said: But he did 
not doit before me. Nero said: But he did all these before me. 
For assuredly he ordered angels to come to him, and they came. 


Peter said: If he has done what is very great, why does he not 


do what is very small? Let him tell what I had in my mind, 
and what I have done. Nero said: Between you, I do not know 
myself. Simon said: Let Peter say what 1 am thinking of, or 
what I am doing. Peter said: What Simon has in his mind 
I shall show that I know, by my doing what he is thinking 
about. Simon said: Kihow this, O emperor, that no one knows 
the thoughts of men, but God alone. Is not, therefore, Peter 
lying? Peter said: Do thou, then, who sayest that thou art 
the Son of God, tell what I have in my mind; disclose, if thou 
canst, what I have just done in secret. For Peter, having 
blessed the barley loaf which he had received, and having 
broken it with his right hand and his left, had heaped it up in 
his sleeves. Then Simon, enraged that he was not able to tell 
the secret of the apostle, cried out, saying: Let great dogs come 
forth, and eat him up before Cesar. And suddenly there ap- 
peared great dogs, and rushed at Peter. But Peter, stretching 
forth his hands’ to pray, showed to the dogs the loaf which he 
had blessed; which the dogs seeing, no longer appeared. Then 
Peter said to Nero: Behold, I have shown thee that I knew 
what Simon was thinking of, not by words, but by deeds; for 
he, having promised that he would bring angels against me, 

1 Jer. xvii. 10; Rev. ii. 28. 2 Lam. iii, 41; Mark xi. 25; 1 Tim. ii. 8. 


i 


PETER AND PAUL. 267 


has brought dogs, in order that he might show that he had not 
god-like but dog-like angels. 

Then Nero said to Simon: What is it, Simon? I think we 
have got the worst of it. Simon said: This man, both in Judea 
and in all Palestine and Cesarea, has done the same to me;’ 
and from very often striving with me, he has learned that this is 
adverse tothem. This, then, he has learned how to escape from 
me; for the thoughts of men no one knows but Ged alone. And 
Peter said to Simon: Certainly thou feignest thyself to be a 
god; why, then, dost thou not reveal the thoughts of every man? 

Then Nero, turning to Paul, said: Why dost thou say no- 
thing, Paul? Paul answered and said: Know this, Ὁ emperor, 
that if thou permittest this magician to do such things, it will 
bring an access of the greatest mischief to thy country, and 
will bring down thine empire from its position. Nero said to 
Simon: What sayest thou? Simon said: If I do not mani- 
festly hold myself out to be a god, no one will bestow upon me 
due reverence. Nero said: And now, why dost thou delay, and 
not show thyself to be a god, in order that these men may be 
punished? Simon said: Give orders to build for me a lofty 
tower of wood, and I, going up upon it, will call my angels, and 
order them to take me, in the sight of all, to my father in 
heaven; and these men, not being able to do this, are put to 
shame as” uneducated men. And Nero said to Peter: Hast 
thou heard, Peter, what has been said by Simon? From this 
will appear how much power either he or thy god has. Peter 
said: O most mighty emperor, if thou wert willing, thou mightst 
perceive that he is full of demons. Nero said: Why do you 
make to me roundabouts of circumlocutions? To-morrow will 
prove you. 

Simon said: Dost thou believe, O good emperor, that I who 
was dead, and rose again, am a magician? For it had been 
brought about by his own cleverness that the unbelieving 
Simon had said to Nero: Order me to be beheaded in a dark 
place, and there to be left slain; and if I do not rise on the 
third day, know that I am a magician; but if I rise again, 
know that I am the Son of God. 


1 See the Clementines, Homilies ii., iii., vi., xvi., xx. 
2 Or, are proved to be. 


268 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


And Nero having ordered this, in the dark, by his magie 
art he managed that a ram should be beheaded. And for so 
long did the ram appear to be Simon until he was beheaded. 
And when he had been beheaded in the dark, he that had 
beheaded him, taking the head, found it to be that of a ram; 
but he would not say anything to the emperor, lest he should 
scourge him, having ordered this to be done in secret. There- 
after, accordingly, Simon said that he had risen on the third 
day, because he took away the head of the ram and the limbs 
—but the blood had been there congealed—and on the third 
day he showed himself to Nero, and said: Cause to be wiped 
away my blood that has been poured out; for, behold, having 
been beheaded, as I promised, I have risen again on the third 
day. 

And when Nero said, To-morrow will prove you, turning to 
Paul, he says: Thou Paul, why dost thou say nothing? Either 
who taught thee, or whom thou hast for a master, or how thou 
hast taught in the cities, or what things have happened through 
thy teaching? For I think that thou hast not any wisdom, 
and art not able to accomplish any work of power. Paul 
answered: Dost thou suppose that I ought to speak against a 
desperate man, a magician, who has given his soul up to death, 
whose destruction and perdition will come speedily? For he 
ought to speak who pretends to be what he is not, and deceives 
men by magic art. If thou consentest to hear his words, and 
to shield him, thou shalt destroy thy soul and thy kingdom, 
for he is a most base man. And as the Egyptians Jannes and 
Jgambres led Pharaoh and his army astray until they were 
swallowed up in the sea, so also he, through the instruction of 
his father the devil, persuades men to do many evils to them- 
selves, and thus deceives many of the innocent, to the peril of 
thy kingdom. But as for the word of the devil, which I see 
has been poured out through this man, with groanings of my 
heart I am dealing with the Holy Spirit, that it may be clearly 
shown what it is; for as far as he seems to raise himself 
towards heaven, so far will he be sunk down into the depth of 
Hades, where there is weeping and gnashing of teeth. But 
about the teaching of my Master, of which thou didst ask me, 
none attain it except the pure, who allow faith to come into 


PETER AND PAUL. 269 


their heart.1 For as many things as belong to peace and love, 
these have I taught. Round about from Jerusalem, and as far 


_as Illyricum,’ I have fulfilled the word of peace. For 1 have 


taught that in honour they should prefer one another ;* I have 
taught those that are eminent and rich not to be lifted up, and 
hope in uncertainty of riches, but to place their hope in God ;* 
I have taught those in a middle station to be content with food 
and covering ;* I have taught the poor to rejoice in their own 
poverty; I have taught fathers to teach their children instruc- 
tion in the fear of the Lord, children to obey their parents 
in wholesome admonition ;° I have taught wives to love their 
own husbands, and to fear them as masters, and husbands to 
observe fidelity to their wives; I have taught masters to treat 
their slaves with clemency, and slaves to serve their own 
masters faithfully ;7 I have taught the churches of the believers 
to reverence one almighty, invisible, and incomprehensible 
God. And this teaching has been given me, not from men, 
nor through men, but through Jesus Christ,® who spoke to me 
out of heaven, who also has sent me to preach, saying to me, 
Go forth, for I will be with thee; and all things, as many as 
thou shalt say or do, I shall make just. 

Nero said: What sayest thou, Peter? He answered and 
said: All that Paul has said is true.’ For when he was a per- 
secutor of the faith of Christ, a voice called him out of heaven, 
and taught him the truth; for he was not an adversary of our 
faith from hatred, but from ignorance. for there were before 
us false Christs, like Simon, false apostles, and false prophets, 
who, contrary to the sacred writings, set themselves to make 
void the truth ; and against these it was necessary to have in 
readiness this man, who from his youth up set himself to no 
other thing than to search out the mysteries of the divine law, 


1 Or, the pure in heart admitting the faith. 2 Rom. xv. 19. 

3 Rom. xii. 10. * 1 Tim. vy dv 

5 Or, those who have a moderate quantity of food and covering to be content 
(1 Tim. vi. 8). 

ὃ Or, in the admonition of the Saviour (Eph. vi. 4). 

7 Col. iii. 18-22. 8. Gali. 

9 Four of the mss. and the Latin version here add: For assuredly I have for 
a long time past received letters from our bishops throughout all the world about 
the things done and said by him. 


270 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


by which? he might become a vindicator of truth and a per- 
secutor of falsehood. Since, then, his persecution was not on 
account of hatred, but on account of the vindication of the law, 
the very truth out of heaven held intercourse with him, saying, 
I am the truth which thou persecutest ; cease persecuting me. 
When, therefore, he knew that this was so, leaving off that 
which he was vindicating, he began to vindicate this way of 
Christ which he was persecuting. 

Simon said: O good emperor, take notice that these two 
have conspired against me; for I am the truth, and they pur- 
pose evil against me. Peter said: There is no truth in thee; 
but all thou sayest is false. 

Nero said: Paul, what sayest thou? Paul said: Those 
things which thou hast heard from Peter, believe to have been 
spoken by me also; for we purpose the same thing, for we 
have the same Lord Jesus the Christ. Simon said: Dost thou 
expect me, O good emperor, to hold an argument with these 
men, who have come to an agreement against me? And 
having turned to the apostles of Christ, he said: Listen, Peter 
and Paul: if I can do nothing for you here, we are going to 
the place where I must judge you. Paul said: O good emperor, 
see what threats he holds out against us. Peter said: Why 
was it necessary to keep from laughing outright at a foolish 
man, made the sport of demons, so as to suppose that he cannot 
be made manifest ? 

Simon said: I spare you until I shall receive my power. 
Paul said: See if you will go out hence safe. Peter said: If 
thou do not see, Simon, the power of our Lord Jesus Christ, 
thou wilt not believe thyself not to be Christ. Simon said: 
Most sacred emperor, do not believe them, for they are cireum- 
cised knaves. Paul said: Before we knew the truth, we had 
the circumcision of the flesh ; but when the truth appeared, in 
the circumcision of the heart we both are circumcised, and cir- 
cumcise. Peter said: If circumcision be a disgrace, why hast 
thou been circumcised, Simon ? 

Nero said: Has, then, Simon also been circumcised ? Peter 
said: For not otherwise could he have deceived souls, unless 
he feigned himself to be a Jew, and made a show of teaching 

14,e, mysteries 


PETER AND PAUL. 271 


the law of God. Nero said: Simon, thou, as I see, being 
carried away with envy, persecutest these men. For, as it 
seems, there is great hatred between thee and their Christ ; and 
I am afraid that thou wilt be worsted by them, and involved 
in great evils. Simon said: Thou art led astray, O emperor. 
Nero said: How am 1 led astray? What I see in thee, I say. 
I see that thou art manifestly an enemy of Peter and Paul and 
their master. 

Simon said: Christ was not Paul’s master. Paul said: Yes; 
through revelation He taught me also. But tell me what I 
asked thee—Why wast thou circumcised ? Simon said: Why 
have you asked me this? Paul said: We have a reason for 
asking you this. Nero said: Why art thou afraid to answer 
them? Simon said: Listen,O emperor. At that time circum- 
cision was enjoined by God when I received it. For this reason 
was I circumcised. 

Paul said: Hearest thou, O good emperor, what has been 
said by Simon? If, therefore, circumcision be a good thing, 
why hast thou, Simon, given up those who have been circum- 
cised, and forced them, after being condemned, to be put to 
death? Nero said: Neither about you do I perceive anything 
good. Peter and Paul said: Whether this thought about us be 
good or evil has no reference to the matter ; but to us it was 
necessary that what our Master promised should come to pass. 
Nero said: If I should not be willing? Peter said: Not as 
thou willest, but as He promised to us. 

Simon said: O good emperor, these men have reckoned upon 
thy clemency, and have bound thee. Nero said: But neither 
hast thou yet made me sure about thyself. Simon said: Since 
so many excellent deeds and signs have been shown to thee by . 
me, 1 wonder how thou shouldst be in doubt. Nero said: I 
neither doubt nor favour any of you; but answer me rather 
what 1 ask. 

Simon said: Henceforward I answer thee nothing. Nero 
said: Seeing that thou lest, therefore thou sayest this. But 
if even I can do nothing to thee, God, who can, will do it. 
Simon said: I no longer answer thee. Nero said: Nor do I 
consider thee to be anything: for, as I perceive, thou art a 
lar in everything. But why do I say so much? The three 


272 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


of you show that your reasoning is uncertain; and thus in 
all things you have made me doubt, so that I find that I can 
give credit to none of you.’ 

Peter said: We preach one God and Father of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, that has made the heaven and the earth and the 
sea, and all that therein is, who is the true King; and of His 
kingdom there shall be no end.? Nero said: What king is 
lord? Paul said: The Saviour of all the nations. Simon said: I 
am he whom you speak of. Peter and Paul said: May it never 
be well with thee, Simon, magician, and full of bitterness. 

Simon said: Listen, Ὁ Cesar Nero, that thou mayst know 
that these men are lars, and that I have been sent from the 
heavens: to-morrow I go up into the heavens, that I may 
make those who believe in me blessed, and show my wrath 
upon those who have denied me. Peter and Paul said: Us 
long ago God called to His own glory; but thou, called by 
the devil, hastenest to punishment. Simon said: Caesar Nero, 
listen to me. Separate these madmen from thee, in order that 
when I go into heaven to my father, 1 may be very merciful 
to thee. Nero said: And whence shall we prove this, that 
thou goest away into heaven? Simon said: Order a lofty 
tower to be made of wood, and of great beams, that I may go 
up upon it, and that my angels may find me in the air; for 
they cannot come to me upon earth among the sinners. Nero 
said: I will see whether thou wilt fulfil what thou sayest. 

Then Nero ordered a lofty tower to be made in the Campus 
Martius, and all the people and the dignities to be present at 
the spectacle. And on the following day, all the multitude 
haying come together, Nero ordered Peter and Paul to be pre- 
. sent, to whom also he said: Now the truth has to be made 
manifest. Peter and Paul said: We do not expose him, but 
our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, whom he has falsely 
declared himself to be. 

And Paul, having turned to Peter, said: It is my part to 
bend the knee, and to pray to God; and thine to produce the 
effect, if thou shouldst see him attempting anything, because 
thou wast first taken in hand*® by the Lord. And Paul, bend- 
ing his knees, prayed. And Peter, looking stedfastly upon 

’ Or, to nothing. 2 Luke i. 88. 3 Or, chosen, 


~ 


—— = ‘ 


PETER AND PAUL. 273 


Simon, said: Accomplish what thou hast begun ; for both thy 
exposure and our call is at hand: for I see my Christ calling 
both me and Paul. Nero said: And where will you go to 
against my will? Peter said: Whithersoever our Lord has 
called us. Nero said: And who is your lord? Peter said: 
Jesus the Christ, whom I see calling us to Himself. Nero 
said: Do you also then intend to go away to heaven? Peter 
said: If it shall seem good to Him that calls us. Simon said: 
In order that thou mayst know, O emperor, that these are de- 
ceivers, as soon as ever I ascend into heaven, I will send my 
angels to thee, and will make thee come tome. Nero said: 
Do at once what thou sayest. 

Then Simon went up upon the tower in the face of all, and, 
crowned with laurels, he stretched forth his hands, and began 
to fly. And when Nero saw him flying, he said to Peter: This 
Simon is true; but thou and Paul are deceivers. To whom 
Peter said: Immediately shalt thou know that we are true 
disciples of Christ; but that he is not Christ, but a magician, 
and a malefactor. Nero said: Do you still persist ? Behold, 
you see him going up into heaven. Then Peter, looking sted- 
fastly upon Paul, said: Paul, look up and see. And Paul, 
having looked up, full of tears, and seeing Simon flying, said: 
Peter, why art thou idle? finish what thou hast begun ; for 
already our Lord Jesus Christ is calling us. And Nero hear- 
ing them, smiled a little, and said: These men see themselves 
worsted already, and are gone mad. Peter said: Now thou 
shalt know that we are not mad. Paul said to Peter: Do at 
once what thou doest. 

And Peter, looking stedfastly against Simon, said: I adjure 
you, ye angels of Satan, who are carrying him into the air, to 
deceive the hearts of the unbelievers, by the God that created 
all things, and by Jesus Christ, whom on the third day He 
raised from the dead, no longer from this hour to keep him up, 
but to let him go. And immediately, being let go, he fell into 
a place called Sacra Via, that is, Holy Way, and was divided 
into four parts, having perished by an evil fate. 

Then Nero ordered Peter and Paul to be put in irons, and 
the body of Simon to be carefully kept three days, thinking 
that he would rise on the third day. To whom Peter said: He 

5 


274 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


will no longer rise, since he is truly dead, being condemned to 
everlasting punishment. And Nero said to him: Who com- 
manded thee to do such a dreadful deed? Peter said: His 
reflections and blasphemy against my Lord Jesus Christ have 
brought him into this gulf of destruction. Nero said: I will 
destroy you by an evil taking off. Peter said: This is not 
in thy power, even if it should seem good to thee to destroy 
us; but it is necessary that what our Master promised to us 
should be fulfilled. 

Then Nero, having summoned Agrippa the propreetor, said 
to him: It is necessary that men introducing mischievous re- 
ligious observances should die. Wherefore I order them to 
take iron clubs,’ and to be killed in the sea-fight. Agrippa 
the propreetor said: Most sacred emperor, what thou hast or- 
dered is not fitting for these men, since Paul seems innocent 
beside Peter. Nero said: By what fate, then, shall they die ? 
* Acrippa answered and said: As seems to me, it is just that 
Paul’s head should be cut off, and that Peter should be raised 
on a cross as the cause of the murder. Nero said: Thou hast 
most excellently judged. 

Then both Peter and Paul were led away from the presence 
of Nero. And Paul was beheaded on the Ostesian road. 

And Peter, having come to the cross, said: Since my Lord 
Jesus Christ, who came down from the heaven upon the earth, 
was raised upon the cross upright,’® and He has deigned to 681] 
to heaven me, who am of the earth, my cross ought to be fixed 
head downmost, so as to direct my feet towards heaven; for I 
am not worthy to be crucified like my Lord. Then, having 
reversed the cross, they nailed his feet up. 

And the multitude was assembled reviling Cesar, and wish- 
ing to kill him. But Peter restrained them, saying:* A few 


1 The text has κινάρας, artichokes, for which I have read κορύνας, clubs. Sea- 
fights were a favourite spectacle of the Roman emperors (Suet. Nero, Xil. ; 
Claud. xxi. ; Dom. iv.). The combatants were captives, or persons condemned 
to death (Dion Cass. lx. 33). 

2 For the episode of Perpetua, contained in three of the Greek Mss., but not 
in the Latin versions, see the end of this book. 

3 i.e, head uppermost. 

4 One of the Mss. here inserts: Do not be hard upon him, for he is the servant — 
of his father Satan ; but I must fulfil the command of my Lord, 


PETER AND PAUL. 275 


days ago, being exhorted by the brethren, I was going away ; 
and my Lord Jesus Christ met me, and having adored Him, I 
said, Lord, whither art Thou going? And He said to me, I 
am going to Rome to be crucified. And I said to Him, Lord, 
wast Thou not crucified once for all? And the Lord answering, 
said, I saw thee fleeing from death, and I wish to be crucified 
instead of thee. AndI said, Lord, I go; I fulfil Thy command. 
And He said to me, Fear not, for I am with thee On this 
account, then, children, do not hinder my going; for already 
my feet are going on the road to heaven. Do not grieve, there- 
fore, but rather rejoice with me, for to-day I receive the fruit 
of my labours. And thus speaking, he said: I thank Thee, 
good Shepherd, that the sheep which Thou hast entrusted to 
me, sympathize with me; I ask, then, that with me they may 
have a part in Thy kingdom? And having thus spoken, he 
gave up the ghost. 

And immediately there appeared men glorious and strange 
in appearance; and they said: We are here, on account of the 
holy and chief apostles, from Jerusalem. And they, along with 
Marcellus, an illustrious man, who, having left Simon, had 
believed in Peter, took up his body secretly, and put it under 
the terebinth near the place for the exhibition of sea-fights in 
the place called the Vatican.’ 

And the men who had said that they came from Jerusalem 
said to the people: Rejoice, and be exceeding glad, because you 
have been deemed worthy to have great champions. And 
know that Nero himself, after these not many days, will be 
utterly destroyed, and his kingdom shall be given to another. 

And after these things the people revolted against him; and 
when he knew of it, he fled into desert places, and through 
hunger and cold he gave up the ghost, and his body became 
food for the wild beasts. 

And some devout men of the regions of the East wished to 


* Some of the mss. insert : Until I bring thee into my Father’s house. 

Ἃ Several of the mss. here add: I commend unto Thee the sheep whom Thou 
didst entrust unto me, that they may not feel that they are without me, having 
for a shepherd Thee, through whom I have been able to feed this flock. 


ἢ In three of the Greek Mss., but not in the Latin versions, the story of Per- 
petua is here continued. 


276 ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLES 


carry off the relics of the saints, and immediately there was a 
ereat earthquake in the city ;* and those that dwelt in the city 
having become aware of it, ran and seized the men, but they 
fled. But the Romans having taken them, put them in a place 
three miles from the city, and there they were guarded a year 
aud seven months, until they had built the place in which they 
intended to put them. And after these things, all having 
assembled with glory and singing of praise, they put them in 
the place built for them. 

And the consummation of the holy glorious Apostles Peter 
and Paul was on the 29th of the month of June—in Christ 
Jesus our Lord, to whom be glory and strength. 


THE STORY OF PERPETUA. 


And as Paul was being led away to be beheaded at a place 
about three miles from the city, he was in irons. And there 
were three soldiers guarding him who were of a great family. 
And when they had gone out of the gate about the length 
of a bow-shot, there met them a God-fearing woman; and 
she, seeing Paul dragged along in irons, had compassion on 
him, and wept bitterly. And the name of the woman was 
called Perpetua; and she was one-eyed. And Paul, seeing 
her weeping, says to her: Give me thy handkerchief, and 
when I turn back I shall give it to thee. And she, having 
taken the handkerchief, gave it to him willingly. And the 
soldiers laughed, and said to the woman: Why dost thou wish, 
woman, to lose thy handkerchief? Jnowest thou not that 
he is going away to be beheaded? And Perpetua said to 
them: I adjure you by the health of Cesar to bind his eyes 
with this handkerchief when you cut off his head. Which 


1 Several Mss. here add: And the people of the Romans ran, and took them 
into the place called the Catacombs on the Appian Way, at the third milestone ; 
and there the bodies of the saints were guarded a year and six months, until 
places were built for them in which they might be put. And the body of St. 
Peter was put into the Vatican, near the place for the sea-fights, and that of St. 


Paul into the Vostesian (or Ostesian) Way, two miles from the city; andin © 
these places, through their prayers, many good deeds are wrought to the faithful 


in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 


| 


PETER AND PAUL. 277 


also was done. And they beheaded him at the place called 
Aque Salvie, near the pine tree. And as God had willed, 
before the soldiers came back, the handkerchief, having on it 
drops of blood, was restored to the woman. And as she was 
carrying it, straightway and immediately her eye was opened. 


CONTINUATION OF THE STORY OF PERPETUA. 


And the three soldiers who had cut off the head of Saint 
Paul, when after three hours they came on the same day with 
the bulla bringing it to Nero, having met Perpetua, they said to 
her: What is it, woman? Behold, by thy confidence thou hast 
lost thy handkerchief. But she said to them: I have both got 
my handkerchief, and my eye has recovered its sight. And as 
the Lord, the God of Paul, liveth, I also have entreated him 
that I may be deemed worthy to become the slave of his Lord. 
Then the soldiers who had the bulla, recognising the handker- 
chief, and seeing that her eye had been opened, cried out with 
a loud voice, as if from one mouth, and said: We too are the 
slaves of Paul’s master. Perpetua therefore having gone away, 
reported in the palace of the Emperor Nero that the soldiers 
who had beheaded Paul said: We shall no longer go into the 
city, for we believe in Christ whom Paul preached, and we are 
Christians. Then Nero, filled with rage, ordered Perpetua, who 
had informed him of the soldiers, to be kept fast in irons; and 
as to the soldiers, he ordered one to be beheaded outside of the 
gate about one mile from the city, another to be cut in two, and 
the third to be stoned. And Perpetua was in the prison; and 
in this prison there was kept Potentiana, a noble maiden, be- 
cause she had said: I forsake my parents and all the substance 
of my father, and I wish to become a Christian. She therefore 
joined herself to Perpetua, and ascertained from her everything 
about Paul, and was in much anxiety about the faith in Christ. 
And the wife of Nero was Potentiana’s sister; and she secretly 
informed her about Christ, that those who believe in Him see 
everlasting joy, and that everything here is temporary, but 
there eternal: so that also she fled out of the palace, and some 
of the senators’ wives with her. Then Nero, having inflicted 


er. 


278 ACTS OF PETER AND PAUL. 


many tortures upon Perpetua, at last tied a great stone to her 
neck, and ordered her to be thrown over a precipice. And her 
remains lie at the Momentan’ gate. And Potentiana also 
underwent many torments; and at last, having made a furnace 
one day, they burned her. 


Δ This is a slip for Nomentan. 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


---»--- 


mS Paul was going up to Iconium after the flight from 
ἢ Antioch, his fellow-travellers were Demas and Ermo- 
genes, full of hypocrisy ; and they were importunate 
with Paul,’ as if they loved him. But Paul, look- 
ing only to the goodness of Christ, did them no harm, but loved 
them exceedingly, so that he made the oracles of the Lord 
sweet to them in the teaching both of the birth and the resur- 
rection of the Beloved; and he gave them an account, word for 
word, of the great things of Christ, how He’ had been revealed 
to him. 

And a certain man, by name Onesiphorus, hearing that Paul 
had come to Iconium, went out to meet him with his children 
Silas and Zeno, and his wife Lectra, in order that he might 
entertain him; for Titus had informed him what Paul was like 
in appearance: for he had not seen him in the flesh, but only 
in the spirit. And he went along the road to Lystra, and stood 
waiting for him, and kept looking at the passers-by according 
to the description of Titus. And he saw Paul coming, a man 
small in size, bald-headed, bandy-legged, well built,’ with eye- 
brows meeting, rather long-nosed, full of grace. For sometimes 
he seemed like a man, and sometimes he had the countenance 
of an angel. And Paul, seeing Onesiphorus, smiled ; and Onesi- 
phorus said: Hail, O servant of the blessed God! And he said: 
Grace be with thee and thy house. And Demas and Ermo- 
genes were jealous, and showed greater hypocrisy; so that 
Demas said: Are not we of the blessed God, that thou hast not 
thus saluted us? And Onesiphorus said: I do not see in you 
the fruit of righteousness; but if such you be, come you also 
into my house and rest yourselves. 


1 Or, persisted in staying with Paul. =? Or, how they. 3 Or, healthy. 
279 « 


280 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


And Paul having gone into the house of Onesiphorus, there 
was great joy, and bending of knees, and breaking of bread, 
and the word of God about self-control and the resurrection ; 
Paul saying: Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see 
God:! blessed are they that have kept the flesh chaste, for they 
shall become a temple of God:? blessed are they that control 
themselves, for God shall speak with them: blessed are they 
that have kept aloof from this world, for they shall be called 
upright :* blessed are they that have wives as not having them, 
for they shall receive God for their portion:* blessed are they 
that have the fear of God, for they shall become angels of God:? 
blessed are they that have kept the baptism, for they shall rest 
beside the Father and the Son: blessed are the merciful, for 
they shall obtain mercy,° and shall not see the bitter day of 
judgement: blessed are the bodies of the virgins, for they shall 
be well pleasing to God, and shall not lose the reward of their 
chastity ; for the word of the Father shall become to them a 
work of salvation against the day of His Son, and they shall 
have rest for ever and ever.’ 

And while Paul was thus speaking in the midst of the 
church in the house of Onesiphorus, a certain virgin Thecla, the 
daughter of Theocleia, betrothed to a man (named) Thamyris, 
sitting at the window close by, listened night and day to the 
discourse of virginity and prayer, and did not look away from 
the window, but paid earnest heed to the faith, rejoicing ex- 
ceedingly. And when she still saw many women going in 
beside Paul, she also had an eager desire to be deemed worthy 
to stand in the presence of Paul, and to hear the word of 
Christ; for never had she seen his figure, but heard his word 
only. 

And as she did not stand away from the window, her mother 
sends to Thamyris; and he comes gladly, as if already receiy- 


1 Matt. v. 8. 2 Comp. 1 Cor. vi. 18, 19. 8 Comp. Rom. xii. 2. 

4 Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 29: 5 Comp. Luke xx. 36. 6 Matt. v. 7. 

7 Some mss. add the following beatitudes : Blessed are they that tremble at 
the words of God, for they shall be comforted: blessed are they that have re- 
ceived the wisdom of Jesus Christ, for they shall be called the sons of the Most 
High: blessed are they that through love of Christ have come out from con- 


formity with the world, for they shall judge the angels, and shall be blessed at 
the right hand of the Father. 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 281 


ing her in marriage. And Theocleia said: I have a strange 
story to tell thee, Thamyris; for assuredly for three days and 
three nights Thecla does not rise from the window, neither to 
eat nor to drink; but looking earnestly as if upon some plea- 
sant sight, she is so devoted to a foreigner teaching deceitful 
and artful discourses, that I wonder how a virgin of such 
modesty is so painfully put about. Thamyris, this man will 
overturn the city of the Iconians, and thy Thecla too besides ; 
for all the women and the young men go in beside him, being 
taught to fear God and to live in chastity. Moreover also my 
daughter, tied to the window like a spider, lays hold of what is 
said by Paul with a strange eagerness and awful emotion; for 
the virgin looks eagerly at what is said by him, and has been 
captivated. But do thou go near and speak to her, for she has 
been betrothed to thee. 

And Thamyris going near, and kissing her, but at the same 
time also being afraid of her overpowering emotion, said: Thecla, 
my betrothed, why dost thou sit thus? and what sort of feel- 
ing holds thee overpowered? Turn round to thy Thamyris, 
and be ashamed. Moreover also her mother said the same 
things: Why dost thou sit thus looking down, my child, and 
answering nothing, but like a mad woman? And they wept 
fearfully, Thamyris indeed for the loss of a wife, and Theocleia 
of a child, and the maid-servants of a mistress: there was 
accordingly much confusion in the house of mourning.* And 
while these things were thus going on, Thecla did not turn 
round, but kept attending earnestly to the word of Paul. 

And Thamyris starting up, went forth into the street, and 
kept watching those going in to him and coming out. And 
he saw two men bitterly contending with each other; and he 
said: Men, tell me who this is among you, leading astray the 
souls of young men, and deceiving virgins, so that they do not 
marry, but remain as they are. I promise, therefore, to give 
you money enough if you tell me about him; for I am the first 
man’ of the city. And Demas and Ermogenes said to him: 
Who this is, indeed, we do not know; but he deprives young 
men of wives, and maidens of husbands, saying, There is for 


1 Or, a great outpouring of lamentation in the house. 
? Or, a chief man, 


282 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


you a resurrection in no other way, unless you remain chaste, 
and pollute not the flesh, but keep it chaste. And Thamyris 
said to them: Come into my house, and rest yourselves. And 
they went to a sumptuous dinner, and much wine, and great 
wealth, and a splendid table; and Thamyris made them drink, 
from his love to Thecla, and his wish to get her as his wife. 
And Thamyris said during the dinner: Ye men, what is his 
teaching, tell me, that I also may know; for I am no little dis- 
tressed about Thecla, because she thus loves the stranger, and 
I am prevented from marrying. 

Demas and Ermogenes said: Bring him before the governor 
Castelios on the charge of persuading the multitudes to em- 
brace the new teaching of the Christians, and he will speedily 
destroy him, and thou shalt have Thecla as thy wife. And we 
shall teach thee that the resurrection of which this man speaks 
has taken place, because it has already taken place in the 
children which we have ;* and we rose again when we came to 
the knowledge of the true God. 

And Thamyris, hearing these things, being filled with anger 
and rage, rising up early, went to the house of Onesiphorus with 
archons and public officers, and a great crowd with batons, 
saying: Thou hast corrupted the city of the Iconians, and her 
that was betrothed to me, so that she will not have me: let us 
go to the governor Castelios. And all the multitude said: Away 
with the magician; for he has corrupted all our wives, and the 
multitudes have been persuaded (to change their opinions). 

And Thamyris, standing before the tribunal, said with a 
ereat shout: O proconsul, this man, who he is we know not, 
who makes virgins averse to marriage; let him say before thee 
on what? account he teaches these things. And Demas and 
Ermogenes said to Thamyris: Say that he is a Christian, and 
thus thou wilt do away with him. But the proconsul stayed 
his intention, and called Paul, saying: Who art thou, and what 
dost thou teach? for they bring no small charges against thee. 
And Paul lifted up his voice, saying: Since I am this day 
examined as to what I teach, listen, O proconsul: A living God, 
a God of retributions, a jealous God, a God in need of nothing, 
consulting for the salvation of men, has sent me that I may 

i.e. we rise again in our children. 2 Or, whose. 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 283 


reclaim them from corruption and uncleanness, and from all 
pleasure, and from death, that they may not sin. Wherefore 
God sent His own Son, whom I preach, and in whom 1 teach 
men to rest their hope, who alone has had compassion upon a 
world led astray, that they may be no longer under judgment, 
O proconsul, but may have faith, and the fear of God, and the 
knowledge of holiness, and the love of truth. If, therefore, I 
teach what has been revealed to me by God, wherein do I do 
wrong? And the proconsul having heard, ordered Paul to be 
bound, and sent to prison, until, said he, I, being at leisure, 
shall hear him more attentively. 

And Thecla by night having taken off her bracelets, gave them 
to the gatekeeper ; and the door having been opened to her, she 
went into the prison; and having given the jailor a silver 
mirror, she went in beside Paul, and, sitting at his feet, she 
heard the great things of God. And Paul was afraid of nothing, 
but ordered his life in the confidence of God. And her faith 
also was increased, and she kissed his bonds. 

And when Thecla was sought for by her friends, and Thamyris, 
as if she had been lost, was running up and down the streets, 
one of the gatekeeper’s fellow-slaves informed him that she had 
gone out by night. And having gone out, they examined the 
gatekeeper; and he said to them: She has gone to the foreigner 
into the prison. And having gone, they found her, as it were, 
enchained by affection. And having gone forth thence, they 
drew the multitudes together, and informed the governor of the 
circumstance. And he ordered Paul to be brought to the tribunal; 
but Thecla was wallowing on the ground’ in the place where he 
sat and taught her in the prison ; and he ordered her too to be 
brought to the tribunal. And she came, exulting with joy. And 
the crowd, when Paul had been brought, vehemently cried out : 
He is a magician! away with him! But the proconsul gladly 
heard Paul upon the holy works of Christ. And having called 
a council, he summoned Thecla, and said to her: Why dost 
thou not obey Thamyris, according to the law of the Iconians ? 
But she stood looking earnestly at Paul. And when she gave 
no answer, her mother cried out, saying: Burn the wicked 
[wretch]; burn in the midst of the theatre her that will not 


Ἦν - . . 
i.e. in sign of grief. 


“ἃ ae 


284 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


marry, in order that all the women that have been taught by 
this man may be afraid. 

And the governor was greatly moved; and having scourged 
Paul, he cast him out of the city, and condemned Thecla to be 
burned. And immediately the governor went away to the 
theatre, and all the crowd went forth to the spectacle of Thecla. 
But as a lamb in the wilderness looks round for the shepherd, 
so she kept searching for Paul. And having looked upon the 
crowd, she saw the Lord sitting in the likeness of Paul, and 
said: As Iam unable to endure my lot, Paul has come to see 
me. And she gazed upon him with great earnestness, and he 
went up into heaven. But the maid-servants’ and virgins 
brought the faggots, in order that Thecla might be burned. And 
when she came in naked, the governor wept, and wondered at 
the power* that was in her. And the public executioners 
arranged the faggots for her to go up on the pile. And she, 
having made the sign of the cross, went up on the faggots; and 
they lighted them. And though a great fire was blazing, it did 
not touch her; for God, having compassion upon her, made an 
underground rumbling, and a cloud overshadowed them from 
above, full of water and hail; and all that was in the cavity of 
it was poured out, so that many were in danger of death. And 
the fire was put out, and Thecla saved. 

And Paul was fasting with Onesiphorus and his wife, and his 
children, in a new tomb, as they were going from Iconium to 
Daphne. And when many days were past, the fasting children 
said to Paul: We are hungry, and we cannot buy loaves; for 
Onesiphorus had left the things of the world, and followed 
Paul, with all his house. And Paul, having taken off his 
cloak, said: Go, my child, buy more loaves, and bring them, 
And when the child was buying, he saw Thecla their neighbour, 
and was astonished, and said: Thecla, whither art thou going ? 
And she said: I have been saved from the fire, and am follow- 
ing Paul. And the boy said: Come, I shall take thee to him ; 
for he is distressed about thee, and is praying six days. And 
she stood beside the tomb where Paul was with bended knees, 
and praying, and saying: O Saviour Christ, let not the fire 
touch Thecla, but stand by her, for she is Thine. And she, 

1 One Ms. has, boys. 2 Or, virtue. 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 285 


standing behind him, cried out: O Father, who hast made the 
heaven and the earth, the Father of Thy holy Son, I bless Thee 
that Thou hast saved me that I may see Paul. And Paul, 
rising up, saw her, and said: O God, that knowest the heart, 
the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, I bless Thee that Thou, 
having heard me, hast done quickly what I wished. 

And they had five loaves, and herbs, and water; and they 
rejoiced in the holy works of Christ. And Thecla said to Paul: 
I shall cut my hair, and follow thee whithersoever thou mayst 
eo. And he said: It is a shameless age, and thou art beautiful. 
I am afraid lest another temptation come upon thee worse than 
the first, and that thou withstand it not, but be cowardly. And 
Thecla said: Only give me the seal’ in Christ, and temptation 
shall not touch me. And Paul said: Thecla, wait with patience, 
and thou shalt receive the water. 

And Paul sent away Onesiphorus and all his house to Ico- 
nium; and thus, having taken Thecla, he went into Antioch. 
And as they were going in, a certain Syriarch, Alexander by 
name, seeing Thecla, became enamoured of her, and tried to gain 
over Paul by gifts and presents. But Paul said: I know not 
the woman whom thou speakest of, nor is she mine. But he, 
being of great power, himself embraced her in the street. But 
she would not endure it, but looked about for Paul. And she 
eried out bitterly, saying: Do not force the stranger; do not 
force the servant of God. Iam one of the chief persons of the 
Iconians ; and because I would not have Thamyris, I have been 
east out of the city. And taking hold of Alexander, she tore 
his cloak, and pulled off his crown, and made him ἃ laughing- 
stock. And he, at the same time loving her, and at the same 
time ashamed of what had happened, led her before the governor; 
and when she had confessed that she had done these things, he 
condemned her to the wild beasts. And the women were struck 
with astonishment, and cried out beside the tribunal: Evil 
judgment! impious judgment! And she asked the governor, 
that, said she, I may remain pure until I shall fight with the 
wild beasts. And a certain Tryphena,? whose daughter was 
dead, took her into keeping, and had her for a consolation. 

And when the beasts were exhibited, they bound her to a 

22 Cor. i, 22; Eph. i. 18, iv. 30. * Some mss. add: A widow, very rich. 


286 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


fierce lioness ; and Tryphzena accompanied her. But the lioness, 
with Thecla sitting upon her, licked her feet ; and all the mul- 
titude was astonished. And the charge on her inscription was : 
Sacrilegious. And the women cried out from above: An im- 
pious sentence has been passed in this city! And after the 
exhibition, Tryphena again receives her. For her daughter 
Falconilla had died, and said to her in a dream: Mother, thou 
shalt have this stranger Thecla in my place, in order that she 
may pray concerning me, and that I may be transferred to the 
place of the just. 

And when, after the exhibition, Tryphena received her, at 
the same time indeed she grieved that she had to fight with the 
wild beasts on the day following ; and at the same time, loving 
her as much as her daughter Falconilla, she said: My second 
child Thecla, come and pray for my child, that she may live for 
ever; for this 1 saw in my sleep. And she, nothing hesitating, 
lifted up her voice, and said: God most high,’ grant to this 
woman according to her wish, that her daughter Falconilla may 
live for ever. And when Thecla had thus spoken, Tryphena 
lamented, considering so much beauty thrown to the wild beasts. 

And when it was dawn, Alexander came to take her, for it 


was he that gave the hunt,’ saying: The governor is sitting, _ 


and the crowd is in uproar against us. Allow me to take away 
her that is to fight with the wild beasts. And Trypheena cried 
aloud, so that he even fled, saying: A second mourning for my 
Falconilla has come upon my house, and there is no one to 
help; neither child, for she is dead, nor kinsman, for I am a 
widow. God of Thecla, help her! 

And immediately the governor sends an order that Thecla 
should be brought. And Trypheena, taking her by the hand, 
said: My daughter Falconilla, indeed, I took away to the tomb; 
and thee, Thecla, I am taking to the wild-beast fight. And 
Thecla wept bitterly, saying: O Lord, the God in whom I 
believe, to whom 1 have fled for refuge, who deliveredst me 
from the fire, do Thou grant a recompense to Tryphzena, who 


‘One ms. has: God of our fathers, Son of the Most High. Another: O Lord 
God, who hast made the heaven and the earth, Son of the Most High, Lord 
Jesus Christ. 

* i.e. the exhibition of wild beasts. 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 287 


has had compassion on Thy servant, and because she has kept 
me pure. Then a tumult arose, and a cry of the people, and 
the women sitting together, the one saying: Away with the 
sacrilegious person ! the others saying: Let the city be raised? 
against this wickedness. Take off all of us,O proconsul! Cruel 
sight ! evil sentence ! 

And Thecla, having been taken out of the hand of Tryphena, 
was stripped, and received a girdle,” and was thrown into the 
arena, and lions and bears and a fierce lioness were let loose 
upon her ; and the lioness having run up to her feet, lay down ; 
and the multitude of the women cried aloud. And a bear ran 
upon her; but the lioness, meeting the bear, tore her to pieces. 
And again a lion that had been trained against men, which 
belonged to Alexander, ran upon her; and she (the lioness), 
encountering the lion, was killed along with him. And the 
women made great lamentation, since also the lioness, her pro- 
tector, was dead. 

Then they send in many wild beasts, she standing and 
stretching forth her hands, and praying. And when she had 
finished her prayer, she turned and saw a ditch full of water, 
and said: Now it is time to wash myself. And she threw her- 
self in, saying: In the name of Jesus Christ I am baptized on 
my last day. And the women seeing, and the multitude, wept, 
saying: Do not throw thyself into the water; so that also the 
governor shed tears, because the seals were going to devour 
such beauty. She then threw herself (in) in the name of Jesus 
Christ ; but the seals having seen the glare of the fire of light- 
ning, floated about dead. And there was round her, as she was 
naked, a cloud of fire; so that neither could the wild beasts 
touch her, nor could she be seen naked. 

And the women, when other wild beasts were being thrown 
in, wailed. And some threw sweet-smelling herbs, others nard, 
others cassia, others amomum, so that there was abundance of 
perfumes. And all the wild beasts that had been thrown in, 
as if they had been withheld by sleep, did not touch her; so 
that Alexander said to the governor: I have bulls exceedingly 
terrible ; let us bind to them her that is to fight with the beasts. 
And the governor, looking gloomy, turned, and said: Do what 

Or, be taken off, i.e. put to death. 2 Or, drawers. 


288 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


thou wilt. And they bound her by the feet between them, and 
put red-hot irons under the privy parts of the bulls, so that 


they, being rendered more furious, might kill her. They rushed | 


about, therefore; but the burning flame consumed the ropes, 
and she was as if she had not been bound. But Tryphena 
fainted standing beside the arena, so that the crowd said: 
(Jueen Tryphena is dead. And the governor put a stop to the 
games, and the city was in dismay. And Alexander entreated 
the governor, saying: Have mercy both on me and the city, 
and release this woman. For if Cesar hear of these things, he 
will speedily destroy the city also along with us, because his 
kinswoman Queen Tryphzena has died beside the abacz.’ 

And the governor summoned Thecla out of the midst of the 
wild beasts, and said to her: Who art thou ? and what is there 
about thee, that not one of the wild beasts touches thee? And 
she said: I indeed am a servant of the living God; and as to 
what there is about me, I have believed in the Son of God, in 
whom He is well pleased ; wherefore not one of the beasts has 
touched me. For He alone is the end? of salvation, and the 
basis of immortal life; for He is a refuge to the tempest-tossed, 


a solace to the afflicted, a shelter to the despairing ; and, once 


for all, whoever shall not believe on Him, shall not live for 


ever. 

And the governor having heard this, ordered her garments 
to be brought, and to be put on. And Thecla said: He that 
clothed me naked among the wild beasts, will in the day of 
judgment clothe thee with salvation. And taking the gar- 
ments, she put them on. The governor therefore immediately 
issued an edict, saying: I release to you the God-fearing Thecla, 
the servant of God. And the women shouted aloud, and with 
one mouth returned thanks to God, saying: There is one God, 
(the God) of Thecla; so that the foundations of the theatre 
were shaken by their voice. And Tryphina having received 
the good news, went to meet the holy Thecla, and said: Now I 
believe that the dead are raised; now I believe that my child 
lives. Come within, and I shall assign to thee all that is mine. 
She therefore went in along with her, and rested eight days, 
having instructed her in the word of God, so that most even of 


1 A part of the ancient theatres on or near the stage. 2 Or, way. 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 289 


the maid-servants believed. And there was great joy in the 
house. 

And Thecla kept seeking Paul; and it was told her that he 
was in Myra of Lycia. And taking young men and maidens, 
she girded herself; and having sewed the tunic so as to make 
a man’s cloak, she came to Myra, and found Paul speaking the 
word of God. And Paul was astonished at seeing her, and the 
crowd with her, thinking that some new trial was coming upon 
her. And when she saw him, she said: I have received the 
baptism, Paul; for He that wrought along with thee for the 
gospel has wrought in me also for baptism. And Paul, taking 
her, led her to the house of Hermzeus, and hears everything 
from her, so that those that heard greatly wondered, and were 
comforted, and prayed over Tryphiena. And she rose up, and 
said: I am going to Iconium. And Paul said: Go, and teach 
the word of God. And Trypheena sent her much clothing and 
gold, so that she left to Paul many things for the service of the 
poor. 

And she went to Iconium. And she goes into the house of 
Onesiphorus, and fell upon the pavement where Paul used to 
sit and teach her, and wept, saying: God of myself and of this 
house, where Thou didst make the light to shine upon me, 
_ O Christ Jesus, the Son of the hving God, my help in the fire, 
my help among the wild beasts, Thou art glorified for ever. 
Amen. And she found Thamyris dead, but her mother alive. 
And having sent for her mother, she said: Theocleia, my mother, 
canst thou believe that the Lord liveth in the heavens? For 
whether thou desirest wealth, God gives it to thee through me; 
or thy child, I am standing beside thee. And having thus 
testified, she departed to Seleucia, and dwelt in a cave seventy- 
two years, living upon herbs and water. And she enlightened 
many by the word of God. 

And certain men ot the city, being Greeks by religion, and 
physicians by profession, sent to her insolent young men to 
destroy’ her. For they said: She is a virgin, and serves 
Artemis, and from this she has virtue in healing. And by the 
providence of God she entered into the rock alive, and went 
under ground. And she departed to Rome to see Paul, and 


1 Or, corrupt. 
T 


290 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


found that he had fallen asleep." And after staying there no 
long time, she rested in a glorious sleep; and she is buried 
about two or three stadia from the tomb of her master Paul. 

She was cast, then, into the fire when seventeen years old, 
and among the wild beasts when eighteen. And she was an 
ascetic in the cave, as has been said, seventy-two years, so that 
all the years of her life were ninety. And having accomplished 
many cures, she rests in the place of the saints, having fallen 
asleep on the twenty-fourth of the month of September in 
Christ Jesus our Lord, to whom be glory and strength for ever 
and ever. Amen. 


Instead of the last two sections, the MS. which Dr. Grabe 
used has the following :— 

And a cloud of light guided her. And having come into 
Seleucia, she went forth outside of the city one stadium. And 
she was afraid of them also, for they worshipped idols. And 


it guided her to the mountain called Calamon or Rhodeon ; 


and having there found a cave, she went into it. And she was 
there many years, and underwent many and grievous trials by 
the devil, and bore them nobly, being assisted by Christ. And 
some of the well-born women, having learned about the virgin 
Thecla, went to her, and learned the oracles of God. And 
many of them bade adieu to the world, and lived an ascetic 
life with her. And a good report was spread everywhere con- 
cerning her, and cures were done by her. All the city, there- 
fore, and country round, having known this, brought their sick 
to the mountain ; and before they came near the door they 
were speedily released from whatever disease they were afflicted 
by; and the unclean spirits went out shrieking, and all received 
their own in health, glorifying God, who had given such grace 
to the virgin Thecla. The physicians, therefore, of the city of 
the Seleucians were thought nothing of, having lost their trade, 
and no one any longer had regard to them; and being filled 
with envy and hatred, they plotted against the servant of Christ, 
what they should do to her. The devil then suggests to them 
a wicked device; and one day, being assembled, and having 
1j,e, that he was dead. 


j 


ὃ 
a 


4, 
El 
; 


f 
Ἵ 
Υ 
ἡ 


ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 291 


taken counsel, they consult with each other, saying: This virgin 


is a priestess of the great goddess Artemis ; and if she ask any- 


thing of her, she hears her as being a virgin, and all the gods 


love her. Come, then, let us take men of disorderly lives, and 
make them drunk with much wine, and let us give them much 
gold, and say to them, If you can corrupt and defile her, we 
shall give you even more money. The physicians therefore 
said to themselves, that if they should be able to defile her, 
neither the gods nor Artemis would listen to her in the case 
of the sick. They therefore did so. And the wicked men, 
having gone to the mountain, and rushed upon the cave like 
lions, knocked at the door. And the holy martyr Thecla 
opened, emboldened by the God in whom she believed ; for 
she knew of their plot beforehand. And she says to them: 
What do you want, my children? And they said: Is there 
one here called Thecla? And she said: What do you want 
with her? They say to her: We want to sleep with her. The 
blessed Thecla says to them: I am a humble old woman, but 
the servant of my Lord Jesus Christ; and even though you 
want to do something to me out of place, you cannot. They 
say to her: It is impossible for us not to do to thee what we 
want. And having said this, they laid fast hold of her, and 
wished to insult her. And she says to them with mildness: 
Wait, my children, that you may see the glory of the Lord. 
And being laid hold of by them, she looked up into heaven, 


~ and said: God, terrible and incomparable, and glorious to Thine 


adversaries, who didst deliver me out of the fire, who didst 
not give me up to Thamyris, who didst not give me up to 
Alexander, who didst deliver me from the wild beasts, who 
didst save me in the abyss, who hast everywhere worked with 
me, and glorified Thy name in me, now also deliver me from 
these lawless men, and let me not insult my virginity, which 
through Thy name I have preserved till now, because I love 
Thee, and desire Thee, and adore Thee, the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Ghost for ever. Amen. And there came 
a voice out of the heaven, saying: Fear not, Thecla, my true 
servant, for 1 am with thee. Look and see where an opening 
has been made before thee, for there shall be for thee an ever- 


lasting house, and there thou shalt obtain shelter. And the 


292 ACTS OF PAUL AND THECLA. 


blessed Thecla regarding it, saw the rock opened as far as to 
allow a man to enter, and did according to what had been said 
to her: and nobly fleeing from the lawless ones, entered into 
the rock ; and the rock was straightway shut together, so that 
not even a joining appeared. And they, beholding the extra- 
ordinary wonder, became as it were distracted; and they were 
not able to detain the servant of God, but only caught hold of 
her veil, and were able to tear off a certain part; and that by 
the permission of God for the faith of those seeing the vener- 
able place, and for a blessing in the generations afterwards to 
those that believe in our Lord Jesus Christ out of a pure 
heart. 

Thus, then, suffered the first martyr of God, and apostle, and 
virgin, Thecla, who came from Iconium at eighteen years old; 
and with the journeying, and the going round, and the retire- 
ment in the mountain, she lived other seventy-two years. And 
when the Lord took her, she was ninety years old. And thus 
is her consummation. And her holy commemoration is on the 
twenty-fourth of the month of September, to the glory of the 
Father, and the Son, and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and 
to ages of ages. Amen. 


THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 


THE JOURNEYINGS AND MARTYRDOM OF ST. BARNABAS 
THE APOSTLE. 


==77)[ NCE from the descent of the presence of our Saviour 
4) Jesus Christ, the unwearied and benevolent and 
mighty Shepherd and Teacher and Physician, I be- 
held and saw the ineffable and holy and unspotted 
mystery of the Christians, who hold the hope in holiness, and 
who have been sealed ; and since I have zealously served Him, 
I have deemed it necessary to give an account of the mysteries 
which I have heard and seen. 

I John, accompanying the holy apostles Barnabas and Paul, 
being formerly a servant of Cyrillus the high priest of Jupiter, 
but now having received the gift of the Holy Spirit through 
Paul and Barnabas and Silas, (who were) worthy of the call- 
ing, and who baptized me in Iconium. After I was baptized, 
then, I saw a certain man standing clothed in white raiment ; 
and he said to me: Be of good courage, John, for assuredly thy 
name shall be changed to Mark, and thy glory shall be pro- 
claimed in all the world. And the darkness in thee has passed 
away from thee, and there has been given to thee understand- 
ing to know the mysteries of God. 

And when I saw the vision, becoming greatly terrified, I went 
to the feet of Barnabas, and related to him the mysteries which 
I had seen and heard from that man. And the Apostle Paul 
was not by when I disclosed the mysteries. And Barnabas 
said to me: Tell no one the miracle which thou hast seen. 
For by me also this night the Lord stood, saying, Be of good 
courage: for as thou hast given thy life for my name to death 


and banishment from thy nation, thus also shalt thou be made 
293 


294 THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 


perfect. Moreover, as for the servant who is with you, take 
him also with thyself; for he has certain mysteries. Now 
then, my child, keep to thyself the things which thou hast seen 
and heard; for a time will come for thee to reveal them.’ 

And 1, having been instructed in these things by him, re- 
mained in Iconium* many days; for there was there a holy 
man and a pious, who also entertained us, whose house also 
Paul had sanctified. Thence, therefore, we came to Seleucia, 
and after staying three days sailed away to Cyprus; and I was 
ministering to them until we had gone round all Cyprus. And 
setting sail from Cyprus, we landed in Perga of Pamphylia. 
And there I then stayed about two months, wishing to sail to 
the regions of the West; and the Holy Spirit did not allow me. 
Turning, therefore, I again sought the apostles; and having 
learned that they were in Antioch, I went to them. 

And I found Paul in bed in Antioch from the toil of the 
journey, who also seeing me, was exceedingly grieved on ac- 
count of my delaying in Pamphyla. And Barnabas coming, 
eucouraged him, and tasted bread, and he took a little of it. 
And they preached the word of the Lord, and enlightened 
many of the Jews and Greeks. And I only attended to them, 
and was afraid of Paul to come near him, both because he held 
me as having spent much time in Pamphylia, and because he 
was quite enraged against me. And I gave repentance on my 
knees upon the earth to Paul, and he would not endure it. 
And when I remained for three Sabbaths in entreaty and 
prayer on my knees, I was unable to prevail upon him about 
myself; for his great grievance against me was on account of 
my keeping several parchments in Pamphylia. 

And when it came to pass that they finished teaching in 
Antioch, on the first of the week they took counsel together 
to set out for the places of the East, and after that to go 
into Cyprus, and oversee all the churches in which they had 
spoken the word of God. And Barnabas entreated Paul to go 
first to Cyprus, and oversee his own in his village; and Lucius*® 


1 Or, will come to reveal thee. 

? One ms. has Jerusalem, and adds, and we came to Antioch, which suits the 
geography better. 

3 Acts xiii. 1; Rom. xvi. 21. 


| 
. 


THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 295 


entreated him to take the oversight of his city Cyrene. Anda 
vision was seen by Paul in sleep, that he should hasten to Jeru- 
salem, because the brethren expected him there. But Barna- 
bas urged that they should go to Cyprus, and pass the winter, 
and then that they should go to Jerusalem at the feast. Great 
contention, therefore, arose between them.t And Barnabas 
urged me also to accompany them, on account of me being 
their servant from the beginning, and on account of me having 
served them in all Cyprus until they came to Perga of Pam- 
phylia; and I there had remained many days. But Paul cried 
out against Barnabas, saying: It is impossible for him to go 
with us. And those who were with us there urged me also to 
accompany them, because there was a vow upon me to follow 
them to the end. So that Paul said to Barnabas: If thou wilt 
take John who also is surnamed Mark with thee, go another 
road; for he shall not come with us. And Barnabas coming 
to himself, said: The grace of God does not desert? him who 
has once served the gospel and journeyed with us. If, there- 
fore, this be agreeable to thee, Father Paul, I take him and go. 
And he said: Go thou in the grace of Christ, and we in the 
power of the Spirit. 

Therefore, bending their knees, they prayed to God. And 
Paul, groaning aloud, wept, and in like manner also Barnabas, 
saying to one another: It would have been good for us, as at 
first, so also at last, to work in common among men; but since 
it has thus seemed good to thee, Father Paul, pray for me that 
my labour may be made perfect to commendation: for thou 
knowest how I have served thee also to the grace of Christ that 
has been given to thee. For I go to Cyprus, and hasten to be 
made perfect ;* for 1 know that I shall no more see thy face, O 
Father Paul. And falling on the ground at his feet, he wept 
Jong. And Paul said to him: The Lord stood by me also this 
night, saying, Do not force Barnabas not to go to Cyprus, for 
there it has been prepared for him to enlighten many; and do 
thou also, in the grace that has been given to thee, go to Jeru- 
salem to worship in the holy place, and there it shall be shown 
thee where thy martyrdom has been prepared. And we saluted 
one another, and Barnabas took me to himself. 

1 Acts xy. 39. 2 Or, turn away. 3 i.e. to finish my course. 


296 THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 


And having come down to Laodiceia,’ we sought to cross to 
Cyprus; and having found a ship going to Cyprus, we em- 
barked. And when we had set sail, the wind was found to be 
contrary. And we came to Corasium;’ and having gone down 
to the shore where there was a fountain, we rested there, show- 
ing ourselves to no one, that no one might know that Barnabas 
had separated from Paul. And having set sail from Corasium, 
we came to the regions of Isauria, and thence came to a cer- 
tain island called Pityusa;* and a storm having come on, we 
remained there three days; and a certain pious man enter- 
tained us, by name Euphemus, whom also Barnabas instructed 
in many things in the faith, with all his house. 

And thence we sailed past the Aconesiz,* and came to the 
city of Anemurium; and having gone into it, we found two 
Greeks. And coming to us, they asked whence and who we 
were. And Barnabas said to them: If you wish to know 
whence and who we are, throw away the clothing which you 
have, and I shall put on you clothing which never becomes 
soiled; for neither is there in it anything filthy, but it is alto- 
gether splendid. And being astonished at the saying, they 
asked us: What is that garment which you are going to give 
us? And Barnabas said to them: If you shall confess your 
sins, and submit yourselves to our Lord Jesus Christ, you shall 
receive that garment which is incorruptible for ever. And 
being pricked at heart by the Holy Spirit, they fell at his feet, 
entreating and saying: We beseech thee, father, give us that 
garment; for we believe in the living and true God whom thou 
proclaimest. And leading them down ἰοῦ the fountain, he 
baptized them into the name of Father, and Son, and Holy 
Ghost. And they knew that they were clothed with power, 
and a holy robe. And having taken from me one robe, he put 
it on the one; and his own robe he put on the other. And 
they brought money to him, and straightway Barnabas dis- 
tributed it to the poor. And from them also the sailors were 
able to gain many things.° 

And they having come down to the shore, he spoke to them 

1 This is the Syrian Laodiceia, opposite Cyprus. ? Perhaps Corycus. 


8 Or, Pityussa, close to the Zephyrian promontory. 
4 Perhaps Aphrodisias. δ Or, into. 6 To make much profit. 


THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 297 


the word of God; and he having blessed them, we saluted them, 
and went on board the ship. And the one of them who was 
named Stephanus wished to accompany us, and Barnabas did 
not permit him. And we, having gone across, sailed down to 
Cyprus by night; and having come to the place called Crom- 
myacita,' we found Timon and Ariston the temple servants, at 
whose house also we were entertained. 

And Timon was afflicted by much fever. And having laid 
our hands upon him, we straightway removed his fever, having 
called upon the name of the Lord Jesus. And Barnabas had 
received documents from Matthew, a book of the word? of God, 
and a narrative of miracles and doctrines. This Barnabas laid 
upon the sick in each place that we came to, and it imme- 
diately made a cure of their sufferings. 

And when we had come to Lapithus,® and an idol festival* 
being celebrated in the theatre, they did not allow us to go into 
the city, but we rested a little at the gate. And Timon, after 
he rose up from his disease, came with us. And having gone 
forth from Lapithus, we travelled through the mountains, and 
came to the city of Lampadistus, of which also Timon was a 
native; in addition to whom, having found also that Heracleius 
was there, we were entertained by him. He was of the city of 
Tamasus,’ and had come to visit his relations; and Barnabas, 
looking stedfastly at him, recognised him, having met with 
him formerly at Citium with Paul; to whom also the Holy 
Spirit was given at baptism, and he changed his name to Hera- 
eleides. And having ordained him bishop over Cyprus, and 
having confirmed the church in Tamasus, we left him in the 
house of his brethren that dwelt there. 

And having crossed the mountain called Chionodes,® we 
came to Old Paphos, and there found Rhodon, a temple ser- 
vant, who also, having himself believed, accompanied us. And 
we met a certain Jew, by name Barjesus, coming from Paphos, 
who also recognised Barnabas, as having been formerly with 


1 Crommyon Pr. ? Lit., the voice. 

3 Lapethus. 

* Lit., an idol-frenzy,—a term often applied to the worship of Bacchus. 
5 Tamassus. 

8 i.e. snowy, an epithet of Olympus, the mountain they crossed. 


298 THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 


Paul. He did not wish us to go into Paphos; but having 
turned away, we came to Curium.* 

And we found that a certain abominable race was being 
performed? in the road near the city, where a multitude of 
women and men naked were performing the race. And there 
was great deception and error in that place. And Barnabas 
turning, rebuked it; and the western part fell, so that many 
were wounded, and many of them also died; and the rest fled 
to the temple of Apollo, which was close at hand in the [city] 
which was called sacred.? And when we came near the temple, 
a great multitude of Jews who were there, having been put up 
to it by Barjesus, stood outside of the city, and did not allow 
us to go into the city; but we spent the evening under a tree ᾿ 
near the city, and rested there. 

And on the following day we came to a certain village where 
Aristoclianus dwelt. He being a leper, had been cleansed in 
Antioch, whom also Paul and Barnabas sealed to be a bishop, 
and sent to his village in Cyprus, because there were many 
Greeks there. And we were entertained in the cave by him 
in the mountain, and there we remained one day. And thence 
we came to Amathus, and there was a great multitude of 
Greeks in the temple in the mountain, low women and men 
pouring libations. There also Barjesus, getting the start of 
us, gained over the nation of the Jews, and did not allow us 
to enter into the city; but a certain widow woman, eighty 
years old, being outside of the city, and she also not worship- 
ping the idols, coming forward to us, took us into her house one 
hour. And when we came out we shook the dust off our feet 
over against that temple where the lbation of the abominable 
took place. 

And having gone out thence, we came through desert places, 
and Timon also accompanied us. And having come to Citium, 
and there being a great uproar there also in their hippodrome, 
having learned this, we caine forth out of the city, having all 
shaken the dust off our feet; for no one received us, except 
that we rested one hour in the gate near the aqueduct. 


’ Perhaps Curtium, which was nearer Paleo Paphos than Curias Pr. was. 
2 i.e, as a religious service. 
8. Another reading is : Jn the city called Curium. 


THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 299 


And having set sail in a ship from Citium, we came to 
Salamis, and landed in the so-called islands, where there was 
a place full of idols; and there there took place high festivals * 
and libations. And having found Heracleides there again, we 
instructed him to proclaim the gospel of God, and to set up 
churches, and ministers in them. And having gone into Sala- 
mis, we came to the synagogue near the plane. called Biblia ; 
and when we had gone into it, Barnabas, having unrolled oo 
gospel which he had received from Matthew his fellow-labourer, 
began to teach the Jews. 

And Barjesus, having arrived after two days, after not a few 
Jews had been instructed, was enraged, and brought together 
all the multitude of the Jews; and they having laid hold of 
Barnabas, wished to hand him over to Hypatius, the governor 
of Salamis. And having bound him to take him away to the 
governor, and a pious Jebusite,’ a kinsman of Nero, having 
come to Cyprus, the Jews, learning this, took Barnabas by 
night, and bound him with a rope by the neck; and having: 
dragged him to the hippodrome from the synagogue, and 
having gone out of the city, standing round him, they burned 
him with fire, so that even his bones became dust. And 
straightway that night, having taken his dust, they cast it 
into a cloth; and having secured it with lead, they intended 
to throw it into the sea. But 1, finding an opportunity in the 
night, and being able along with Timon and Rhodon to carry 
it, we came to a certain place, and having found a cave, put it 
down there, where the nation of the Jebusites formerly dwelt. 
And having found a secret place in it, we put it away, with the 
documents which he had received from Matthew. And it was 
the fourth hour of the night of the second of the week.® 

And when we were hid in the place, the Jews made no little 
search after us; and having almost found us, they pursued us 
as far as the village of the Ledrians; and we, having found 
there also a cave near the village, took refuge in it, and thus 

 Lit., assemblies of the whole nation. 


? Another reading is: Eusebius the Jebusite. ‘There is a legend that the 


Jebusites colonized “Cyprus after they were driven out of Palestine ts King 
David. 


3. The Vatican ms. adds: on the 17th of the month Paiin wdecntiiig to the 
Egyptians, and according to the Romans the 11th of the month of June. 


500 THE ACTS OF BARNABAS. 


escaped them. And we were hid in the cave three days; and 
the Jews having gone away, we came forth and left the place 
by night. And taking with us Ariston and Rhodon, we came 
to the village of Limnes.* 

And having come to the shore, we found an Egyptian ship ; 
and having embarked in it, we landed at Alexandria. And 
there I remained, teaching the brethren that came the word of 
the Lord, enlightening them, and preaching what I had been 
taught by the apostles of Christ, who also baptized me into the 
name of Father, and Son, and Holy Ghost ; who also changed 
my name to Mark in the water of baptism, by which also I 
hope to bring many to the glory of God through His grace; 
because to Him is due honour and everlasting glory. Amen. 

The journeyings and martyrdom of the holy apostle Barna- 
bas have been fulfilled through God. 


1 This place does not appear on the ancient maps, but there is a modern C. 
Limniti. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 
OF THE JOURNEYINGS OF PHILIP THE APOSTLE. 


FROM THE FIFTEENTH ACT UNTIL THE END, AND 
AMONG THEM THE MARTYRDOM. 


— 


= DOUT the time when the Emperor Trajan received 
@ the government of the Romans, after Simon the 
son of Clopas, who was bishop of Jerusalem, had 
suffered martyrdom in the eighth year of his reign, 
being the second bishop of the church there after James who 
bore the name of brother of the Lord,’ Philip the apostle, 
going through the cities and regions of Lydia and Asia, preached 
to all the gospel of Christ. 

And having come to the city of Ophioryma, which is called 
Hierapolis of Asia, he was entertained by a certain believer, 
Stachys by name. And there was with him also Bartholo- 
mew, one of the seventy disciples of the Lord, and his sister 
Mariamme, and his disciples that followed him. All the men 
of the city therefore, having left their work, ran to the house 
of Stachys, hearing about the works which Philip did. And 
many men and women having assembled in the house of 
Stachys, Philip along with Bartholomew taught them the 
things of Jesus. 

And Philip’s sister Mariamme, sitting in the entry of the 
house of Stachys, addressed herself to those coming, persuading 
them to listen to the apostles, saying to them: Our brethren, 
and sons of my Father in heaven, ye are the excellent riches, 
and the substance of the city above, the delight of the habita- 
tion which God has prepared for those that love Him. Trample 
under foot the snares of the enemy, the writhing serpent. For 
his path is crooked, since he is the son of the wicked one, 


1 Comp. Euseb. H. E£. iii. 32. 
301 


302 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


and the poison of wickedness is in him; and his father is the 
devil, the author of death, and his mother corruption; rage in 
his eyes and destruction in his mouth, and his path is Hades. 
Wherefore flee from him that has no substance, the shape- 
less one that has no shape in all the creation, whether in 
the heaven or in the earth, whether in the flying creatures 
or the beasts. For everything is taken away from his shape; 
for among the beasts of the earth and the fowls of the heaven 
is the knowledge of him, that the serpent trails his belly and 
his breast ; and Tartarus is his dwelling-place, and he goes in 
the darkness, since he has confidence in nothing.* Flee there- 
fore from him, that his poison may not be poured out into 
your mouth. But be rather believing, holy, of good works, 
having no deceit. Take away from yourselves the wicked dis- 
position, that is, the evil desires through which the serpent, the 
wicked dragon, the prince of evil, has produced the pasture 
of destruction and death for the soul, since all the desire of 
the wicked has proceeded from him. And this is the root of 
iniquity, the maintenance of evils, the death of souls; for the 
desire of the enemy is armed against the believers, and comes 
forth from the darkness, and walks in the darkness, taking in 
hand to war with those who are in the light. For this is the 
beginning of concupiscence.? Wherefore you who wish to 
come to us, and the rather that God has come through us to 
you as a father to his own children, wishing to have merey 
upon you, and to deliver you from the wicked snare of the 
enemy, flee from the evil lusts of the enemy, and cast them 
completely out of your mind, hating openly the father of evils, 
and loving Jesus, who is light, and life, and truth, and the 
Saviour of all who desire Him. Having run, therefore, to Him, 
take hold of Him in love, that He may bring you up out of 
the pit of the wicked, and having cleansed you, set you blame- 
less, living in truth, in the presence of His Father. 

And all these things Philip said to the multitudes that had 
come together to worship as in old times the serpents and the 
viper, of which also they set wp images and worshipped them. 
Wherefore also they called Hierapolis Ophioryma.* And these 
things having been said by Philip, Bartholomew and Mari- 

1 Or, in no one. ? Or, covetousness, 3 i.e. Serpent’s town. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 503 


amme and his disciples and Stachys being along with him, all 
the people gave ear, and a great multitude of them fleeing from 
the enemy were turned to Jesus, and were added to Philip and 
those about him. And the faithful were the more confirmed 
in the love of Christ. 

And Nicanora, the wife of the proconsul, lying in bed under 
various diseases, especially of the eyes, having heard about the 
Apostle Philip and his teaching, believed in the Lord. For 
she had even before this heard about Him; and having called 
upon His name, she was released from the troubles that afflicted 
her. And rising up, she went forth out of her house through 
the side door, carried by her own slaves in a silver litter, and 
went into the house of Stachys, where the apostles were. 

And when she came before the gate of the house, Mariamme, 
the sister of Philip the apostle, seeing her, spoke to her in 
the Hebrew tongue before Philip and Bartholomew, and all 
the multitude of those who had believed, saying: Alemakan, 
ikasame, marmare, nachaman, mastranan, achaman ; which is, 
Daughter of the father, thou art my mistress, thou hast been 
given as a pledge to the serpent; but Jesus our Redeemer has 
come to deliver thee through us, to break thy bands, and cut 


‘them, and to remove them from thee from their root, because 


thou art my sister, one mother brought us forth twins. Thou 
hast forsaken thy father, thou hast forsaken the path leading 
thee to the dwelling-place of thy mother, being in error; thou 
hast left the temple of that deception, and of the temporary 
glory, and hast come to us, fleeing from the enemy, because he 
is the dwelling-place of death. Behold, now thy Redeemer has 
come to redeem thee; Christ the Sun of righteousness has risen 
upon thee, to enlighten thee.” 

And when Nicanora, standing before the door, heard these 
things, she took courage before all, crying out, and saying: I 
am a Hebrew, and a daughter of the Hebrews; speak with me 
in the language of my fathers. For, having heard the preach- 
ing of my fathers, 1 was straightway cured of the disease and 
the troubles that encompassed me. I therefore adore the good- 
ness of God, who has caused you to be spoiled even to this city, 
on account of His true stone® held in honour, in order that 


10r, iachaman. * Comp. Mal. iv. 2. 8158, xxviii. 16; 1 Pet. ii. 4, ete. 


901 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


through you we may receive the knowledge of Him, and may 
live with you, having believed in Him. 

Nicanora having thus spoken, the Apostle Philip, along with 
Bartholomew and Mariamme and those with them, prayed for 
her to God, saying: Thou who bringest the dead to life, Christ 
Jesus the Lord, who hast freed us through baptism from the 
slavery of death,’ completely deliver also this woman from the 
error, the enemy; make her alive in Thy life, and perfect her 
in Thy perfection, in order that she may be found in the 
country of her fathers in freedom, having a portion in Thy 
goodness, O Lord Jesus. 

And all having sent up the amen along with the Apostle 
Philip, behold, there came the tyrant, the husband of Nicanora, 
raging lke an unbroken horse; and having laid hold of his 
wife’s garments, he cried out, saying: O Nicanora, did not I 
leave thee in bed? how hadst thou so much strength as to 
come to these magicians? And how hast thou been cured of 
the inflammation of thine eyes? Now, therefore, unless thou 
tell me who thy physician is, and what is his name, I shall 
punish thee with various punishments, and shall not have com- 
passion upon thee. And she answering, says to him: O tyrant, 
cast out from thee this tyranny of thine, forsake this wicked- 
ness of thine; abandon this life lasting only for a season; 
run away from the brutality of thy worthless disposition; flee 
from the wicked dragon and his lusts; throw from thee the 
works and the dart of the man-slaying serpent; renounce the 
abominable and wicked sacrifices of the idols, which are the 
husbandry of the enemy, the hedge of darkness; make for 
thyself a life chaste and pure, that being in holiness thou 
mayst be able to know my Physician, and to get His name. 
If therefore thou wishest me to be beside thee, prepare thyself 
to live in chastity and self-restraint, and in fear of the true 
God, and I shall live with thee all my life; only cleanse thy- 
self from the idols, and from all their filth. 

And when the gloomy tyrant her husband heard these words 
of hers, he seized her by the hair of her head, and dragged her 
along, kicking her, and saying: It will be a fine thing for thee 
to be cut off by the sword, or to see thee from beside me com- 

1 Comp. Rom. vi. 3, 4. 


Ἢ 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 505 


mitting fornication with these foreign magicians ; for I see that 
thou hast fallen into the madness of these deceivers. Thee 
first of them, therefore, I shall cut off by an evil death; and 
then, not sparing them, I shall cut their sinews, and put them 
to a most cruel death. And having turned, he said to those 
about him: Bring out for me those impostors of magicians. 
And the public executioners having run into the house of 
Stachys, and laid hold of the Apostle Philip, and Bartholomew 
and Mariamme, dragged them along, leading them to where 
the proconsul was. And the most faithful Stachys followed, 
and all the faithful. 

And the proconsul seeing them, gnashed his teeth, saying: 
Torture these deceivers that have deceived many women, and 
young men and girls, saying that they are worshippers of Ged, 
while they are an abomination. And he ordered thongs of 
raw hide to be brought, and Philip and Bartholomew and 
Mariamme to be beaten; and after they had been scourged 
with the thongs, he ordered their feet to be tied, and them to 
be dragged through the streets of the city as far as the gate 
of their temple. And a great crowd was assembled, so that 
scarcely any one stayed at home; and they all wondered at 
their patience, as they were being violently and inhumanly 
dragged along. 

And the proconsul, having tortured the Apostle Philip and 
the saints who were with him, ordered them to be brought, and 
secured in the temple of the idol of the viper by its priests, 
until he should decide by what death he should destroy each of 
them. And many of the crowd believed in the grace of Christ, 
and were added to the Apostle Philip, and those with him, 
having renounced the idol of the viper, and were confirmed in 
the faith, being magnified by the endurance of the saints; and 
all together with their voice glorified God, saying the amen. 

And when they were shut up in the temple of the viper— 
both Philip the Apostle, and Bartholomew and Mariamme— 
the priests of the viper assembled to the same place, and 
a great crowd, about seven thousand men; and having run 
to the proconsul, they cried out, saying: Avenge us of the 
foreigners, and magicians, and corrupters and seducers of men. 
For ever since they came to us, our city has been filled with 

U 


306 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


every evil deed; and they have also killed the serpents, the 
sons of our goddess; and they have also shut the temple, and 
the altar has been desolated; and we have not found the wine 
which had been brought in order that the viper, having drunk 
of it, might go to sleep. But if thou wishest to know that they 
are really magicians, look and see how they wish to bewitch 
us, saying, Live in chastity and piety, after believing in God; 
and how also they have come into the city; and how also the 
dragons have not struck them blind, or even killed them ; and 
how also they have not drunk their blood; but even they who 
keep our city from every foreigner have been cast down by 
these men. 

And the proconsul having heard these things, was the more 
inflamed with rage, and filled with wrath and threatening; and 
he was exceedingly enraged, and said to the priests: Why 
(need you speak), when they have bewitched my own wife ? 
And from that time she has spoken to me with strange words ; 
and praying all the night through, she speaks in a strange 
tongue with a light shining round her ; and groaning aloud, she 
says, Jesus the true light has come to me. And 1, having 
gone forth from my chamber, wished to look down through the 
window and see Jesus, the light which she spoke of; and like 
lightning it came upon me, so that I was within a little of 
being blinded; and from that time forth I am afraid of my 


wife, on account of her luminous Jesus. Tell me, ye priests, | 


what I am to do. And they said to him: O proconsul, as- 
suredly we are no longer priests; for ever since thou didst 
shut them up, in consequence of them praying, not only has 
the temple been shaken from the foundations, but it is also 
assuredly falling down. 

Then the proconsul ordered to bring Philip and those with 
him forth out of the temple, and to bring them up to the 
tribunal, saying to the public executioner: Strip Philip and 
Bartholomew and Mariamme, and search thoroughly to try 
to find their enchantments. Having therefore first stripped 


Philip, then Bartholomew, they came also to Mariamme; and — 


dragging her along, they said: Let us strip her naked, that all 
may see her, how she follows men; for she especially deceives 
all the women. And the tyrant says to the priests: Proclaim 


] 


) 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 307 


throughout the whole city round about that all should come, 
men and women, that they may see her indecency, that she 
travels about with these magicians, and no doubt commits 
adultery with them. And he ordered Philip to be hanged, and 
his ankles to be pierced, and to bring also iron hooks, and his 
heels also to be driven through, and to be hanged head down- 
wards, opposite the temple on a certain tree; and stretch out 
Bartholomew opposite Philip, having nailed his hands on the 
wall of the gate of the temple. 

And both of them smiled, seeing each other, both Philip and 
Bartholomew ; for they were as if they were not tortured: for 
their punishments were prizes and crowns. And when also 
they had stripped Mariamme, behold, straightway the sem- 
blance of her body was changed in the presence of all, and 
straightway there was about her a cloud of fire before all; and 
they could not longer look at all on the place in which the 
holy Mariamme was, but they all fled from her. 

And Philip spoke with Bartholomew in the Hebrew tongue, 
saying: Where is our brother John? for, behold, I am being 
released from the body; and who is he that has prayed for us ? 
Because they have also laid hands on our sister Mariamme, 
contrary to what is meet; and, behold, they have set fire to the 
house of Stachys, saying, Let us burn it, since he entertained 
them. Dost thou wish then, Bartholomew, fire to come from 
heaven, and that we should burn them up ? 

And as Philip was thus speaking, behold, also John entered 
into the city like one of their fellow-citizens; and moving about 
in the street, he asked: Who are these men, and why are they 
punished? And they say to him: It cannot be that thou art 
of our city, and askest about these men, who have wronged 
many: for they have shut up our gods, and by their magic 


_ have cut off both the serpents and the dragons; and they have 


also raised many of the dead, who have struck us with amaze- 
ment, detailing many punishments (against us); and they wish 
also, these strangers who are hanging, to pray for fire out of 
heaven, and to burn up us and our city. 

Then says John: Let us go, and do you show me them. 
They led John, therefore, as their fellow-citizen, to where 
Philip was; and there was there a great crowd, and the pro- 


308 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


consul, and the priests. And Philip, seeing John, said to Bar- 
tholomew in Hebrew: Brother, John has come, who was in 
Barek, where the living water is." And John saw Philip hang- 
ing head downwards both by the ankles and the heels ;* and 
he also saw Bartholomew stretched out on the wall of the 
temple; and he said to them: The mystery of him that was 
hanged between the heaven and the earth shall be with you. 

And he said also to the men of that city: Ye men who 
dwell in Ophioryma Hierapolis, great is the ignorance which 
is among you, for you have erred in the path of error. The 
dragon breathing has breathed upon you, and blinded you in 
three ways; that is, he has made you blind in body, and blind 
in soul, and blind in spirit: and you have been struck by 
the destroyer. Look upon the whole creation, whether in the 
earth, or in the heaven, or in the waters, that the serpent has 
no resemblance to anything above ;* but he is of the stock of 
corruption, and has been brought to nothing by God; and on 
this account he is twisted and crooked, and there is no life in 
him; and anger, and rage, and darkness, and fire, and smoke are in 
all his members. And now, therefore, why do you punish these 
men because they have told you that the serpent is your enemy ? 

And when they heard these words from John, they raised 
their hands against him, saying: We thought thee to be a 
fellow-citizen, but now thou hast shown thyself that thou art 
their companion. Like them, so also thou shalt be put to 
death ; for the priests have intended to squeeze out your blood, 
and having mixed it with wine, to bring it to the viper to 
drink it. When, therefore, the priests attempted to lay hold 
of John, their hands were paralyzed. And John said to Philip: 
Let us not at all render evil for evil. And Philip said to 
John: Behold now, where is my Lord Jesus, who told me not 
to avenge myself? But for my part, I shall not endure it 
longer; but I will accomplish upon them my threat, and will 
destroy them all.* 


‘ Another and more probable reading is: He who is the son of Barek, which 
means living water. 

2 Or, hams. 

* One of the mss. has: has no resemblance to a man in anything. 

*A Bodleian ms. adds: for because I am wrathful, Jesus named me Son of © 
Thunder. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 509 


And John and Bartholomew and Mariamme restrained him, 
saying: Our Master was beaten, was scourged, was extended 
(on the cross), was made to drink gall and vinegar, and said, 
Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do” And 
this He taught, saying: Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly 
in heart.2 Let us also therefore be patient. Philip says: Go 
away, and do not mollify me; for I will not bear that they 
have hanged me head down, and pierced my ankles and my 
heels with irons. And thou, John, beloved of God, how much 
hast thou reasoned with them, and thou hast not been listened 
to! Wherefore go away from me, and I will curse them, 
and they shall be destroyed utterly to a man. And he began 
to curse them, invoking, and crying out in Hebrew: Abalo, 
aremun, iduthael, tharseleon, nachoth, aidunaph, teletelov:* that 
is, O Father of Christ, the only and Almighty God; O God, 
whom all ages dread, powerful and impartial Judge, whose 
name is in Thy dynasty Sabaoth,* blessed art Thou for ever- 
lasting; before Thee tremble dominions and powers of the 
celestials, and the fire-breathing threats of the cherubic living 
ones; the King, holy in majesty, whose name came upon the 
wild beasts of the desert, and they were tamed, and praised 
Thee with a rational voice; who lookest upon us, and readily 
erantest our requests; who knewest us before we were fashioned; 
the Overseer of all: now, I pray, let the great Hades open its 
mouth ; let the great abyss swallow up these the ungodly, who 
have not been willing to receive the word of truth in this city. 
So let it be, Sabaoth. And, behold, suddenly the abyss was 
opened, and the whole of the place in which the proconsul was 
sitting was swallowed up, and the whole of the temple, and 
the viper which they worshipped, and great crowds, and the 
priests of the viper, about seven thousand men, besides women 
and children, except where the apostles were: they remained 
unshaken. And the proconsul was swallowed up into the 
abyss; and their voices came up from beneath, saying, with 
weeping: Have mercy upon us, O God of Thy glorious apostles, 


1 Luke xxiii. 34. 2 Matt. xi. 29. 

ὅ The Bodleian ms. has the Hebrew thus: Saballon, prumeni, duthael, 
tharseli, annachathaei ; adonab batelo teloe. 

4 The Bodleian ms. has Ailoel. 


310 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


because we now see the judgments of those who have not 
confessed the crucified One: behold, the cross illumines us. 
O Jesus Christ, manifest Thyself to us, because we are all 
coming down alive into Hades, and are being scourged because 
we have unjustly crucified Thine apostles. And a voice was 
heard of one, saying: I shall be merciful to you in the cross 
of light. 

And there remained both Stachys and all his house, and the 
wife of the proconsul, and fifty other women who had believed 
with her upon the Lord, and a multitude besides, both of men 
and women, and a hundred virgins who had not been swal- 
lowed up because of their chastity, having been sealed with 
the seal of Christ. 

Then the Lord, having appeared unto Philip, said: O Philip, 
didst thou not hear: Thou shalt not render evil for evil? and 
why hast thou inflicted such destruction? O Philip, whoso- 
ever putteth his hand to the plough, and looketh backwards,’ 
is his furrow well set ? or who gives up his own lamp to an- 
other, and himself sits in darkness? or who forsakes his own 
dwelling-place, and dwells on a dunghill himself? And who, 
giving away his own garment in winter, goes naked ? or what 
enemy rejoices in the joy of the man that hates him ? and what 
soldier goes to war without a full suit of armour? and what 
slave who has fulfilled his master’s order will not be com- 
mended ? and who in the racecourse, having nobly run, does 
not receive the prize ? and who that has washed his garments 
willingly defiles them? Behold, my bridechamber is ready; 
but blessed is he who has been found in it wearing the 
shining garment :? he it is who receives the crown upon his 
head. Behold, the supper is ready; and blessed is he who is 
invited, and is ready to go to Him that has invited him. The 
harvest of the field is much,*® and blessed is the good labourer. 
Behold the lilies and all the flowers, and it is the good hus- 
bandman who is the first to get a share of them.. And how 
hast thou become, O Philip, unmerciful, having cursed thine 
enemies in wrath ? 

Philip says: Why art Thou anery with me, Lord, because I 
have cursed mine enemies ? for why dost Thou not tread them 

* Comp. Luke ix. 62. 3 Comp. Matt. xxii. 11. 8 Comp. Matt. ix. 37. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 911 


under foot, because they are yet alive in the abyss? And 
knowest Thou, Lord, that because of Thee I came into this city, 
and in Thy name I have persecuted all the error of the idols, 
and all the demons? The dragons have withered away, and 
the serpents. And since these men have not received Thy 
light, therefore have I cursed them, and they have gone down 
to Hades alive. 

And the Saviour says to Philip: But since thou hast dis- 
obeyed me, and hast requited evil for evil, and hast not kept 
my commandment, on this account thou shalt finish thy course 
gloriously indeed, and shalt be led by the hand by my holy 
angels, and shalt come with them even to the paradise of de- 
light; and they indeed shall come beside me into paradise, but 
thee will I order to be shut outside of paradise for forty days, 
in terror under the flaming and turning sword, and thou shalt 
eroan because thou hast done evil to those who have done 
evil to thee. And after forty days I shall send my archangel 
Michael; and he, having taken hold of the sword guarding 
paradise, shall bring thee into it, and thou shalt see all the 
righteous who have walked in their innocence, and then thou 
shalt worship the glory of my Father in the heavens. Never- 
theless the sign of thy departure shall be glorified in my cross. 
And Bartholomew having gone away into Lycaonia, shall there 
also be himself crucified ; and Mariamme shall lay her body 
in the river Jordan. But I, O Philip, will not endure thee, 
because thou hast swallowed up the men into the abyss; but, 
behold, my Spirit is in them, and I shall bring them up from 
the dead; and thus they, seeing thee, shall believe in the glory 
of Him that sent thee. 

And the Saviour having turned, stretched up His hand, and 
marked a cross in the air coming down from above even to the 
abyss, and it was full of light, and had its form after the like- 
ness of a ladder. And all the multitude that had gone down 
from the city into the abyss came up on the ladder of the 
luminous cross; but there remained below the proconsul, and 
the viper which they worshipped. And when the multitude 
had come up, having looked upon Philip hanging head down- 
wards, they lamented with a great lamentation at the lawless 
action which they had done. And they also saw Bartholomew, 


312 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


and Mariamme having her former appearance. And, behold, 
the Lord went up into the heavens in the sight of Philip, and 
Bartholomew and Mariamme, and Stachys, and all the un- 
believing people, and silently they glorified God in fear and 
trembling. And all the multitudes cried out, saying: He alone 
is God, whom these men proclaim in truth; He alone is God, 
who sent these men for our salvation. Let us therefore truly 
repent for our great error, because we are by no means worthy 
of everlasting life. Now we believe, because we have seen | 
ereat wonders, because the Saviour has brought us up from 
the abyss. And they all fell upon their face, and adored 
Philip, and entreated him, ready to flee: Do not do another 
miracle, and again send us away into the abyss. And they 
prayed that they might become worthy of the appearing of 
Christ. 

And Philip, yet hanging, addressed them, and said: Hear 
and learn how great are the powers of my God, remembering 
what you have seen below, and how your city has been over- 
turned, with the exception of the house which received me; 
and now the sweetness of my God has brought you up out of 
the abyss, and I ain obliged to walk round paradise for forty 
days on your account, because I was enraged against you into 
requiting you. And this commandment alone I have not kept, 
in that I did not give you good in return for evil. But I say 
unto you, From this time forth, in the goodness of God, reject 
the evil, that you may become worthy of the thanksgiving’ of 
the Lord. 

And some of the faithful ran up to take down Philip, and 
take off him the iron grapnels, and the hooks out of his ankles. 
But Philip said: Do not, my children, do not come near me 
on account of this, for thus shall be my end. Listen to me, 
ye who have been enlightened in the Lord, that I came to this 
city, not to make any merchandise, or do any other thing; 
but I have been destined to go out of my body in this city in 
the case in which you see me. Grieve not, then, that I am 
hanging thus; for I bear the stamp’ of the first man, who was 
brought to the earth head downwards, and again, through the 
wood of the cross brought to life out of the death of the trans- 

1 Or, the Eucharist. 2 Or, type. 


Om ae 6 eh 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 919 


eression. And now I accomplish that which hath been enjoined 
upon me; for the Lord said to me, Unless you shall make 
that of you which is down to be up, and that which is on the 
- left to be on the right, you shall not enter into my kingdom. 
Be ye not therefore likened to the unchanged type, for all the 
world has been changed, and every soul dwelling in a body is 
in forgetfulness of heavenly things; but let not us possessing 
the glory of the heavenly seek that which is without, which 
is the body and the house of slavery. Be not unbelieving, but 
believing, and forgive each other’s faults. Behold, I hang six 
days, and I have blame from the true Judge, because I altogether 
requited you evil, and put a stumbling-block in the way of my 
rectitude. And now I am going up on high; be not sorrowful, 
but rather rejoice, because I am leaving this dwelling-place, 
my body, having escaped from the corruption of the dragon, 
who punishes every soul that is in sins. 

And Philip, having looked round upon the multitudes, said: 
O ye who have come up out of the dead from Hades, and the 
swallowing up of the abyss,—and the luminous cross led you 
up on high, through the goodness of the Father, and the Son, 
and the Holy Ghost,—He being God became man, having been 
made flesh out of the Virgin Mary, immortal, abiding in flesh ; 
and having died, He raised the dead, having had pity on man- 
kind, having taken away the sting of sin. He was great, and 
became small for our sake, until He should enlarge the small, 
and bring them into His greatness. And He it is who has 
sweetness; and they spat upon Him, giving Him gall to drink, 
in order that He might make those who were bitter against 
Him to taste of His sweetness. Cleave then to Him, and do 
not forsake Him, for He is our life to everlasting. 

And when Philip had finished this announcement, he says 
to them, Loose Bartholomew; and having gone up, they loosed 
him. And after loosing him, Philip says to him: Bartholomew, 
my brother in the Lord, thou knowest that the Lord has sent 
thee with me to this city, and thou hast shared with me in all 
the dangers with our sister Mariamme; but I know that the 
going forth from thy body has been appointed in Lycaonia, and 
it has been decreed to Mariamme to go forth from the body in 
the river Jordan. Now therefore I command you, that when 


914 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


I have gone forth from my body, you shall build a church in 
this place ; and let the leopard and the kid of the goats? come 
into the church, for a sign to those that believe; and let 


Nicanora provide for them until they shall go forth from ὅπ. 


body; and when they shall have gone forth, bury them by the 
gate of the church. And lay your peace upon the house of 
Stachys, as Christ laid His peace on this city. And let all 
the virgins who believe stand in that house each day, watching 
over the sick, walking two and two; but let them have no com- 


munication with young men, that Satan may not tempt them:? — 
for he is a creeping serpent, and he caused Adam by means οὗ 


Eve to slip into death. Let it not be so again in this time as 
in the case of Eve. But do thou, O Bartholomew, look to them 
well;® and thou shalt give these injunctions to Stachys, and 
appoint him bishop. Do not entrust the place of the bishopric 
to a young man, that the gospel of Christ may not be brought 


to shame; and let every one that teacheth have his works equal. 


to his words. But I am going to the Lord, and take my body 
and prepare it for burial with Syriac sheets of paper; and do 
not put round me flaxen cloth, because the body of my Lord 
was wrapped in linen. And having prepared my body for 
burial in the sheets of paper, bind it tight with papyrus reeds, 
and bury it in the church; and pray for me* forty days, in 
order that the Lord may forgive me the transgression wherein 
1 transgressed, in requiting those who did evil to me. See, 
O Bartholomew, where my blood shall drop upon the earth, 
a plant shall spring up from my blood, and shall become a 
vine, and shall produce fruit of a bunch of grapes; and having 
taken the cluster, press it into the cup; and having partaken of 
it on the third day, send up on high the Amen, in order that 
the offering may be complete. 

And Philip, having said these things, prayed thus: O Lord 
Jesus Christ, Father of the ages, King of the light, who hast 
made us wise in Thy wisdom, and hast given us Thine under- 
standing, and hast bestowed upon us the counsel of Thy good- 


1 Alluding to Isa. xi. 6. 2. Comp. 1 Cor. vii. 5. 3 Lit., be a good trier. 

4 On the subject of the immemorial practice of prayers for the dead, see 
Apostolical Constitutions, vi. 30, viii. 47. Comp. 2 Mace. xii, 44 and 2 Tim, 
i, 18, 


᾿ 

; 

Ἵ 
Σ 
- 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 515 


ness, who hast never at any time left us, Thou art He who 
taketh away the disease of those who flee to Thee for refuge ; 
Thou art the Son of the living God, who hast given us Thy 
presence of wisdom, who hast given us signs and wonders, and 
hast turned those who have gone astray; who crownest those 
who overcome the adversary, Thou excellent Judge." Come 
now, Jesus, and give me the everlasting crown of victory against 
every adverse dominion and power, and do not let their dark 
air hide me when I shall cross the waters of fire and all the 
abyss. O my Lord Jesus Christ, let not the enemy have ground 
to accuse me at Thy tribunal; but put on me Thy glorious 
robe, Thy seal of ight that ever shines, until I shall pass by 
all the powers of the world, and the wicked dragon that lieth 
in wait for us. Now therefore, my Lord Jesus Christ, make me 
to meet Thee in the air, having forgiven me the recompense 
which I recompensed to my enemies; and transform the form 
of my body into angelic glory, and give me rest in Thy blessed- 
ness; and let me receive the promise from Thee which Thou 
hast promised to Thy saints to everlasting. 

And having thus spoken, Philip gave up the ghost, while all 
the multitudes were looking upon him, and weeping, and saying: 
The life of this spirit has been accomplished in peace. And 
they said the Amen. 

And Bartholomew and Mariamme took down his body, and 
did as Philip had commanded them, and buried it in that place. 
And there was straightway a voice out of the heavens: Philip 
the apostle has been crowned with an incorruptible crown by 
Jesus Christ, the Judge of the contest. And all shouted out 
the Amen. 

And after the three days the plant of the vine sprouted up 
where the blood of the holy Philip had dropped. And they 
did all that had been commanded them by him, offering an 
offering for forty days, praying without ceasing. And they 
built the church in that place, having appointed Stachys 
bishop in the church. And Nicanora and all the faithful 
assembled, and did not cease, all of them, glorifying God on 


account of the wonders that had happened among them. And 


all the city believed in the name of Jesus. And Bartholomew 


’ Lit., president of the games. 


316 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


commanded Stachys to baptize those who believed into the 
name of the Father, and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. 

And after the forty days, the Saviour, having appeared in 
the form of Philip, said to Bartholomew and Mariamme: My 
beloved brethren, do you wish to rest in the rest of God ? 
Paradise has been opened to me, and I have entered into the 
clory of Jesus. Go away to the place appointed for you ; for 
the plant that has been set apart and planted in this city shall — 
bear excellent fruit. Having therefore saluted the brethren, 
and prayed for each of them, they departed from the city οὐ 
Ophioryma, the Hierapolis of Asia ; and Bartholomew departed 
into Lycaonia, and Mariamme proceeded to the Jordan ; and 
Stachys and those with him remained, maintaining the church 
in Christ Jesus our Lord, to whom be glory and “strength for | 
ever and ever. Amen. 


ACTS OF SAINT PHILIP THE APOSTLE 


WHEN HE WENT TO UPPER HELLAS. 


Setee ND it came to pass in those days, when Philip en- 
| tered into the city of Athens called Hellas, there 
assembled to him three hundred philosophers, say- 
ing: Let us go and see what his wisdom is; for 
they say about the wise men of Asia, that their wisdom is 
great. For they thought that Philip was a philosopher, since he 
was travelling in the dress of a recluse ; and they did not know 
that he was an apostle of Christ. For the dress which Jesus 
gave to His disciples was a mantle only, and a linen cloth.’ 
Thus, then, Philip was going about. On this account, therefore, 
when the philosophers of Hellas saw him, they were afraid. 
They assembled therefore into one place, and said to each other: 
Come, let us look into our books, lest somehow this stranger 
overcome us, and put us to shame. 

And having done so, they came together to the same place, 
and say to Philip: We have doctrines of our fathers in which 
we are pleased, seeking after knowledge; but if thou hast any- 
thing new, O stranger, show it to us without envy boldly: for 
we have need of nothing else, but only to hear something new.” 

And Philip answering, said to them: O philosophers of 
Hellas, if you wish to hear some new thing, and are desirous 
of something new, you ought to throw away from you the dis- 
position of the old man; as my Lord said, It is impossible to 
put new wine into old bottles, since the bottle is burst, and 
the wine spilled, and the bottle destroyed? But they put new 
wine into fresh bottles, so that both may be preserved. And 


1 Comp. Matt. x. 10 ; Mark vi. 9. 2 Acts xvii. 21. 
3 Cf. Matt. ix. 17, etc. 


317 


518 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


these things the Lord said in parables, teaching us in His holy 
wisdom, that many will love the new wine, not having a bottle 
fresh and new. And I love you, O men of Hellas, and I con- 
eratulate you for having said, We love something new. For 
instruction really new and fresh my Lord has brought into 
the world, in order that He might sweep away all worldly 
instruction. 

The philosophers say: Who is it that thou callest thy Lord ? 
Philip says: My Lord is Jesus in heaven. And they said to 
him: Show him to our comprehension without envy, that we 
also may believe in him. And Philip said: He with whom 
I am about to make you acquainted as Lord, is above every 
name; there is no other... And this only I say: As you have 
said, Do not refuse us through envy, let it not be that I 
should refuse you; but rather in great exultation and in great 
joy I have to reveal to you that name, for I have no other 
work in this world than this proclamation.2 For when my 
Lord came into this world, He chose us, being twelve in num- 
ber, having filled us with the Holy Spirit; from His light He 
made us know who He was, and commanded us to preach all 
salvation through Him, because there is no other name named 
out of heaven than this. On this account I have come to 
you, to make you fully assured, not in word only, but also in 
the showing forth of wonderful works in the name of our 
Lord Jesus Christ. 

And when the philosophers heard this, they say to Philip : 
This name that has been heard of by us from thee we have 
never found in the books of our fathers; now, therefore, how 
can we know about thy words? And moreover, in addition, 
they say to him: Allow us three days, that we may consult with 
each other about this name; for we lay no little stress upon 
this—to apostatize from our fathers’ religion. Philip therefore 
says to them: Consult as you wish; for there is no deceit in 
the matter. 

And the three hundred philosophers having assembled, spoke 
with each other, saying: You know that this man has brought 


a strange philosophy, and the words spoken by him bring us — 


to distraction. "What, then, shall we do about him, or about 
1 Eph. i. 21. 2 Or, preaching. 3 Acts iv. 12. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 319 


the name of him who is called Jesus, the king of the ages, 
whom he speaks of 2? And moreover they say to each other: 
Assuredly we cannot reason with him, but the high priest of 
the Jews can. If therefore it seem good, let us send to him, 
in order that he may stand up to this stranger, and that we 
may learn accurately the name that is preached. 

They wrote therefore to Jerusalem after this manner :— 
The philosophers of Hellas to Ananias, the great high priest 
of the Jews in Jerusalem. There being between thee and us 
at all times great’... as thou knowest that we Athenians 
are searchers after truth. A certain foreigner has come to 
Hellas, Philip by name; and, in a word, he has disturbed us 
exceedingly, both by words and by extraordinary miracles, and 
he introduces a glorious name, Jesus, professing himself to be 
his disciple. And he does also wonders of which we write to 
you, in that he has cast out demons that have been long in 
men, and makes the deaf hear, the blind see; and what is 
more wonderful—which also we should have first mentioned— 
he has raised up men after they were dead, that have fairly 
completed the number of their days.? And the fame of him 
has gone abroad into all Hellas and Macedonia; and there are 
many coming to him from the cities round about, bringing 
those who are ill with various diseases, and he heals them all 
through the name of Jesus. On this account, therefore, come 
to us without any reluctance, that thou thyself mayst announce 
to us what Jesus, this name which he teaches, means. For on 
this account also we have sent this letter to thee, O high priest. 

And when he had read, he was filled with great wrath, and 
rent his clothes, and said: Has that deceiver gone even to 
Athens, among the philosophers, to lead them astray? And 
the Mansemat—that is, Satan—entered into Ananias unawares, 
and filled him with anger and rage; and he said: If I allow 
that Philip himself, and those with him, to live, the law will 
be entirely destroyed, and their teaching will likely fill the 
whole earth. And the high priest went into his own house, 
and the teachers of the law, and the Pharisees; and they con- 
sulted with each other, saying: What shall we do about these 


1 There seems to be some omission in the mss. here. 
2 Lit., of life. 


320 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


things?! And they say to the high priest Ananias: Stand up 
and arm thyself, and five hundred able men out of the people, 
and go away to Athens, and by all means kill Philip, and thus 
thou shalt overturn his teaching. 

And having put on the high priest’s robe, he came to Hellas 
in great pomp, with the five hundred men. And Philip was in 
the house of a certain chief man of the city, with the brethren 
who had believed. And the high priest and those with him, 
and the three hundred philosophers, went up to the gateway of 
the house where Philip was; and it was told Philip that they 
were outside. And he rose up and went out. And when the 
high priest saw him, he says to him: O Philip, sorcerer and 
magician, for I know thee, that in Jerusalem thy master the 
deceiver called thee Son of Thunder.? Was not the whole of 
Judea sufficient for you, but you have come here also to deceive 
men who are searchers after wisdom ? And Philip said: Would 
that, O Ananias, thy covering of unbelief were taken away 
from thy heart, that thou mightst know my words, and from 
them learn whether I am a deceiver, or thou! 

Ananias having heard this, said to Philip: I shall give 
answer to all. And Philip said: Speak. The high priest says: 
O men of Hellas, this Philip believes in a man called Jesus, 
who was born among us, who also taught this heresy, and 
destroyed the law and the temple, and brought to nought the 
purification through Moses, and the new moons, because he 
says, These have not been commanded by God. And when 
we saw that he thus destroyed the law, we stood up against 
him, and crucified him, that his teaching might not be fulfilled. 
For many changes were brought in by him; and he gave an 
evil testimony, for he ate all things in common, and mixed 
with blood, after the manner of the Gentiles.® And having 
civen him up, we put him to death, and buried him in a tomb; 
and these disciples of his having stolen him, have proclaimed 
everywhere that he has risen from the dead, and have led astray 
a great multitude by professing that he is at the right hand of 


1 Or, these men. 

2 It was James and John who were called sons of thunder (Mark iii. 17). 

3 This last sentence is very corrupt in the original. A few changes give it 
the meaning above. 


ὡς Sat a 1 


I= Mia 05 a 


I POOL OGIO If 9 ταῦ OM rrr OO eg I ts πτσ 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 321 


God in heaven." But now these men, themselves having the 
circumcision as we also have, have not followed it, since they 
began to do many deeds of power in Jerusalem through the 
name of Jesus; and having been cast out of Jerusalem, they 
go about the world, and deceive all men by the magic of 
that Jesus, as also now this Philip has come to you to deceive 
yeu by the same means. But I shall carry him away with 
myself to Jerusalem, because Archelaus the king is also search- 
ing for him to kill him. 

And when the multitude standing round heard this, those 
indeed who had been confirmed in the faith were not shaken 
nor made to waver; for they knew that Philip would conquer 
in the glory of Jesus. Philip therefore stated his case in the 
power of Christ with great boldness, exulting and saying: I, O 
men of Athens, and those of you who are philosophers, have 
come to you, not to teach you with words, but by the showing 
forth of miracles; and in part you have quickly seen? the 
things that have come to pass through me, in that name by 
which the high priest himself is cast οἵ" For, behold, I shall 
ery to my God, and teach you, and you will prove the words 
of both. 

The high priest having heard this, ran to Philip, wishing to 
scourge him, and that same hour his whole hand was dried up, 
and his eyes were blinded; and in like manner also the five 
hundred who were with him were also themselves blinded. 
And they reviled and cursed the high priest, saying: Coming 
out of Jerusalem we said to thee, Refrain ; for, being men, we 
eannot fight against God* But we entreat thee, Ὁ Philip, 
apostle of the God Jesus, give us the light that is through 
him, that we also may truly be his slaves. 

And Philip, having seen what had come to pass, said: O 
weak nature! which has thrown itself upon us, but straightway 
has been brought down low into itself; O bitter sea! which 
rouses its waves against us, and thinks to cast us out, but 
which by itself lulls its waves to rest. Now therefore, O our 


1 Rom. viii. 34, ete. 

2 Better ray’ av θεάσεσθε-- σοι will perhaps see. 

3. Or, which the high priest casts off for himself. 

4Comp. Acts v. 39 and xxiii. 9 in Textus Receptus. 
Χ 


522 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


good steward Jesus, the holy light, Thou hast not overlooked 
us who are all together crying up to Thee in all good works, 
but hast come to finish them through us. Now therefore 
come, Lord Jesus ; reprove the folly of these men. 

The high priest says to Philip: Dost thou then think to turn 
us away from the traditions of our fathers, and the God of the 
desert, and Moses; and dost thou imagine that thou wilt make 
us followers of Jesus the Nazarene? Then Philip says to him: 
Behold, I shall pray to my God to come and manifest Himself 
before thee and the five hundred, and before all here; for per- 
haps thou wilt change thy mind, and believe. But if even to 
the end thou remain in unbelief, there is coming upon thee an 
extraordinary thing, which shall be spoken of to generations 
of generations—that also thou shalt go down alive, down into 
Hades, before the face of all seeing thee, because thou yet 
abidest in unbelief, because also thou seekest to turn away 
this multitude from the true life. And Philip prayed, saying: 
O holy Father of the holy Son Jesus Christ, who hast granted 
to me to believe in Him, send Thy beloved Son Jesus Christ to 
reprove the unbelieving high priest, that Thy name may be 
elorified in Christ the Beloved. 

And while Philip was yet crying out this, suddenly the 
heavens were opened, and Jesus appeared coming down in most 
excellent glory, and in lightning; and His face was shining 
sevenfold more than the sun, and His garments were whiter 
than snow, so that also all the idols of Athens fell suddenly to 
the ground. And the people fled in anguish ; and the demons 
dwelling among them cried out: Behold, we also flee because 
of Him who has appeared to the city, Jesus the Son of God. 
Then Philip says to the high priest: Hearest thou the demons 
crying out because of Him who has been seen, and believest 
thou not in Him who is present, that He is Lord of all? The 
high priest says: I have no other God than the one in the 
desert. 


And as Jesus was going up into heaven there happened a ‘ 
very great earthquake, so that the place on which they stood — 


was cleft; and the crowds ran and fell at the feet of the apostle, 


crying out: Have mercy upon us, Ὁ man of God! In like © 


manner also the five hundred men cried out themselves also 


WYP erry 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 929 


again: Have mercy upon us, O Philip, that we may know thee, 
and through thee Jesus the light of life: for we said to this 
unbelieving high priest, Being sinful men, we cannot fight 
against God. 

Then Philip says: There is no hatred in us, but the grace of 
Christ will make you receive your sight; but I will make the 
high priest receive his sight before you, that at this you may 
the more believe. Anda voice out of heaven was brought to 
Philip: O Philip, son once of thunder, but now of meekness, 
whatever thou mayst ask of my Father, He shall do for thee. 
And all the crowd was terror-struck at the voice, for the sound 
of it was greater than that of thunder. Then Philip says to 
the high priest: In the name of the power of the voice of my 
Lord, receive thy sight, Ananias. And immediately he received 
his sight, and looked round, and said: What is there in the 
magic of Jesus, that this Philip within a short time has made 
me blind, and again within a short time has made me receive 
my sight? Dost thou then, said Philip, believein Jesus? The 
high priest says: You do not think, do you, that you can be- 
witch me, and persuade me? And the five hundred who were 
with him, having heard that their high priest, having received 
his sight, was yet unbelieving, said to the bystanders to pray 
Philip that he should make them receive their sight, that (said 
they) we may cut off this unbelieving high priest. 

And Philip said: Do not avenge yourselves upon the 
wicked. And he says to the high priest: There will be a cer- 
tain great sign upon thee. He says to Philip: I know that 
thou art a sorcerer and a disciple of Jesus: thou dost not 
bewitch me. And the apostle said to Jesus: Sabarthan, saba- 
thabt, bramanuch, come quickly. And immediately the earth 
was cleft in the place where Ananias was, and swallowed him 
up as far as the knees. And Ananias cried out: O great (is 
the) power of the true witchcraft, because it has cleft the earth, 
when Philip threatened it in Hebrew, and adjured it; and it 
holds me even to the knees, and by the heels some hooks as it 
were drag me downwards, that I may believe in Philip; but 
he cannot persuade me, for from Jerusalem I know his magic 
tricks. 

And Philip, enraged, said: O earth, lay fast hold of him, even 


324 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


to the navel. And immediately it dragged him down. And he 
said: The one of my feet underneath is turned into ice, and the 
other is frightfully hot; but by thy magic, Philip, I will not be 
overcome. Except, therefore, that I am sore tortured under- 
neath, I do not believe at all. And the crowds wished to stone 
him. And Philip says: Not so; for this has in the meantime 
happened, that he has been swallowed up as far as the navel, 
that the salvation of your souls may be effected, because he 
would almost have drawn you by his wicked words into un- 
belief. But if even he repented, I should bring him up out of 
the earth to the salvation of his soul; but assuredly he is not 
worthy of salvation. If, then, he remain in unbelief, you shall 
see him sunk down into the abyss, unless the Lord intends to 
raise those who are in Hades, that they may confess that Jesus 
is Lord. For in that day every tongue shall confess that Jesus 
is Lord,’ and that there is one glory of the Father, and the Son, 
with the Holy Spirit for evermore. 

And Philip, having said this, extended his right hand, 
stretching it through the air over the five hundred men in the 
name of Jesus. And their eyes were opened, and they all 
praised God with one mouth, saying: We bless Thee, O Christ 
Jesus, the God of Philip, that Thou hast driven the blindness 
away from us, and hast given us Thy light, the gospel. And 
Philip rejoiced exceedingly at their words, because they were 
thus confirmed in the faith. And after this, Philip, having 
turned to the high priest, said: Confess thou also in a pure 
heart that Jesus is Lord, that thou mayst be saved, like those 
with thee. But the high priest laughed at Philip, and remained 
in unbelief. 

Philip then, seeing that he remained in unbelief, having 
looked at him, says to the earth: Open thy mouth, and 
swallow him up as far as his neck in the presence of those 
who have believed in Christ Jesus. And in the same hour the 
earth, having opened its mouth, received him as far as the neck. 
And the multitude communed with each other on account of 
the wonders that had happened. 

A certain chief man of the city came crying out, and saying: 
O blessed apostle, a certain demon has assailed my son, and 

? Phil. ii, 11. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 325 


cried out, saying to me, Since thou hast allowed a foreigner to 
come into your city, thou who hast been the first to do away 
with? our worship and our sacrifices, what shall I do for thee, 
except to kill this thine only begotten son? And after he said 
this, he strangled my son. Now therefore, I beseech thee, O 
apostle of Christ, do not allow my joy to be turned into sorrow, 
because I also have believed thy words. 

And the apostle, having heard this, said: I wonder at the 
activity of the demons, that it is active in every place, and 
dares to assail those to whose help I have not been able to 
come,’ as now they have tried you, wishing to cause you to 
offend. And he says to the man: Bring me thy son, and I will 
give him to thee alive, through my Christ. And rejoicing, he 
ran to bring his son. And when he came near his house, he 
cried out, saying: My son, I have come to thee to carry thee 
to the apostle, so that he may present thee to me living. And 
he ordered his slaves to carry the bed; and his son was twenty- 
three years old. And when Philip saw him, he was moved; 
and he turned to the high priest, and said: This has happened 
as a chance for thee: if, therefore, I shall raise him up, wilt 
thou henceforth believe? And he says: I know your magic 
arts, that thou wilt raise him up; but I will not believe thee. 
And Philip, enraged, said: A curse upon thee! then go down 
altogether into the abyss before the face of all these. And at 
the same hour he went down into Hades alive, except that 
the high priest’s robe flew off from him; and because of this, 
from that day, no one knew what became of the priest’s robe. 
And the apostle turned round and prayed for the boy; and 
having driven the demon away from him, he raised him up, 
and set him beside his father alive. 

And the multitude having beheld this, cried out: The God 
of Philip is the only God, who has punished the unbelief of the 
high priest, and driven away the demon from the young man, 
and raised him up from the dead. And the five hundred 
having seen the high priest swallowed up into the abyss, and 
the other miracles, besought Philip, and he gave them the seal 
in Christ. And Philip abode in Athens two years; and having 


* Or, thou being a chief man who has done away with. 
* There is some doubt about the reading here. 


326 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


founded a church, appointed a bishop and a presbyter, and so 
went away to Parthia, preaching Christ. To whom be glory 
for ever. Amen. 


ADDITION TO ACTS OF PHILIP. 
FROM A PARIS MS. 


And he taught them thus: My brethren, sons of my father— 
for you are of my family as to Christ, substance of my city, 
the Jerusalem above, the delight of my dwelling-place—why 
have you been taken captive by your enemy the serpent, 
twisted, crooked, and perverse, to whom God has given neither 
hands nor feet? And crooked is his going, since he is the 
son of the wicked one; for his father is death, and his mother 
corruption, and ruin is in his body. Do not go then into his 
destruction ; for you are in bondage by the unbelief and decep- 
tion of his son, who is without order, and has no substance ;* 
formless, and has no form in the whole creation, either in the 
heaven or in the earth, or among the fishes that are in the 
waters. But if you see him, flee from him, since he has no 
resemblance to men: his dwelling is the abyss, and he walks 
in darkness. Flee, then, from him, that his venom may not be 
poured out upon you: if his venom be poured out upon your 
body, you walk in his wickedness. But remain rather in the 
true worship, being faithful, reverent, and good, without guile. 
Flee from Satan the dragon, and remove from you his wicked 
seed, namely desire, by which he begets disease in the soul, 
which is the venom of the serpent. For desire is of the ser- 
pent from the beginning, and she it is who arms herself against 
the faithful; for she came forth out of the darkness, and re- 
turns to the darkness. You ought therefore, after coming to 
us, or rather through us to God, to throw out the venom of the 
devil from your bodies. 

And as the apostle was saying this, behold, Ni icanora came 
forth from her house, and went with her slaves into the house 
of Stachys. And when she came near the door of the house, 
behold, Mariamme spoke to her in the Syriac language: Helt- 


δ os 
UTocTaciy, 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 527 


komacei, kosma, etaa, mariacha. And she explained her words, 
saying: O daughter of the Spirit, thou art my lady, who hast 
been given in pledge to the serpent; but I have come to de- 
liver thee: I shall break thy bonds, and cut them from their 
root. Behold, the Deliverer that frees thee has come: behold, 
the Sun of Righteousness has risen to enlighten thee. 

And when she was thus speaking, the gloomy tyrant came 
running and panting. And Nicanora, who was before the door, 
heard this, and took courage before them all, crying out and 
saying: I am a Hebrew, a daughter of the Hebrews; speak 
with me in the language of my fathers, because I have heard 
your preaching, and have been cured of this my disease. I 
reverence and glorify the goodness of God, in that He hath 
made you to be utterly spoiled in this earth. 

And when she said this, the tyrant came, and took hold of 
her garments, and said: O Nicanora, did I not leave thee lying 
on the bed from thy disease? Whence, then, hast thou found 
this power and strength, so as to be able to come to these 
magicians? Unless, then, thou tell who is the healer, I shall 
punish thee most severely. And Nicanora answered, and said : 
O rearer of tyrants, cast away from thyself this tyranny, and 
forget thy wicked works, and abandon this temporary life, 
and put away vainglory, because it passes like a shadow: seek 
rather what is everlasting, and take away from thyself the 
beastly and impious work of base desire, and reject vain inter- 
course, which is the husbandry of death, the dark prison; and 
overturn the middle wall of corruption, and prepare for thyself 
a life chaste and spotless, that we may altogether live in sanc- 
tity. If, then, thou wishest me to remain with thee, I will live 
with thee in continence. 

And when the tyrant heard these words, he seized her by 
the hair of the head, and dragged her along, kicking her, and 
saying: It would be better for thee to be put to death by 
my sword, than to be seen with these foreign magicians and 
deceivers. 1 will punish thee, therefore, and put to death 
those who have deceived thee. And he turned in a rage to 
the executioners who followed him, and said: Bring me these 
impostors. And the executioners ran to the house of Stachys, 
and laid hold of Philip, and Bartholomew, and Mariamne, with 


328 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


the leopard and the kid of the goats, and dragged them along, 
and brought them. 

When the tyrant saw them, he gnashed his teeth against 
them, and said: Drag along these magicians and deceivers that 
have deceived many souls of women by saying, We are wor- 
shippers of God. And he caused thongs to be brought, and 
bound their feet. And he ordered them to be dragged along 
from the gate as far as the temple. And great multitudes came 
together to that place. And they wondered exceedingly at the 
leopard and the kid; for they were speaking like men, and 
some of the multitude believed the words of the apostles. 

And the priests said to the tyrant: These men are magicians. 
And when he heard that, he burned with rage, and was filled 
with anger; and he ordered Philip, and Bartholomew, and 
Mariamne to be stripped, saying: Search them. Perhaps you 
will find their sorcery. And the executioners stripped them, 
and laid hold of Mariamne, and dragged her along, saying: 
Uncover her, that they may learn that it is a woman who fol- 
lows them. And he ordered to bring clubs and strong cords; 
and after piercing Philip’s ankles they brought hooks, and put 
the cords through his ankles, and hung him head downwards 
on a tree that was before the door of the temple; and they 
fixed pegs into the temple wall, and left him. And after bind- 
ing Bartholomew hand and foot, they extended him naked on 
the wall; and when they had stripped Mariamne, the appear- 
ance of her body was changed, and became a glass chest filled 
with light, and they could not come near her. 

And Philip spoke with Bartholomew in Hebrew: Where is 
John to-day, in the day of our need? for, behold, we are 
being delivered from our bodies. And they have laid hands on 
Mariamne beyond what is seemly, and they have scourged the 
leopard and the kid of the goats, and have set fire to the house 
of Stachys, because he took us in. Let us therefore speak, that 
fire may come down from heaven and burn them up. 

And as Philip was thus speaking, behold, John came into 
the city, and walked about the street, and asked those in the 
city: What is the commotion, and who are these men, and 
why are they punished? And they say to him: Art thou not 
of this city? And dost thou not know about these men, how 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 529 


they disturbed our houses, and the whole city? Moreover, 
they have even persuaded our wives to go away from us on the 
pretence of religion, proclaiming a foreign name, viz. Christ’s ; 
and they have also shut our temples by the sorcery they have, 
and they have put to death the serpents that are in the city 
by foreign names that we have never known. And they have 
fixed their abode in the house of Stachys the blind man, whom 
they made to recover his sight through the spittle of a woman 
who accompanies them; and it is perhaps she who has all 
the sorcery: and there accompany them a leopard and a kid, 
speaking ike men. But if ever you have seen such doings, 
you will not be put about by them. And John answered, and 
said to them: Show me them. And they brought him to the 
temple where Philip was hanging. And when Philip saw 
John, he said to Bartholomew: O my brother, behold the son 
of Barega—that is, the living water—has come. And John 
saw Philip hanging head down, tied by his ankles; and saw 
Bartholomew also bound to the temple wall. 

And he said to the men of the city: O children of the ser- 
pent, how great is your folly! for the way of deceit has deceived 
you, the wicked dragon breathing has breathed upon you: 
why do you punish these men for saying the serpent is your 
enemy ? 

And when they heard these words from John, they laid their 
hands upon him, saying: We called thee our fellow-citizen, but 
now thy speech has made thee manifest that thou also art in 
communion with them. Thou also, therefore, shalt be put to 
the same death as they, for the priests have decided thus: Let 
us drain out their blood as they hang head downward, and 
mix it with wine, and offer it to the viper. 

And when they were thus speaking, behold, Mariamne rose 
up from the place in which she was, and came back to her 
former appearance. And the priests reached forth their hands 
towards John, wishing to lay hold of him, and they could not. 
Then Philip with Bartholomew said to John: Where is Jesus, 
who enjoins upon us not to take into our own hands vengeance 
on those that torture us? for after this I will not endure 
them. And Philip spoke in Hebrew, and said: My Father 
Uthael, z.¢., O Christ, Father of majesty, whose name all the 


990 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


ages’ fear, who art powerful, and the power of the universe, 
whose name goes forth in lordship,? Eloa: Blessed art Thou to 
the ages; Thou whom dominions and powers fear, trembling 
before Thy face; King of honour! Father of majesty! whose 
name has gone forth to the wild beasts of the desert, and they 
have become quiet because of Thee, and through Thee the ser- 
pents have departed from us: Hear us before we ask. Thou 
who seest us before we call, who knowest our thoughts, the 
All-surveyor? of all, who sends forth from Himself unnumbered 
compassions ; let the abyss open its mouth, and swallow up 
these godless persons who will not accept the word of Thy 
truth. 

And in that very hour the abyss opened its mouth, and all 
that place was violently shaken, from the proconsul to all the 
multitude along with the priests ; and they were all sunk down. 
And the places where the apostles and all who were with them 
were remained unshaken, and the house of Stachys, and Nica- 
nora the tyrant’s wife, and the twenty-four wives who fled from 
their husbands, and the forty virgins who had not known men. 
These alone did not go down into the abyss, because they had 
become servants, and had received the word of God, and His 
seal; but all the rest of the city were swallowed down into the 
abyss. 

And the Saviour having appeared at that hour, said to Philip: 
Who is it that has put his hand to the plough, and has turned 
back from making the furrow straight ? or who gives his light 
to others, and himself remains sitting in darkness? or who 
dwells in the dirt, and leaves his dwelling-place to strangers ? 
or who lays down his garment, and goes out in the days of 
winter naked ? or what slave that has done his master’s service, 
shall not be called by him to supper? or who runs with zeal 
in the racecourse, and does not get the prize? Philip, behold 
my bridal chamber is ready, and blessed is he who has his 
own shining garment; for he it is who gets the crown of joy 
upon his head. Behold, the supper is ready, and blessed is he 
who is called by the bridegroom. Great is the harvest of the 
field; blessed is the able workman. 

And when Philip heard these words from the Saviour, he 


? Or, wons, 2 δυναστείᾳ. 3 ravewrionowes. 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 991 


answered and said to Him: Thou didst give us leave, O Jesus 
of Nazareth, and dost Thou not enjoin us to smite those who 
do not wish Thee to reign over them? But this we know, that 
Thy name has not been proclaimed in all the world, and Thou 
hast sent us to this city. And I did not intend to come 
into this city, and Thou didst send me, after giving me Thy 
true commandment, that I should drive away all deceit, and 
bring to nothing every idol and demon, and all the power of 
the unclean one. And when I came here, the demons fled from 
our faces through Thy name, and the dragons and the serpents 
withered away, but these men did not take to themselves Thy 
true light; and for this reason I resolved to bring them low, 
according to their folly. 

And the Saviour said: O Philip, since thou hast forsaken 
this commandment of mine, not to render evil for evil,’ for this 
reason thou shalt be debarred in the next world for forty years 
from being in the place of my promise: besides, this is the end 
of thy departure from the body in this place; and Bartholomew 
has his lot in Lycaonia, and shall be crucified there; and 
Mariamne shall lay down her body in the river Jordan. 

And the Saviour turned and stretched out His hand, and 
made the sign of the cross in the air; and it was full of light, 
and had its form after the likeness of a ladder. And all the . 
multitude of the men of the city who had gone down into the 
abyss came up upon the ladder of the cross of light, and none 
of them remained in the abyss, but only the tyrant and the 
priests, and the viper which they worshipped. And when the 
multitudes came up from the abyss, they looked and saw Philip 
hanging head down, and Bartholomew upon the wall of the 
temple, and they also found Mariamne in her first shape. And 
the Saviour went up into heaven in the sight of Philip and 
Bartholomew and Mariamne, and the leopard and the kid of 
the goats, and Nicanora and Stachys; and they all with a loud 
voice glorified God with fear and trembling, crying out: There 
is one God who has sent us His salvation, whose name these 
men proclaim: we repent therefore of the error in which we 
were before yesterday, not being worthy of eternal life; and we 
believe, having seen the wonderful things that have come to 

1 Matt. v. 89 ; 1 Pet. iii. 9. 


332 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


pass through us. And some of them threw themselves on their 
faces, and worshipped the apostles; and others made ready to 
flee, saying: There may be another earthquake like the one 
that has just happened. 

And stretching out his hands, the Apostle Philip, hanging 
head down, said: Men of the city, hear these words which 1 
am going to say to you, hanging head down. Ye have learned 
how great are the powers of God, and the wonders which you 
saw when your city was destroyed by the earthquake which 
came upon it. And this was manifest to you, that the house 
of Stachys was not destroyed, and that he did not go down into 
the abyss, because he believed on the true God, and received 
us His servants. And I, having fulfilled all the will of my God, 
am His debtor for what I requited to him that did evil to me. 

And some of those who had been baptized ran to loose Philip 
hanging head down. And he answered and said to them: 
My brethren, ...* those who are virgins in the members 
of their flesh and commit fornication in their hearts, and the 
fornication of their eyes, shall abound like the deluge. And 
they grow immoderate from listening to persuasive pleasures, 
forgetting the God of the knowledge of the gospel; and their 
hearts are full of arrogance, eating and drinking in their worship, 
forgetting the holy commandment, and despising it. That 
generation is turned aside; but blessed is he that retires into 
his retreat, for he shall obtain rest in his departure. Knowest 
thou not, Bartholomew, that the word of our Lord is true 
life and knowledge? for the Lord said to us in His teaching, 
Every one who shall look upon a woman, and lust after her in 
his heart, has completed adultery.? And on this account our 
brother Peter fled from every place in which a woman was, 

1 Here a good deal of the text is wanting. The Bodleian ms. fills up the 
blank to some extent :—Walking two and two, but let them not talk with the 
young men, lest Satan tempt them. For he is a creeping serpent, and made 
Adam be destroyed even to death. And thus shall it be again at this time, for 
the time and the season shall be wicked. Many women and men shall leave 
the work of marriage, and the women shall assume the name of virginity, but 
knowing nothing at all about it, and that it has a great and glorious seal. And 
there shall be many men in those days in word only, and not in its power ; for 
they shall observe virginity in the members of their flesh, and commit fornica- 


tion in their hearts, ete. 
4 Matt. v. 28. 


ΐ 


THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 303 


and yet there was scandal on account of his own daughter; and 
he prayed to the Lord, and she had paralysis of her side, that 
she might not be deceived. Thou seest, brother, that the sight 
of the eyes brings gainsaying, and the beginning of sin, as it is 
written,' She looked, and saw the tree, that it was pleasing 
to her eyes, and good for food, and she was deceived. Let the 
hearing, then, of the virgins be holy ; and in their going out let 
them walk two and two, for many are the wiles of the enemy. 
Let their walk and conversation be well ordered, that they may 
be saved; but if not, let their fruit be common. 

My brother Bartholomew, give these promises to Stachys, 
and appoint him ruler and bishop in the church, that he may 
be like thee, teaching well. Do not entrust the office to a man 
too young: appoint not such a one to the chair of the teachers, 
lest thou profane the witness of Christ. For he that teaches 
should have his works corresponding to his words, that the 
word may be ready on every occasion in its own glory. But 
1 am being released from my body, hanging head down. Take, 
then, my body, and prepare it for burial in Syrian paper, and 
do not put about it linen cloth, since they put it upon the body 
of our Lord, and wrap it close in paper and papyrus, and put it 
in the vestibule of the holy church. And pray over me for 
forty days, that God may forgive the transgression which I did, 
in that I requited evil to him that did evil to me, and there 
may not be for me in the world to come the forty years. 

And after thus speaking, Philip prayed, saying: My Lord 
Jesus Christ, Father of the ages, King of all light, who makest 
us wise in Thy wisdom, who hast given us the exalted know- 
ledge, who hast graciously conferred upon us the counsel of 
Thy goodness, who hast never departed from us; Thou who 
takest away disease from those who take refuge in Thee; Thou 
who hast given us the Word, to turn unto Thee those who 
have been led astray; Thou who hast given us signs and 
wonders on behalf of those of little faith ; Thou who presentest 
the crown to those who have conquered; Thou who art the 
judge of the games, who hast given us the crown of joy, who 
speakest with us, that we may be able to withstand those that 
hurt us; Thou art He who sows and reaps, and completes, and 

1 Gen. iii. 6. 


334 THE ACTS OF PHILIP. 


increases, and vivifies all Thine own servants: reproaches and 
threats are to us help and power through those who turn to 
Thee through us, who are Thy servants. Come, Lord, and give 
me the crown of victory in the presence of men. Let not their 
dark air envelope me, nor their smoke burn the shape of my 
soul, that I may cross the waters of the abyss, and not sink in 
them. My Lord Jesus Christ, let not the enemy find anything 
that he can bring against me in the presence of Thee, the true 
Judge, but clothe me in Thy shining robe, and . . . [The rest 
is wanting. | 


ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF THE HOLY 
APOSTLE ANDREW. 


z=) ἢ AT we have all, both presbyters and deacons of 
| the churches of Achaia, beheld with our eyes, we 
have written to all the churches established in the 
name of Christ Jesus, both in the east and west, 
north and south. Peace to you, and to all who believe in one 
God, perfect Trinity, true Father unbegotten, true Son only- 
begotten, true Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father, and 
abiding in the Son, in order that there may be shown one Holy 
Spirit subsisting in the Father and Son in precious Godhead. 
This faith we have learned from the blessed Andrew, the apostle 
of our Lord Jesus Christ, whose passion also we, having seen 
it set forth before our eyes, have not hesitated to give an ac- 
count of, according to the degree of ability we have. 

Accordingly the proconsul Aigeates,’ having come into the 
city of Patras, began to compel those believing in Christ to 
worship the idols; to whom the blessed Andrew, running up, 
said: It behoved thee, being a judge of men, to acknowledge 
thy Judge who is in the heaven, and having ackowledged Him, 
to worship Him; and worshipping Him who is the true God, 
to turn away thy thoughts from those which are not true gods, 

To whom Aigeates said: Art thou Andrew, who destroyest 
the temples of the gods, and persuadest men about the religion 
which, having lately made its appearance, the emperors of the 
Romans have given orders to suppress ? 

The blessed Andrew said: The emperors of the Romans have 
never recognised the truth. And this the Son of God, who 


1 Another reading is Aigeas. 
335 


336 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


came on account of the salvation of men, manifestly teaches— 
that these idols are not only not gods, but also most shameful 
demons,! and hostile to the human race, teaching men to offend 
God, so that, by being offended, He turns away and will not 
hearken; that therefore, by His turning away and not hearken- 
ing, they may be held captive by the devil; and that they might 
work them to such a degree, that when they go out of the body 
they may be found deserted and naked, carrying nothing with 
them but sins. 

f/igeates said: These are superfluous and vain words: as for 
your Jesus, for proclaiming these things to the Jews they 
nailed him to the tree of the cross. 

The blessed Andrew answering, said: Oh, if thou wouldst 
recognise the mystery of the cross, with what reasonable love 
the Author’ of the life of the human race for our restoration 
endured this tree of the cross, not unwillingly, but willingly ! 

ffigeates said: Seeing that, betrayed by his own disciple, 
and seized by the Jews, he was brought before the procurator, 
and according to their request was nailed up by the procura- 
tor’s soldiers, in what way dost thou say that he willingly 
endured the tree of the cross ? 

The holy Andrew said: For this reason I say willingly, since 
I was with Him when He was betrayed by His disciple. For 
before He was betrayed, He spoke to us to the effect that He 
should be betrayed and crucified for the salvation of men, and 
foretold that He should rise again on the third day. To whom 
my brother Peter said,® Far be it from Thee, Lord; let this 
by no means be. And so, being angry, He said to Peter, Get 
thee behind me, Satan; for thou art not disposed to the things 
of God. And in order that He might most fully explain that 
He willingly underwent the passion, He said to us,* I have 
power to lay down my life, and I have power to take it again. 
And, last of all, while He was supping with us, He said,® One 
of you will betray me. At these words, therefore, all becoming 
exceedingly grieved, in order that the surmise might be free 


from doubt, He made it clear, saying, To whomsoever I shall Ὁ 


give the piece of bread out of my hand, he it is who betrays 


1 Deut. xxxii. 17; 1 Cor. x. 20, 21. 2 Or, Prince. 
8 Matt. xvi. 22. 4 John x. 18. 6 Matt. xxvi. 21. 


> 


DS OES pert et te. 


THE HOLY APOSTLE ANDREW. 337 


me. When, therefore, He gave it to one of our fellow-disciples, 
and gave an account of things to come as if they were already 
present, He showed that He was to be willingly betrayed. For 
neither did He run away, and leave His betrayer at fault; but, 
remaining in the place in which He knew that he was, He 
awaited him. 

Egeates said: I wonder that thou, being a sensible man, 
shouldst wish to uphold him on any terms whatever; for, 
whether willingly or unwillingly, all the same, thou admittest 
that he was fastened to the cross. 

The blessed Andrew said: This is what I said, if now thou 
apprehendest, that great is the mystery of the cross, which, 
if thou wishest, as is likely, to hear, attend to me.’ 

JEgeates said: A mystery it cannot be called, but a punish- 
ment. 

The blessed Andrew said: This punishment is the mystery 
of man’s restoration. If thou wilt listen with any attention, 
thou wilt prove it. 

figeates said: I indeed will hear patiently ; but thou, unless 
thou submissively obey me, shalt receive’? the mystery of the 
cross in thyself. 

The blessed Andrew answered: If I had been afraid of the 
tree of the cross, I should not have proclaimed the glory of the 
Cross. 

fEgeates said: Thy speech is foolish, because thou pro- 
claimest that the cross is not a punishment, and through thy 
foolhardiness thou art not afraid of the punishment of death. 

The holy Andrew said: It is not through foolhardiness, but 
through faith, that 1 am not afraid of the punishment of death; 
for the death of sins’ is hard. And on this account I wish 
thee to hear the mystery of the cross, in order that thou per- 
haps, acknowledging it, mayst believe, and believing, mayst 
come somehow or other to the renewing of thy soul. 

Zégeates said: That which is shown to have perished is for 


? Another reading is: This is what I spoke of, as you know—that great is 
the mystery of the cross ; and if so be that you are willing to listen, I will 
reveal it. 

2 Perhaps we should read ἀναδείξει, shalt exhibit, for ἀναδέξει, 

3 Two mss., of sinners, 

Y 


998 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


renewing. Do you mean that my soul has perished, that thou 
makest me come to the renewing of it through the faith, 1 
know not what, of which thou hast spoken ? 

The blessed Andrew answered: This it is which I desired 
thee to learn, which also I shall teach and make manifest, 
that though the souls of men are destroyed, they shall be re- 
newed through the mystery of the cross. for the first man 
through the tree of transgression brought in death; and it was 
necessary for the human race, that through the suffering of the 
tree, death, which had come into the world, should be driven 
out. And since the first man, who brought death into the world 
through the transgression of the tree, had been produced from 
the spotless earth, it was necessary that the Son of God should 
be begotten a perfect man from the spotless virgin, that He 
should restore eternal life, which men had lost through Adam, 
and should cut off* the tree of carnal appetite through the tree 
of the cross. Hanging upon the cross, He stretched out His 
blameless hands for the hands which had been incontinently 
stretched out; for the most sweet food of the forbidden tree 
He received gall for food; and taking our mortality upon Him- 
self, He made a gift of His immortality to us. 

ZEgeates said: With these words thou shalt be able to lead 
away those who shall believe in thee; but unless thou hast 
come to grant me this, that thou offer sacrifices to the almighty 
gods, I shall order thee, after having been scourged, to be fastened 
to that very cross which thou commendest. | 

The blessed Andrew said: To God Almighty, who alone is 
true, I bring sacrifice day by day; not the smoke of incense, nor 
the flesh of bellowing bulls, nor the blood of goats, but sacrificing 
a spotless lamb day by day on the altar of the cross; and though 
all the people of the faithful partake of His body and drink 
His blood, the Lamb that has been sacrificed remains after this 
entire and alive. Truly, therefore, is He sacrificed, and truly 
is His body eaten by the people, and His blood is likewise 
drunk; nevertheless, as I have said, He remains entire, and — 
spotless, and alive. 

/Egeates said: How can this be ? 

The blessed Andrew said: If thou wouldest know, take the — 

1 Or, shut out. 


THE HOLY APOSTLE ANDREW. 999 


form of a disciple, that thou mayst learn what thou art inquir- 
ing after. 

Egeates said: I will exact of thee through tortures the gift 
of this knowledge. 

The blessed Andrew declared: I wonder that thou, being an 
intelligent man, shouldest fall into* the folly of thinking that 
thou mayst be able to persuade me, through thy tortures, to 
disclose to thee the sacred things of God. Thou hast heard the 
mystery of the cross, thou hast heard the mystery of the sacri- 
fice. If thou believest in Christ the Son of God, who was 
crucified, I shall altogether disclose to thee in what manner 
the Lamb that has been slain may live, after having been 
sacrificed and eaten, remaining in His kingdom entire and 
spotless. 

fégeates said: And by what means does the lamb remain in 
his kingdom after he has been slain and eaten by all the people, 
as thou hast said ? | 

The blessed Andrew said: If thou believest with all thy 
heart, thou shalt be able to learn; but if thou believest not, 
thou shalt not by any means attain to the idea of such truth. 

Then Aigeates, enraged, ordered him to be shut up in prison, 
where, when he was shut up, a multitude of the people came 
together to him from almost all the province, so that they 
wished to kill A‘geates, and by breaking down the doors of the 
prison to set free the blessed Andrew the apostle. 

Them the blessed Andrew admonished in these words, saying: 
Do not stir up the peace of our Lord Jesus Christ into seditious 
and devilish uproar. For my Lord, when He was betrayed, 
endured it with all patience; He did not strive, He did not 
ery out, nor in the streets did any one hear Him crying out.’ 
Therefore do ye also keep silence, quietness, and peace; and 
hinder not my martyrdom, but rather get yourselves also ready 
beforehand as athletes to the Lord, in order that you may over- 
come threatenings by a soul that has no fear of man, and that 
you may get the better of injuries through the endurance of 
the body. For this temporary fall is not to be feared; but that 
should be feared which has no end. The fear of men, then, is 
like smoke which, while it is raised and gathered together, dis- 

1 Lit., be rolled towards, 2 Matt. xii. 19. 


340 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


appears. And those torments ought to be feared which never 
have an end. For these torments, which happen to be some- 
what light, any one can bear; but if they are heavy, they soon 
destroy life. But those torments are everlasting, where there 
are daily weepings, and mournings, and lamentations, and 
never-ending torture, to which the proconsul Atgeates is not 
afraid to go. Be ye therefore rather prepared for this, that 
through temporary afflictions ye may attain to everlasting rest, 
and may flourish for ever, and reign with Christ.* 

The holy Apostle Andrew having admonished the people with 
these and such like words through the whole night, when the 
light of day dawned, Aigeates having sent for him, ordered the 
blessed Andrew to be brought to him; and having sat down 
upon the tribunal, he said: I have thought that thou, by thy 
reflection during the night, hast turned away thy thoughts 
from folly, and given up thy commendation of Christ, that 
thou mightst be able to be with us, and not throw away the 
pleasures of life; for it is folly to come for any purpose to the 
suffering of the cross, and to give oneself up to most shameful 
punishments and burnings. 

The holy Andrew answered: I shall be able to have joy with 
thee, if thou wilt believe in Christ, and throw away the worship 
of idols; for Christ has sent me to this province, in which I 
have acquired for Christ a people not the smallest. 

fEgeates said: For this reason I compel thee to make a 
libation, that these people who have.been deceived by thee 
may forsake the vanity of thy teaching, and may themselves 
offer grateful libations to the gods; for not even one city has 
remained in Achaia in which their temples? have not been 


forsaken and deserted. And now, through thee, let them be ~ 


again restored to the worship of the images, in order that the 
gods also, who have been enraged against thee, being pleased by 
this, may bring it about that thou mayst return to their friend- 
ship and ours. But if not, thou awaitest varied tortures, on 
account of the vengeance of the gods; and after these, fastened 
to the tree of the cross which thou commendest, thou shalt die. 

The holy Andrew said: Listen, O son of death and chaff 


made ready for eternal burnings,’ to me, the servant of God | 


1 Cf. 2 Cor. iv. 17. 2 Or, their sacred rites. 3 Cf. Matt. iii. 12. 


THE HOLY APOSTLE ANDREW. 941 


and apostle of Jesus Christ. Until now I have conversed 
with thee kindly about the perfection of the faith, in order 
that thou, receiving the exposition of the truth, being made 
perfect as its vindicator, mightst despise vain idols, and wor- 
ship God, who is in the heavens; but since thou remainest in 
the same shamelessness at last, and thinkest me to be afraid 
because of thy threats, bring against me whatever may seem to 
thee greater in the way of tortures. For the more shall I he 
well pleasing to my King, the more I shall endure in tortures 
for the confession of His name. 

Then the proconsul A®geates, being enraged, ordered the 
apostle of Christ to be afllicted by tortures. Being stretched 
out, therefore, by seven times three’ soldiers, and beaten with 
violence, he was lifted up and brought before the impious 
Egeates. And he spoke to him thus: Listen to me, Andrew, 
and withdraw thy thoughts from the outpouring of thy blood; 
but if thou wilt not hearken to me, I shall cause thee to perish 
on the tree of the cross. 

The holy Andrew said: I am a slave of the cross of Christ, 
and I ought rather to pray to attain to the trophy of the cross 
than to be afraid; but for thee is laid up eternal torment, 
which, however, thou mayst escape after thou hast tested my 
endurance, if thou wilt believe in my Christ. For I am afflicted 
about thy destruction, and I am not disturbed about my own 
suffering. for my suffering takes up a space of one day, or 
two at most; but thy torment for endless ages shall never come 
to aclose. Wherefore henceforward cease from adding to thy 
miseries, and lighting up everlasting fire for thyself. 

igeates then being enraged, ordered the blessed Andrew to 
be fastened to the cross. And he having left them all, goes 
up to the cross, and says to it with a clear voice: Rejoice, O 
cross, which has been consecrated by the body of Christ, and 
adorned by His limbs as if with pearls. Assuredly before my 
Lord went up on thee, thou hadst much earthly fear; but now 


? Another reading is, seven quaternions. 

* One of the mss. has here: Giving orders to the centurions that he should be 
bound hand and foot as if he were stretched on the rack, and not pierced with 
nails, that he might not die soon, but be tormented with long-continuing 
torture, 


942 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


invested with heavenly longing, thou art fitted up* according to 
my prayer. For I know, from those who believe, how many 
graces thou hast in Him, how many gifts prepared beforehand. 
Free from care, then, and with joy, I come to thee, that thou 
also exulting mayst receive me, the disciple of Him that was 
hanged upon thee; because thou hast been always faithful to 
me, and I have desired to embrace thee. O good cross, which 
hast received comeliness and beauty from the limbs of the 
Lord; O much longed for, and earnestly desired, and fervently 
sought after, and already prepared beforehand for my soul 
longing for thee, take me away from men, and restore me to 
my Master, in order that through thee He may accept me who 
through thee has redeemed me. 

And having thus spoken, the blessed Andrew, standing on 
the ground, and looking earnestly upon the cross, stripped him- 
self and gave his clothes to the executioners, having urged the 
brethren that the executioners should come and do what had 
been commanded them; for they were standing at some dis- 
tance. And they having come up, lifted him on the cross; and 
having stretched his body across with ropes, they only bound 
his feet, but did not sever his joints,” having received this order 
from the proconsul: for he wished him to be in distress while 
hanging, and in the night-time, as he was suspended, to be eaten 
up alive by dogs.® 

And a great multitude of the brethren stood by, nearly twenty 
thousand ; and having beheld the executioners standing off, and 
that they had done to the blessed (one) nothing of what those 
who were hanged up suffer, they thought that they would again 
hear something from him; for assuredly, as he was hanging, he 
moved his head smiling. And Stratocles inquired of him: 
Why art thou smiling, Andrew, servant of God? Thy laughter 
makes us mourn and weep, because we are deprived of thee. 
And the blessed Andrew answered him: Shall I not laugh at 
all, my son Stratocles, at the empty stratagem of Aigeates, 


Another reading is: I am attached to thee. 

2 The original is obscure. The meaning seems to be that he was tied only, 
not nailed. The nailing, however, seems to have been an essential part of the 
punishment of crucifixion. 

3 It was common to let Ivose wild beasts on the crucified (Sueton. Vero, 49), 


THE HOLY APOSTLE ANDREW. 948 


through which he thinks to take vengeance upon us? We 
have nothing to do with him and his plans. He cannot hear ; 
for if he could, he would be aware, having learned it by ex- 
perience, that a man of Jesus is unpunished.* 

And having thus spoken, he discoursed to them all in common, 
for the people ran together enraged at the unjust judgment of 
Jigeates: Ye men standing by me, and women, and children, 
and elders, bond and free, and as many as will hear; I beseech 
you, forsake all this life, ye who have for my sake assembled 
here; and hasten to take upon you my life, which leads to 
heavenly things, and once for all despise all temporary things, 
confirming the purposes of those who believe in Christ. And 
he exhorted them all, teaching that the sufferings of this 
transitory life are not worthy to be compared with the future 
recompense of the eternal life. 

And the multitude hearing what was said by him, did not 
stand off from the place, and the blessed Andrew continued the 
rather to say to them more than he had spoken. And so much 
was said by him, that a space of three days and nights was 
taken up, and no one was tired and went away from him. And 
when also on the fourth day they beheld his nobleness, and 
the unweariedness of his intellect, and the multitude of his 
words, and the serviceableness of his exhortations, and the sted- 
fastness of his soul, and the sobriety of his spirit, and the fixed- 
ness of his mind, and the perfection of his reason, they were 
enraged against Atgeates; and all with one accord hastened 
to the tribunal, and cried out against Aigeates, who was sitting, 
saying: What is thy judgment, O proconsul? Thou hast judged 
wickedly ; thy awards are impious. In what has the man done 
wrong? what evil has he done? The city has been put in an 
uproar; thou grievest us all; do not betray Ceesar’s city. Grant 
willingly to the Achaians a just man; grant willingly to us a 
God-fearing man; do not put to death a godly man. Four days 
he has been hanging, and is alive; having eaten nothing, he has 

* Instead of this paragraph, one Ms. has: And there ran up a great multitude, 
about twenty thousand in number, among whom was the brother of Ageas, 
Stratocles by name ; and he cried out with the people, It is an unjust judgment. 
And the holy Andrew, hitting upon the thoughts of the believers, exhorted them 


to endure the temporary trial, saying that the suffering counted for nothing 
when compared with the eternal recompense. 


944 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


filled us all. Take down the man from the cross, and we shall 
all seek after wisdom; release the man, and to all Achaia will 
mercy be shown, It is not necessary that he should suffer 
this, because, though hanging, he does not cease proclaiming the 
truth. 

And when the proconsul refused to listen to them, at first 
indeed signing with his hand to the crowd to take themselves 
off, they began to be emboldened against him, being in number 
about twenty thousand. And the proconsul having beheld that 
they had somehow become maddened, afraid that something 
frightful would befall him, rose up from the tribunal and went 
away with them, having promised to set free the blessed 
Andrew, And some went on before to tell the apostle the 
cause for which they came to the place. 

While all the crowd, therefore, was exultine that the blessed 
Andrew was going to be set free, the proconsul having come up, 
and all the brethren rejoicing along with Maximilla,’ the blessed 
Andrew, having heard this, said to the brethren standing by: 
What it is necessary for me to say to him, when I am departing 
to the Lord, that will I also say. For what reason hast thou 
again come to us, A’geates? On what account dost thou, being 
a stranger to us,? come tous? What wilt thou again dare to 
do, what to contrive? Tellus. Hast thou come to release us, 
as having changed thy mind? I would not agree with thee 
that thou hadst really changed thy mind. Nor would I believe 
thee, saying that thou art my friend. Dost thou, O proconsul, 
release him that has been bound? By no means. For I have 
One with whom I shall be for ever; I have One with whom I 
shall live to countless ages. To Him I go; to Him I hasten, 
who also having made thee known to me, has said to me, Let 
not that fearful man terrify thee; do not think that he will lay 
hold of thee, who art mine: for he is thine enemy. Therefore, 
having known thee through him who has turned towards me, 
I am delivered from thee. But if thou wishest to believe in 
Christ, there will be opened up for thee, as I promised thee, a 
way of access; but if thou hast come only to release me, I shall 
not be able after this to be brought down from this cross alive in 


* One ms. calls her the proconsul’s wife. 
? i.e, having nothing to do with us. 


THE HOLY APOSTLE ANDREW. 345 


the body. For I and my kinsmen depart to our own, allowing 
thee to be what thou art, and what thou dost not know about 
thyself. For already I see my King, already I worship Him, 
already I stand before Him, where the fellowship * of the angels 
is, where He reigns the only emperor, where there is light 
without night, where the flowers never fade, where trouble is 
never known, nor the name of grief heard, where there are 
cheerfulness and exultation that have no end. O blessed cross ! 
without the longing for thee, no one enters into that place. 
But I am distressed, A2geates, about thine own miseries, because 
eternal perdition is ready to receive thee. Run then, for thine 
own sake, O pitiable one, while yet thou canst, lest perchance 
thou shouldst wish then when thou canst not. 

When, therefore, he attempted to come near the tree of the 
cross, so as to release the blessed Andrew, with all the city 
applauding him, the holy Andrew said with a loud voice: Do 
not suffer Andrew, bound upon Thy tree, to be released, O Lord ; 
do not give me who am in Thy mystery to the shameless devil. 
O Jesus Christ, let not Thine adversary release me, who have 
been hanged by Thy favour; O Father, let this insignificant 
man no longer humble him who has known Thy greatness. 
The executioners, therefore, putting out their hands, were not 
able at all to touch him. Others, then, and others endeavoured 
to release him, and no one at all was able to come near him; 
for their arms were benumbed. 

Then the blessed Andrew, having adjured the people, said: 
I entreat you earnestly, brethren, that I may first make one 
prayer to my Lord. So then set about releasing me. All the 
people therefore kept quiet because of the adjuration. Then 
the blessed Andrew, with a loud cry, said: Do not permit, O 
Lord, Thy servant at this time to be removed from Thee; for it 
is time that my body be committed to the earth, and Thou shalt 
order me to come to Thee. Thou who givest eternal life, my 
Teacher whom I have loved, whom on this cross I confess, whom 
I know, whom I possess, receive me, O Lord; and as I have 
confessed Thee and obeyed Thee, so now in this word hearken 
to me; and, before my body come down from the cross, receive 
me to Thyself, that through my departure there may be access 


ΖΦ. e*<2 
OfOvalus, 


346 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


to Thee of many of my kindred, finding rest for themselves in 
Thy majesty. 

When, therefore, he had said this, he became in the sight of 
all glad and exulting; for an exceeding splendour like light- 
ning coming forth out of heaven shone down upon him, and 
so encircled him, that in consequence of such brightness mortal 
eyes could not look upon him at all. And the dazzling light 
remained about the space of half an hour. And when he had 
thus spoken and glorified the Lord still more, the light with- 
drew itself, and he gave up the ghost, and along with the 
brightness itself he departed to the Lord in giving Him thanks. 

And after the decease of the most blessed Andrew the 
apostle, Maximilla being the most powerful of the notable 
women,’ and continuing among those who had come, as soon 
as she learned that the apostle had departed to the Lord, came 
up and turned her attention to the cross, along with Stratocles, 
taking no heed at all of those standing by, and with reverence 
took down the body of the most blessed apostle from the cross. 
And when it was evening, bestowing upon him the necessary 
care, She prepared the body for burial with costly spices, and 
Jaid it in her own tomb. For she had been parted from 
fEgeates on account of his brutal disposition and lawless con- 
duct, having chosen for herself a holy and quiet life; and 
having been united to the love of Christ, she spent her life 
blessedly along with the brethren. 

ZEgeates had been very importunate with her, and promised 
that he would make her mistress of his wealth; but not having 
been able to persuade her, he was greatly enraged, and was 
determined to make a public charge against all the people, and 
to send to Ceesar an accusation against both Maximilla and all 
the people. And while he was arranging these things in the 
presence of his officers, at the dead of night he rose up, and 
unseen by all his people, having been tormented by the devil, 
he fell down from a great height, and rolling into the midst of 
the market-place of the city, breathed his last. 

And this was reported to his brother Stratocles; and he sent 
his servants, having told them that they should bury him 
among those who had died a violent death. But he sought 

1 Lit., females. 


—— 


THE HOLY APOSTLE ANDREW. 347 


nothing of his substance, saying: Let not my Lord Jesus Christ, 
in whom I have believed, suffer me to touch anything whatever 
of the goods of my brother, that the condemnation of him who 
dared to cut off the apostle of the Lord may not disgrace me. 

These things were done in the province of Achaia, in the city 
of Patras, on the day before the kalends of December,’ where 
his good deeds are kept in mind even to this day, to the glory 
and praise of our Lord Jesus Christ, to whom be glory for ever 
and ever. Amen.’ 

1 i.e. 30th November, St. Andrew’s day. 

2 One ms, thus ends: These things were done in the province of Achaia, in 
the city of Patras, on the day before the kalends of December ; where also his 
glorious good deeds are shown even to this day; and so great fear came upon all, 
that no one remained who did not believe in God our Saviour, who wishes all 


to be saved, and to come to the knowledge of the truth. To Him be glory to 
ages of ages. Amen. 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS’ 


IN THE CITY OF THE MAN-EATERS. 


to the same place, and shared among themselves 
the countries, casting lots, in order that each might 
geo away into the part that had fallen to him. ‘By 
lot, then, it fell to Matthias to set out to the country of the man- 
eaters. And the men of that city used neither to eat bread nor 
drink wine; but they ate the flesh of men, and drank their 
blood. Every man, therefore, who came into their city they 
laid hold of, and digging they thrust out his eyes, and gave 
him a drug to Sauk prepared by sorcery and magic; and from 
drinking the drug his heart was altered and his mind deranged. 

Matthias then having come into the gate of their city, the 
men of that city laid hold of him, and thrust out his eyes; and 
after putting them out they made him drink the drug of their 
magical deception, and led him away to the prison, and put 
beside him grass to eat, and he ate it not. Jor when he had 
partaken of their drug, his heart was not altered, nor his mind 
deranged ; but he kept praying to God, weeping, and saying: 
Lord a esus Christ, for whose sake we have forsaken all things 
and have followed Thee, knowing that Thou art the helper of 
all who hope in Thee, attend then and behold what they have 
done to Matthias Thy servant, how they have made me nigh to 
the brutes ; for Thou art He who knowest all things. If, there- 
fore, Thou hast ordained that the wicked men in this city should 
eat me up, I will not by any means flee from Thy dispensation. 
Afford to me then, O Lord, the light of mine eyes, that at least 


1 The oldest ms. has Matthias ; the four or five others have Matthew. 
348 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 349 


I may behold what the wicked men in this city have in hand 
for me; do not forsake me, O my Lord Jesus Christ, and do 
not give me up to this bitter death. 

While Matthias was thus praying in the prison, a light shone, 
and there came forth out of the light a voice saying: Beloved 
Matthias, receive thy sight. And immediately he received his 
sight. And again there came forth a voice saying: Be of good 
courage, our Matthias, and be not dismayed; for I shall not by 
any means forsake thee, for I shall deliver thee from all danger; 
and not only thee, but also all thy brethren who are with thee: 
for I am with thee everywhere and at all times. But remain 
here twenty-seven days for the edification’ of many souls; and 
after that I shall send forth Andrew to thee, and he shall lead 
thee forth out of this prison ; and not thee only, but also all who 
hear. Having said this, the Saviour said again to Matthias, 
Peace be to thee, our Matthias, and went into heaven. Then 
Matthias having beheld Him, said to the Lord: Let thy grace 
abide with me, O my Lord Jesus. 

Then Matthias therefore* sat down in the prison, and sang. 
And it came to pass that, when the executioners came into 
the prison to bring forth the men to eat them, Matthias also 
shut his eyes, that they might not behold that he saw. And 
the executioners having come to him, read the ticket in his 
hand, and said among themselves: Yet three days, and we shall 
bring out this one also from the prison, and slay him. Because 
in the case of every man whom they laid hold of, they noted 
that day on which they laid hold of him, and tied a ticket to 
his right hand, that they might know the completion of the 
thirty days. 

And it came to pass when the twenty-seven days were ful- 
filled since Matthias was seized, the Lord appeared in the 
country where Andrew was teaching, and said to him: Rise up, 
and set out with thy disciples to the country of the man-eaters, 
and bring forth Matthias out of that place; for yet three days, 
and the men of the city will bring him forth and slay him for 
their food. And Andrew answered and said: My Lord, I shall 
not be able to accomplish the journey thither before the limited 
period of the three days; but send Thine angel quickly, that he 


* Lit., economy. 2 One ms. inserts: having given thanks to God. 


350 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


may bring him out thence: for thou knowest, Lord, that I also 
am flesh, and shall not be able to go there quickly. And He 
says to Andrew: Obey Him who made thee, and Him who is 
able to say in a word, and that city shall be removed thence, 
and all that dwell in it. For I command the horns of the 
winds,’ and they drive it thence. But rise up early, and go 
down to the sea with thy disciples, and thou shalt find a boat 
upon the shore, and thou shalt go aboard with thy disciples. 
And having said this, the Saviour again said: Peace to thee, 
Andrew, along with those with thee! And He went into the 
heavens. 

And Andrew having risen up early, proceeded to the sea 
along with his disciples; and having come down to the shore, 
he saw a little boat, and in the boat three men sitting. For 
the Lord by His own power had prepared a boat, and He it 
was in human shape a pilot in the boat; and He brought two 
angels whom He made to appear like men, and they were in 
the boat sitting.? Andrew, therefore, having beheld the boat, 
and the three who were in it, rejoiced with exceeding great 
joy; and having gone to them, he said: Where are you going, 
brethren, with this little boat? And the Lord answered and 
said to him: We are going to the country of the man-eaters. 
And Andrew having beheld Jesus, did not recognise Him; for 
Jesus was hiding His Godhead, and He appeared to Andrew 
like a pilot. And Jesus having heard Andrew saying, I too 
am going to the country of the man-eaters, says to him: Every 
' man avoids that city, and how are you going there? And 
Andrew answered and said: We have some small business to 
do there, and we must get through with it; but if thou canst, 
do us this kindness to convey us to the country of the man- 
eaters, to which also you intend to go. Jesus answered and 
said to them: Come on board. 

And Andrew said: I wish to make some explanation to thee, 
young man, before we come on board thy boat. And Jesus 
said: Say what thou wilt. And Andrew said to Him: We 
have no passage-money to give thee ; we have not even bread 

1 The winds from the four quarters of the heavens. 


2 One Ms. has: And the Lord prepared a small boat, and put angels in it for 
sailors ; and Jesus was, as it were, the master of the boat. 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 901 


for our nourishment. And Jesus answered and said to him: 
How, then, are you going away without giving us the passage- 
money, and without having bread for your nourishment? And 
Andrew said to Jesus, Listen, brother; do not think that it is 
through masterfulness that we do not give thee our passage- 
money, but we are disciples of our Lord Jesus Christ, the good 
God. For He chose for Himself us twelve, and gave us such a 
commandment, saying, When you go to preach, do not carry 
money in the journey, nor bread, nor bag, nor shoes, nor staff, 
nor two coats. If, therefore, thou wilt do us the kindness, 
brother, tell us at once; if not, let us know, and we shall go 
and seek another boat for ourselves. And Jesus answered and 
said to Andrew: If this is the commandment which you re- 
ceived, and you keep it, come on board my boat with all joy. 
For I really wish you, the disciples of Him who is called Jesus, 
to come on board my boat, rather than those who give me of 
their silver and gold; for I am altogether worthy that the 
apostle of the Lord should come on board my boat. And 
Andrew answered and said: Permit me, brother, may the Lord 
grant thee glory and honour. And Andrew went on board the 
boat with his disciples. 

And having gone on board, he sat down by the boat’s sail. 
And Jesus answered and said to one of the angels: Rise and go 
down to the hold of the boat, and bring up three loaves, that the 
men may eat, lest perchance they be hungry, from having come 
to us off a long journey. And he rose and went down to the 
hold of the boat, and brought up three loaves, as the Lord com- 
manded him; and he gave them the loaves. Then Jesus said 
to Andrew: Rise up, brother, with thy friends ; partake of food, 
that you may be strong to bear the tossing of the sea. And 
Andrew answered and said to his disciples: My children, we 
have found great kindness from this man. Stand up, then, and 
partake of the nourishment of bread, that you may be strong 
to bear the tossing of the sea. And his disciples were not able 
to answer him a word, for they were in distress because of the 
sea. Then Jesus forced Andrew to partake himself also of the 
nourishment of bread along with his disciples. And Andrew 
answered and said to Jesus, not knowing that it was Jesus: 

’ Matt. x. 10; Mark vi. 9. 


902 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


Brother, may the Lord give thee heavenly bread out of His 
kingdom. Allow me then, brother; for thou seest the chil- 
dren, that they are distressed because of the sea. And Jesus 
answered and said to Andrew: Assuredly the brethren are 
without experience of the sea; but inquire of them whether 
they want to go to land, and thyself to remain, until thou 
shalt finish thy business, and again come back to them. Then 
Andrew said to his disciples: My children, do you wish to go 
to the land, and me to remain here until I shall finish my 
business for which I have been sent? And they answered and 
said to Andrew: If we go away from thee, may we become 
strangers to the good things which the Lord hath provided for 
us. Now, therefore, we are with thee, wherever thou mayst go. 
Jesus answered and said to Andrew: If thou art truly a 
disciple of Him who is called Jesus, tell thy disciples the 
miracles which thy Teacher did, that their soul may rejoice, 
and that they may forget the fear of the sea; for, behold, we are 
going to take the boat off from the land. And immediately 
Jesus said to one of the angels: Let go the boat; and he let 
go the boat from the land. And Jesus came and sat down 
beside the rudder, and steered the boat. Then Andrew ex- 
horted and comforted his disciples, saying: My children, who 
have given up your life to the Lord, fear not; for the Lord 
will not at all forsake you for ever. For at that time when I 
was along with our Lord, we went on board the boat with Him, 
and He lay down to sleep in the boat, trying us; for He was 
not’ fast asleep. And a great wind having arisen, and the 
sea being stormy, so that the waves were uplifted, and came 
under the sail of the boat, and when we were in great fear, the 
Lord stood up and rebuked the winds, and there was a calm in 
the sea; for all things feared Him, as being made by Him? 
Now, therefore, my children, fear not. For the Lord Jesus 
will not at all forsake us. And having said this, the holy 
Andrew prayed in his heart that his disciples might be led to 
sleep. And as Andrew was praying, his disciples fell asleep. 
And Andrew, turning round to the Lord, not knowing that 
it was the Lord, said to Him: Tell me, O man, and show me 
the skill of thy steering; for I have never seen any man so 
! One Ms. omits the negative. " Cf. Matt. viii. 26. 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 393 


steering in the sea as I now see thee. For sixteen years have 
Τ sailed the sea, and behold this is the seventeenth, and I have 
not seen such skill; for truly the boat is just as if on land. 
Show me then, young man, thy skill. Then Jesus answered 
and said to Andrew: We also have often sailed the sea, and 
been in danger; but since thou art a disciple of Him called 
Jesus, the sea has recognised thee that thou art righteous, and 
has become calm, and has not lifted its waves against the boat. 
Then Andrew cried out with a loud voice, saying: I thank 
Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ, that I have met a man who 
glorifies Thy name. 

And Jesus answered and said: O Andrew, tell me, thou 
disciple of Him called Jesus, wherefore the unbelieving Jews 
did not believe in Him, saying that He was not God, but man. 
Show me, O disciple of Him called Jesus; for I have heard 
that He showed His Godhead to His disciples. And Andrew 
answered and said: Truly, brother, He showed us that He was 
God. Do not think, then, that He is man. For He made the 
heaven, and the earth, and the sea, and all that is in them. 
And Jesus answered and said: How then did the Jews not 
believe Him? Perhaps He did not do miracles before them ? 
Andrew said: Hast thou not heard of the miracles which He 
did before them? He made the blind see, the lame walk, the 
deaf hear; He cleansed lepers, He changed water into wine; and 
having taken five loaves and two fishes, He made a crowd re- 
cline on the grass, and having blessed, He gave them to eat; and 
those that ate were five thousand men,’ and they were filled: 
and they took up what was over to them twelve baskets of frag- 
ments.” And after all these things they did not believe Him. 

And Jesus answered and said to Andrew: Perhaps He did 
these miracles before the people, and not before the chief 
priests, and because of this they did not believe Him. 

And Andrew answered and said: Nay, brother, He did them 
also before the chief priests, not only openly, but also in secret, 
and they did not believe Him. Jesus answered and said: 
What are the miracles which He did in secret? Disclose 
them to me. And Andrew answered and said: O man, who 
hast the spirit of inquisitiveness, why dost thou put me to the 


* One Ms. inserts, besides women and children. 2 Mark vi. 37-44. 
Z 


354 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


test ? And Jesus answered and said: I do not put thee to the 
test by saying this, O disciple of Him called Jesus; but my 
soul rejoices and exults, and not only mine, but also every soul 
that hears the wonders of Jesus. 

And Andrew answered and said: O child, the Lord shall fill 
thy soul with all joy and all good, as thou hast persuaded me 
now to relate to thee the miracles which our Lord did in secret. 

It came to pass as we, the twelve disciples, were going with 
our Lord into a temple of the Gentiles, that He might make 
known to us the ignorance of the devil, that the chief priests, 
having beheld us following Jesus, said to us, O wretches, why 
do you walk with him who says, I am the Son of God? Do 
you mean to say that God has ason? Which of you has ever 
at any time seen God associating with a woman? Is not this 
the son of Joseph the carpenter, and his mother is Mary, and 
his brothers James and Simon? And when we heard these 
words, our hearts were turned into weakness. And Jesus, 
having known that our hearts were giving way, took us into 
a desert place, and did great miracles before us, and displayed 
to us all His Godhead. And we spoke to the chief priests, say- 
ing, Come ye also, and see; for, behold, He has persuaded us. 

And the chief priests having come, went with us; and when 
we had gone into the temple of the Gentiles, Jesus showed us 
the heaven,? that we might know whether the things were 
true or not. And there went in along with us thirty men of 
the people, and four chief priests. And Jesus, having looked 
on the right hand and on the left of the temple, saw two 
sculptured sphinxes, one on the right and one on the left. 
And Jesus having turned to us, said, Behold the sign of the 
cross; for these are like the cherubim and the seraphim which 
axe in heaven. Then Jesus, having looked to the right, where 
the” sphinx was, said to it, I say unto thee, thou image of 
that which is in heaven, which the hands of craftsmen have 
sculptured, be separated from thy place, and come down, and 
answer and convict the chief priests, and show them whether 
IT am God or man. 


* Mark vi. 8. 
2 There seems to be something wrong here. One ms. has, the structure of 
the temple, and omits the following clause. 


5 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 85 


Or 


And immediately at that very time the sphinx removed from 
its place, and having assumed a human voice, said, O foolish 
sons of Israel, not only has the blinding of their own hearts 
not been enough for them, but they also wish others to be 
blind like themselves, saying that God is man, who in the 
beginning fashioned man, and put His breath into all, who 
gave motion to those things which moved not; He it is who 
called Abraham, who loved his son Isaac, who brought back 
his beloved Jacob into his land; He is the Judge of living and 
dead; He it is who prepareth great benefits for those who obey 
Him, and prepareth punishment for those who believe Him 
not. Heed not that I am an idol that can be handled; for I 
say unto you, that the sacred places of your synagogue are 
more excellent." For though we are stones, the priests have 
given us only the name of a god; and those priests who serve 
the temple purify themselves, being afraid of the demons: for 
if they have had intercourse with women, they purify them- 
selves seven days, because of their fear; so that they do not 
come into the temple because of us, because of the name which 
they have given us, that we are a god. But you, if you have 
committed fornication, take up the law of God, and go into 
the synagogue of God, and purify, and read, and do not re- 
verence the glorious words of God. Because of this, I say 
unto you, that the holy things purify your synagogues, so that 
they also become churches of His only begotten Son. The 
sphinx having said this, ceased speaking. 

And we said to the chief priests, Now it is fitting that you 
should believe, because even the stones have convicted you. 
And the Jews answered and said, By magic these stones speak, 
and do not you think that it is a god? For if you have tested 
what has been said by the stone, you have ascertained its 
deception. For where did he find Abraham, or how did he see 
him? For Abraham died many years before he was born, and 
how does he know him ? 

And Jesus, having again turned to the image, said to it, 
Because these believe not that I have spoken with Abraham, 
go away into the land of the Canaanites, and go away to the 


1 Qne ms. has: Do not say that I am a carved stone, and that you alone have 
ἃ name, and are called high priests. 


356 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


double? cave in the field of Mamre, where the body of Abraham 
is, and cry outside of the tomb, saying, Abraham, Abraham, 
whose body is in the tomb, and whose soul is in paradise, thus 
speaks He who fashioned man, who made thee from the be- 
ginning his friend, Rise up, thou and thy son Isaac, and the 
son of thy son Jacob, and come to the temples of the Jebusites, 
that we may convict the chief priests, in order that they may 
know that I am acquainted with thee, and thou with me. And 
when the sphinx heard these words, immediately she walked 
about in the presence of us all, and set out for the land of the 
Canaanites to the field of Mamre, and cried outside of the 
tomb, as God had commanded her. And straightway the 
twelve patriarchs? came forth alive out of the tomb, and 
answered and said to her, To which of us hast thou been sent ? 
And the sphinx answered and said, I have been sent to the 
three patriarchs for testimony ; but do ye go in, and rest until 
the time of the resurrection. And having heard, they went 
into the tomb and fell asleep. And the three patriarchs set 
out along with the sphinx to Jesus, and convicted the chief 
᾿ priests. And Jesus said to them, Go away to your places; and 
they went away. And He said also to the image, Go up to thy 
place ; and straightway she went up and stood in her place. 
And He did also many other miracles, and they did not believe 
Him; which (miracles), if I shall recount, thou wilt not be 
able to bear. And Jesus answered and said to him: I can 
bear it ; for 1 prudently listen to profitable words. 

And when the boat was about to come near the land, Jesus 
bent down His head upon one of His angels, and was quiet. 
And Andrew ceased speaking; and he also, reclining his head 
upon one of his disciples, fell asleep. And Jesus said to His 
angels: Spread your hands under him, and carry Andrew and 
his disciples, and go and put them outside of the city of the 
man-eaters ; and having laid them on the ground, return to me. 
And the angels did as Jesus commanded them, and the angels 
returned to Jesus: and He went up into the heavens with His 
angels, 

‘Gen. xxiii. 9, 17, following the version of the LXX. and the older inter- 
preters. 

* Not one of the twelve patriarchs was buried in Machpelah. 


| 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 397 


And when it was morning, Andrew, having awakened and 
looked up, found himself sitting on the ground; and having 
looked,’ he saw his disciples sleeping on the ground; and he 
wakened them, and said to them: Rise up, my children, and 
know the great dispensation that has happened to us, and learn 
that the Lord was with us in the boat, and we knew Him not; 
for He transformed Himself as if He were a pilot in the boat, 
and humbled Himself, and appeared to us as a man, putting us 
to the test. And Andrew, recovering himself, said: Lord, I re- 
cognised Thy excellent words, but Thou didst not manifest Thy- 
self to me, and because of this I did not know Thee. And his 
disciples answered and said to him: Father Andrew, do not think 
that we knew when thou wast speaking with Him in the boat, 
for we were weighed down by a most heavy sleep; and eagles 
came down out of the heavens, and lifted up our souls, and 
took them away into the paradise in heaven, and we saw great 
wonders. For we beheld our Lord Jesus sitting on a throne 
of glory, and all the angels round about Him. We beheld also 
Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and all the saints; and David 
praised Him with a song upon his harp. And we beheld there 
you the twelve apostles standing by in the presence of our Lord 
Jesus Christ, and outside of you twelve angels round about 
you, and each angel standing behind each of you, and they 
were like you in appearance. And we heard the Lord saying 
to the angels, Listen to the apostles in all things whatsoever 
they shall ask you. These are the things which we have seen, 
father Andrew, until thou didst awake us; and angels, who 
appeared like eagles, brought our souls into our bodies, 

Then Andrew, having heard, rejoiced with great joy that his 
disciples had been deemed worthy to behold these wonderful 
things. And Andrew looked up into heaven, and said: Ap- 
pear to me, Lord Jesus Christ ; for I know that Thou art not 
far from Thy servants. Pardon me, Lord, for what I have 
done; for I have beheld Thee as a man in the boat, and I 
have conversed with Thee as with a man. Now therefore, 
Lord, manifest Thyself to me in this place. 

And when Andrew had said this, Jesus appeared to him 
in the likeness of a most beautiful little child. And Jesus 

1 One Ms. inserts: And he saw the gate of that city. 


308 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


answered and said: Hail, our Andrew! And Andrew, having 
beheld Him, worshipped Him, saying: Pardon me, Lord Jesus 
Christ, for I saw Thee like a man on the sea, and conversed 
with Thee. What is there, then, wherein I have sinned, my 
- Lord Jesus, that Thou didst not manifest Thyself to me on the 
sea? And Jesus answered and said to Andrew: Thou hast 
not sinned, but I did this to thee because thou saidst, I shall 
not be able to go to the city of the man-eaters in three days ; 
and I have showed thee that I am able to do all things, and 
to appear to every one as I wish. Now therefore rise up, go 
into the city to Matthias, and bring him forth out of the prison, 
and all the strangers that are with him. For, behold, I show 
thee, Andrew, what thou must suffer before going into this city. 
They will heap upon thee tortures and insults, and scatter thy 
flesh in the ways and the streets, and thy blood shall flow to 
the ground, but they are not able to put thee to death; but 
endure, just as thou sawest me beaten, insulted, and crucified: 
for there are those who are destined to believe in this city. 
And having said this, the Saviour went into the heavens. 

And Andrew went into the city along with his disciples, and 
no one beheld him. And when he came to the prison, he saw 
seven warders standing at the gate guarding, and he prayed 
within himself, and they fell down and expired; and he marked 
the gate with the sign of the cross, and it opened of its own 
accord. And having gone in with his disciples, he found 
Matthias sitting and singing; and seeing him, he stood up, 
and they saluted each other with a holy kiss; and he said to 
Matthias: Brother, how hast thou been found here? For yet 
three days, and they will bring thee out to be food for them. 
Where are the great mysteries which thou hast been taught, and 
the wonderful things which we have believed? And Matthias 
said to him: Didst thou not hear the Lord saying, I shall 
send you like sheep into the midst of wolves? They straight- 
way brought me into the prison, and I prayed to the Lord; and 
He said to me, Remain here twenty-seven days, and I shall 
send thee Andrew, and he will bring thee forth out of the 
prison. And now, behold, it has come to pass as the Lord said. 

Then Andrew, having looked, saw three men shut up eating 

1 Matt. x. 16. 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 359 


erass naked; and he beat his breast, and said: Consider, O 
Lord, what the men suffer; how have they made them like the 
irrational brutes? And he says to Satan: Woe to thee, the 
devil, the enemy of God, and to thine angels, because the 
strangers here have done nothing to thee; and how hast thou 
brought upon them this punishment? how long dost thou war 
against the human race? Thou didst bring forth Adam out of 
paradise, and didst cause men to be mixed up with transgres- 
sion; and the Lord was enraged, and brought on the deluge so 
as to sweep manaway. And again hast thou made thy appear- 
ance in this city too, in order that thou mayst make those who 
are here eat men,’ that the end of them also may be in execra- 
tion and destruction, thinking in thyself that God will sweep 
away the work of His hands. Hast thou not heard that God 
said, I will not bring a deluge upon the earth?’ but if there 
is any punishment prepared, it is for the sake of taking ven- 
geance upon thee. 

Then he stood up, and Andrew and Matthias prayed; and 
after the prayer Andrew laid his hands upon the faces of the 
blind men who were in the prison, and straightway they all 
received their sight. And again he laid his hand upon their 
hearts, and their mind was changed into human reason. Then 
Andrew answered them: Rise up, and go into the lower parts 
of the city, and you shall find in the way a great fig-tree, and 
sit under the fig-tree, and eat of its fruit, until I come to you; 
but if I delay coming there, you will find abundance of food 
for yourselves: for the fruit shall not fail from the fig-tree, but 
according as you eat it shall produce more fruit, and nourish 
you, as the Lord has said. And they answered and said to 
Andrew: Go along with us, O our master, lest perchance the 
wicked men of this city again see us, and shut us up, and 
inflict upon us greater and more dreadful tortures than they 
have inflicted upon us. And Andrew answered and said to 
them: Go; for in truth I say to you, that as you go, not a 
dog shall bark with his tongue against you. And there were 
in all two hundred and seventy men and forty-nine women® 
whom Andrew released from the prison. And the men went 


1 Another ms. has: make men eat their like. * Gen. ix. 11. 
8 Two mss. have: two hundred and forty-nine men. 


360 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


as the blessed Andrew said to them; and he made Matthias 
go along with his disciples out of the eastern gate of the city. 
And Andrew commanded a cloud, and the cloud took up 
Matthias and the disciples of Andrew ; and the cloud set them 
down on the mountain where Peter was teaching,’ and they 
remained beside him. 

And Andrew, having gone forth from the prison, walked 
about in the city ; and having seen a brazen pillar, and a statue 
standing upon it, he came and sat down behind that pillar 
until he should see what should happen. And it happened 
that the executioners went to the prison to bring out the men 
for their food,’ according to the custom; and they found the 
doors of the prison opened, and the guards that guarded it 
lying dead upon the ground. And straightway they went, and 
reported to the rulers of the city, saying: We found the prison 
opened, and having gone inside we found nobody;* but we 
found the guards lying dead upon the ground. And the rulers 
having heard this, said among themselves: What, then, has 
happened? You do not mean to say that some persons have 
gone into the prison of the city, and have killed the warders, 
and taken away those that were shut up? And they spoke to 
the executioners, saying: Go to the prison, and bring the men 
that are dead, that we may eat them up to-day. And let us 
go to-morrow, and bring together all the old men of the city, 
that they may cast lots upon themselves, until the seven lots 
come, and we slay seven each day. And they shall be to us 
for food until we may choose young men, and put them in 
boats as sailors, that they may go away to the countries round 
about, and attack them, and bring some men here, that they 
may be for food to us. 

And the executioners went to the prison, and brought the 
seven men that were dead; and there was an oven built in the 
midst of the city, and there lay in the oven a large trough in 
which they killed the men, and their blood ran down into the 
trough, and they drew out of the blood and drank it. And 
they brought the men, and put them into the trough. And 
when the executioners were lifting their hands against them, 


1 Another reading is, praying. 7 i.e. to be eaten by them. 
8 Cf. Acts v. 20-25. 


= 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 361 


Andrew heard a voice, saying: Behold, Andrew, what is hap- 
pening in this city. And Andrew having beheld, prayed to 
the Lord, saying: Lord Jesus Christ, who didst order me to 
come into this city, do not suffer those in this city to do any 
evil, but let the knives go out of the hands of the wicked ones. 
And straightway the knives of the wicked men fell, and their 
hands were turned into stone. And the rulers, having seen 
what had happened, wept, saying: Woe unto us, for here are 
the magicians who have gone into the prison, and brought out 
the men; for, behold, they have bewitched these also. What, 
then, shall we do? Let us go now, and gather together the old 
men of the city, seeing that we are hungry. 

And they went and gathered them together, and found two 
hundred and seventeen; and they brought them to the rulers, 
and they made them cast lots, and the lot came upon seven 
old men. And one of those taken by lot answered and said to 
the officers: I pray you, I have for myself one son; take him, 
and slay him instead of me, and let me go. And the officers 
answered and said to him: We cannot take thy son, unless we 
bring him first to our superiors. And the officers went and 
told the rulers. And the rulers answered and said to the 
officers: If he give us his son instead of himself, let him go. 
And the officers went and told the old man. And the old man 
answered and said to them: I have also a daughter along with 
my son; take them, and kill them, only let me go. And he 
gave his children to the officers, that they might kill them. 
And the children wept to each other, and prayed the officers, 
saying: We pray you do not kill us, as we are of so small a 
size; but let us complete our size, and so kill us. For it was 
a custom in that city, and they did not bury the dead, but ate 
them up. And the officers did not hearken to the children, 
nor take pity upon them, but carried them to the trough 
weeping and praying. 

And it happened, as they were leading them away to kill 
them, that Andrew, having beheld what happened, shed tears ; 
and weeping, he looked up to heaven and said: Lord Jesus 
Christ, as Thou didst hear me in the case of the dead men, and 
didst not suffer them to be eaten up, so also now hear me, that 
the executioners may not inflict death upon these children, but 


362 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


that the knives may be loosened out of the hands of the execu- 
tioners.1 And straightway the knives were loosened, and fell 
out of the hands of the executioners. And when this came to 
pass, the executioners, having beheld what had happened, were 
exceedingly afraid. And Andrew, seeing what had happened, 
glorified the Lord because He had listened to him in every 
work. 

And the rulers, having beheld what had happened, wept with 
a great weeping, saying: Woe unto us! what are we to do? 
And, behold, the devil appeared in the likeness of an old man, 
and began to say in the midst of all: Woe unto you! because 
you are now dying, having no food; what can sheep and oxen 
do for you? They will not at all be enough for you. But rise 
up, and make a search here for one who has come to the city, 
a stranger named Andrew, and kill him; for if you do not, he 
will not permit you to carry on this practice longer: for it was 
he who let loose the men out of the prison. Assuredly the 
man is in this city, and you have not seen* him. Now, there- 
fore, rise and make search for him, in order that henceforward 
you may be able to collect your food. 

And Andrew saw the devil, how he was talking to the multi- 
tudes; but the devil did not see the blessed Andrew. Then 
Andrew answered the devil, and said: O Belial most fiendish, 
who art the foe of every creature;* but my Lord Jesus Christ 
will bring thee down to the abyss. And the devil, having heard 
this, said: I hear thy voice indeed, and I know thy voice, but 
where thou art standing I know not. And Andrew answered 
and said to the devil: Why, then, hast thou been called 
Amael?* is it not because thou art blind, not seeing all the 
saints? And the devil, having heard this, said to the citizens : 
Look round now for him speaking to me, for he is the man. 
And the citizens, having run in different directions, shut the 
gates of the city, and searched for the blessed one, and did not 
see him.’ Then the Lord showed Himself to Andrew, and said 


1 One ms. adds: like wax before fire. 2 Or, do not know. 

3 One Ms. has: Thou art always warring against the race of the Christians. 

4 One of the mss. has Samael. 

5 One ms. adds: And Andrew answered and said: O Belial! foe of the whole 
creation, thou hast always been a robber, warring against the race of men. thou 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 363 


to him: Andrew, rise up and show thyself to them, that they 
may learn my power, and the powerlessness of the devil working 
in them. 

Then Andrew rose up, and said in presence of all: Behold, I 
am Andrew whom you seek. And the multitudes ran upon 
him, and laid hold of him, saying: What thou hast done to us, 
we also will do to thee. And they reasoned among themselves, 
saying: By what death shall we kill him? And they said to 
each other: If we take off his head, his death is not torture ; 
and if we burn him, he will not be for food to us. Then one 
of them, the devil having entered into him, answered and said 
᾿ς to the multitudes: As he has done to us, so let us also do to 
him. Let us rise up, then, and fasten a rope to his neck, and 
drag him through all the streets and lanes of the city; and 
when he is dead, we shall share his body. And they did as 
he said to them; and having fastened a rope round his neck, 
they dragged him through all the streets and lanes of the city, 
and the flesh of the blessed Andrew stuck to the ground, and 
his blood flowed to the ground lke water. And when it was 
evening they cast him into the prison, having bound his hands 
behind him; and he was in sore distress. 

And in the morning again they brought him out, and having 
fastened a rope round his neck, they dragged him about; and 
again his flesh stuck to the ground, and his blood flowed. And 
the blessed one wept and prayed, saying: Do not forsake me, 
my Lord Jesus Christ; for I know that Thou art not far from 
Thy servants. And as he was praying, the devil walked be- 
hind, and said to the multitudes: Strike him on the mouth, 
that he may not speak.’ 

And when it was evening they took him again to the prison, 
having bound his hands behind him, and left him till the 
morrow again. And the devil having taken with himself seven 
demons * whom the blessed one had cast out of the countries 
round about, and having gone into the prison, they stood before 
him, wishing to kill him. And the demons answered and said 


in the beginning didst cause Adam to be cast out of paradise ; thou didst cause 
the loaves upon the table to be turned into stones ; and again thou hast appeared 
in this city, to cause the people here to eat up men. 

1 Cf. Acts xxiii. 2. 2 Cf. Matt. xii. 45. 


364 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


to Andrew: Now hast thou fallen into our hands; where is 
thy glory and thy exultation, thou that raisest thyself up 
against us, and dishonourest us, and tellest our doings to the 
people in every place and country, and hast made our work- 
shops and our temples to become desolate, in order that sacri- 
fices may not be brought to them? Because of this, then, we 
shall also kill thee, like thy teacher called Jesus, and John 
whom Herod beheaded.’ 

And they stood before Andrew, wishing to kill him; and 
having beheld the seal upon his forehead which the Lord gave 
him, they were afraid, and did not come near him, but fled. 
And the devil said to them: Why have you fled from him, my ° 
children, and not killed him? And the demons answered and 
said to the devil: We cannot kill him, but kill him if thou art 
able; for we knew him before he came into the distress of his 
humiliation. Then one of the demons answered and said: We 
cannot kill him, but come let us mock him in the distress of 
his humiliation. And the demons came and stood before him, 
and scoffed at him. And the blessed one hearing, wept; and 
there came to him a voice saying: Andrew, why weepest thou ? 
And it was the voice of the devil changed. And Andrew 
answered and said: I am weeping because God commanded 
me, saying, Be patient toward them. And the devil said: If 
thou canst do anything, do it. And Andrew answered and 
said: Is it for this, then, that you do these things to me? But 
forbid it that I should disobey the commandment of my Lord; 
for if the Lord shall make for me a charge? in this city, I 
shall chastise you as you deserve. And having heard this, 
they fled. 

And when it was morning they brought him out again, and 
having fastened a rope about his neck, they dragged him; and 
again his flesh stuck to the ground, and his blood flowed to 
the ground like water. And the blessed one, as he was being 
dragged along, wept, saying: Lord Jesus Christ, be not dis- 
pleased with me; for Thou knowest, Lord, what the fiend has 
inflicted upon me, along with his demons. These tortures are 


τ One ms. adds: And the devil answered and said to the seven wicked demons, 
My children, kill him that dishonours us, 
Or, a bishopric, 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 365 


enough, my Lord; for, behold, I am dragged about for three 
days. But do Thou, Lord, remember that Thou wast three 
hours upon the cross, and didst cry out to the Father, My 
Father, why hast Thou forsaken me?* Where are Thy words, 
Lord, which Thou spakest to us, confirming us, when we 
walked about with Thee, saying to us, Ye shall not lose one 
hair?? Consider, then, Lord, what has become of my flesh, and 
the hairs of my head. Then Jesus said to Andrew: O our 
Andrew, the heaven and the earth shall pass away, but my 
words shall not pass away.* Turn thyself then, Andrew, and 
behold thy flesh that has fallen, and thy hair, what has become 
of them. And Andrew turned, and saw great trees springing 
up, bearing fruit; and he glorified God. 

And when it was evening they took him up again, and cast 
him into the prison, having bound his hands behind him ; and 
he was exceedingly exhausted. And the men of the city said 
among themselves: Perhaps he dies in the night, and we do 
not find him alive on the following day; for he was languid, 
and his flesh was spent. 

And the Lord appeared in the prison, and having stretched 
out His hand, said to Andrew: Give me thy hand, and rise up 
whole. And Andrew, having beheld the Lord Jesus, gave Him 
his hand, and rose up whole. And falling down, he worshipped 
Him, and said: I thank Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ, that 
Thou hast speedily brought help to me. And Andrew, having 
looked into the middle of the prison, saw a pillar standing, and 
upon the pillar there stood an alabaster statue. And Andrew, 
having gone up to the statue, unfolded his hands seven times, 
and said to the pillar, and the statue upon it: Fear the sign of 
the cross, which the heaven and the earth dread; and let the 
statue set upon the pillar bring up much water through its 
mouth, until all who are in this city be punished. And say 
not, I am stone, and am not worthy to praise the Lord, for the 
Lord fashioned us from the earth; but you are pure, because 
that out of you He gave the tables of the law.* | When the 


1 Matt. xxvii. 46. 2 Cf. Matt. x. 30. 3 Matt. v. 18. 

* One Ms. has: Yea, for assuredly you have been honoured; for God did not 
write the law for His people on plates of gold or silver, but on plates of stone. 
Now therefore, O statue, do this that I require of thee. 


366 ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 


blessed Andrew had said this, straightway the stone statue 
cast out of its mouth water in abundance, as if out of a canal. 
And the water stood high upon the earth; and it was exceed- 
ingly acrid, eating into the flesh of men. 

And when it was morning, the men of the city saw it, and 
began to flee, saying in themselves: Woe to us! because we 
are now dying. And the water killed their cattle and their 
children ; and they began to flee out of the city. Then Andrew 
prayed, saying: Lord Jesus Christ, in whom I have hoped that 
this miracle should come upon this city, forsake me not, but 
send Michael Thy archangel in a cloud of fire, and be a wall 
round the city, that no one may be able to escape out of the 
fire. And straightway a cloud of fire came down and encircled 
the city like a wall; and the water was as high as the neck of 
those men, and it was eating them up exceedingly. And they 
wept, saying: Woe to us! for all these things have come upon 
us because of the stranger who is in the prison. Let us go and 
release him, lest perchance we die. 

And they went out, crying with a loud voice: God of the 
stranger, take away from us this water. And the apostle knew 
that they were in great affliction, and said to the alabaster 
statue: Stop the water, for they have repented. And I say to 
thee, that if the citizens of this city shall believe, I will build 
a church, and place thee in it, because thou hast done me this 
service. And the statue ceased flowing, and no longer brought 
forth water. And the men of the city, having come out to the 
doors of the prison, cried out, saying: Have pity upon us, God 
of the stranger, and do not according to our unbelief, and 
according to what we have done to this man, but take away 
from us this water. And Andrew came forth out of the prison ; 
and the water ran this way and that from the feet of the 
blessed Andrew. Then all the multitude seeing him, all cried 
out: Have pity upon us. 

And the old man having come who gave up his children 
that they should slay them instead of him, prayed at the feet 
of the blessed Andrew, saying: Have pity upon me. And the 
holy Andrew answered and said to the old man: I wonder how 
thou sayest, Have pity upon me; for thou hadst no pity upon 
thy children, but gavest them up to be slain instead of thee. 


ACTS OF ANDREW AND MATTHIAS. 367 


Therefore I say unto thee, At what hour this water goes away, 
into the abyss shalt thou go, with the fourteen * executioners 
who slay the men every day. And he came to the place of the 
trough, where they used to slay the men. And the blessed 
one, having looked up to heaven, prayed before all the multi- 
tude ; and the earth was opened, and swallowed up the water, 
along with the old man. He was carried down into the abyss, 
with the executioners. And the men, having seen what had 
happened, were exceedingly afraid, and began to say: Woe 
unto us! because this man is from God; and now he will kill 
us because of the afflictions which we have caused him. For, 
behold, what he said to the executioners and the old man has 
befallen them. Now, therefore, he will command the fire, and it 
will burn us. And Andrew, having heard, said to them: Fear 
not, children ; for I shall not send these also to Hades; but 
those have gone, that you may believe in our Lord Jesus Christ. 

Then the holy Andrew ordered to be brought up all who had 
died in the water. And they were not able to bring them ; for 
there had died a great multitude both of men, and women, and 
children, and cattle. 

Then Andrew prayed, and they all came to life. And after 
these things he drew a plan of a church, and he caused the 
church to be built. And he baptized them, and gave them the 
ordinances of our Lord Jesus Christ, saying to them: Stand by 
these, in order that you may know the mysteries of our Lord 
Jesus Christ. And they all prayed him: We pray thee, stay 
with us a few days, that we may be filled with thy fountain, 
because we are newly planted.? And he did not comply with 
their request, but said to them: I shall go first to my disciples. 
And the children followed after weeping and praying, with the 
men; and they cast ashes*® upon their heads. And he did not 
comply with them, but said: I shall go to my disciples, and 
after that I shall come again to you. And he went his way. 

And the Lord Jesus came down, being like a comely little 
child, and met Andrew, and said: Andrew, why hast thou 
come out and left them without fruit, and hast not had com- 
passion upon the children that followed after thee, and the 
men entreating thee, Stay with us a few days? For the cry of 

1 One ms. has, four. 22,6, neophytes. 3 Or, dust. 


368 ACTS OF PETER AND ANDREW. 


them and the weeping has come up to heaven. Now therefore 
return, and go into the city, and remain there seven days, until 
I shall confirm their souls in the faith; and then thou shalt 
go away into the country of the barbarians, thou and thy dis- 
ciples. And after going into this city, thou shalt proclaim my 
gospel, and bring up the men who are in the abyss. And thou 
shalt do what I command thee. 

Then Andrew turned and went into the city, saying: I thank 
Thee, my Lord Jesus Christ, who wishest to save every soul, 
that Thou hast not allowed me to go forth out of this city in 
mine anger. And when he had come into the city, they, seeing 
him, rejoiced with exceeding great joy. And he stayed there 
seven days, teaching and confirming them in the Lord Jesus 
Christ. And the seven days having been fulfilled, it came to 
pass, while the blessed Andrew was going out, all came to- 
gether to him, from the child even to the elder, and sent him 
on his way, saying: There is one God, (the God) of Andrew, 
and one Lord Jesus Christ, who alone doeth wonders ; to whom ὦ 
be glory and strength for ever. Amen. 


ACTS OF PETER AND ANDREW. 
FROM A BODLEIAN MS. 
Acts of the Holy Apostles Peter and Andrew. 


It came to pass when Andrew the apostle of Christ went 
forth from the city of the man-eaters, behold a luminous cloud 
snatched him up, and carried him away to the mountain where 
Peter and Matthew and Alexander were sitting. And when 
he saw them, they saluted him with great joy. Then Peter 
says to him: What has happened to thee, brother Andrew ? 
Hast thou sown the word of truth in the country of the man- 


1 One ms. adds: With the Father, and the Son, and the all-holy and good 
and life-giving and holy Spirit. Another ms. ends thus: Then the Apostle 
Andrew wished to go out again to preach. And they assembled from small to 
great of them, and said: [There is] one God and Father of all, one Lord, one 
faith, one baptism, which we have been taught by our father Andrew, the first 
called in (or by) Christ Jesus our Lord ; to whom be glory for ever. Amen. 


ACTS OF PETER AND ANDREW. 369 


eaters or not? Andrew says to him: Yes, father Peter, through 
thy prayers; but the men of that city have done me many 
mischiefs, for they dragged me through their street three days, 
so that my blood stained the whole street. Peter says to him: 
Be a man in the Lord, brother Andrew, and come hither, and 
rest from thy labour. For if the good husbandman laboriously 
till the ground, it will also bear fruit, and straightway all his 
toil will be turned into joy; but if he toil, and his land bring 
forth no fruit, he has double toil. 

And while he was thus speaking, the Lord Jesus Christ ap- 
peared to them in the form of a child, and said to them: Hail, 
Peter, bishop of the whole of my church! hail, Andrew! My 
co-heirs, be courageous, and struggle for mankind; for verily 1 
say unto you, you shall endure toils in this world for mankind. 
[But be bold; I will give you rest] in one hour of repose in 
the kingdom of my Father. Arise, then, and go into the city 
of the barbarians, and preach in it; and I will be with you in 
the wonders that shall happen in it by your hands. And the 
Lord Jesus, after saluting them, went up into the heavens in 
glory. 

And Peter, and Andrew, and Alexander, and Rufus, and 
~Matthias, went into the city of the barbarians. And after they 
had come near the city, Andrew answered and said to Peter: 
Father Peter, have we again to undergo toils in this city, as in 
the country of the man-eaters? Peter says to him: I do not 
know. But, behold, there is an old man before us sowing in 
his field: if we go up to him, let us say to him, Give us bread ; 
and if he give us bread, we may know that we are not to suffer 
in this city ; but if he say to us, We have no bread, on the other 
hand, we shall know that suffering again awaits us. And when 
they came up to the old man, Peter says to him: Hail, farmer! 
And the farmer says to them: Hail you too, merchants! Peter 
says to him: Have you bread to give to these children, for we 
have been in want? The old man says to them: Wait a little, 
and look after the oxen, and the plough, and the land, that I 
may go into the city, and get you loaves. Peter says to him: 
If you provide hospitality for us, we shall look after the cattle 
and the field. The old man says: So beit. Peter says to him: 


Are the oxen your own? The old man says: No; I have them 
2A 


370 ACTS OF PETER AND ANDREW. 


on hire. Peter says to him: Go into the city. And the old 
man went into the city. And Peter arose, and girded up his 
cloak and his under-garment, and says to Andrew: It is ποῦ. 
right for us to rest and be idle; above all, when the old man is 

working for us, having left his own work. Then Peter took 

hold of the plough, and sowed the wheat. And Andrew was 

behind the oxen, and says to Peter: Father Peter, why dost 

thou bring toil upon us, especially when we have work enough 

already? Then Andrew took the plough out of Peter’s hand, 

and sowed the wheat, saying: O seed cast into the ground in 

the field of the righteous, come up, and come to the light. Let 

the young men of the city therefore come forth, whom I found 

in the pit of destruction until to-day; for, behold, the apostles 

of Christ are coming into the city, pardoning the sins of those 

who believe in them, and healing every disease, and every sick- 

ness. Pray ye for me, that He may have mercy upon me, and 
that I may be delivered from this strait. 

And many of the multitude believed in Christ, because of 
the saying of the woman ;* and they fell at the feet of the 
apostles, and adored them. And they laid their hands upon 
them. And they healed those in the city that were sick, and 
gave sight to the blind and hearing to the deaf, and drove out 
the demons. All the multitude glorified the Father, and the 
Son, and the Holy Spirit. 

And there was a certain rich man in the city, by name 
Onesiphorus. He, having seen the miracles done by the apostles, 
says to them: If I believe in your God, can I also do a miracle 
like you? Andrew says to him: If thou wilt forsake all that 
belongs to thee, and thy wife and thy children, as we also have 
done, then thou also shalt do miracles. When Onesiphorus 
heard this, he was filled with rage, and took his scarf and threw 
it over Andrew’s neck, and struck him, and said to him: Thou 
art a sorcerer. How dost thou force me to abandon my wife, 
and my children, and my goods? Then Peter, having turned 
and seen him striking Andrew, says to him: Man, stop now 
striking Andrew. Onesiphorus says to him: I see that thou 
art more sensible than he. Do thou then tell me to leave my | 
wife, and my children, and my goods. What dost thou say ? 


1 Something seems to have fallen out here. 


ACTS OF PETER AND ANDREW. 371 


Peter says to him: One thing I say unto thee: It is easier for 
a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man 
to go into the kingdom of heaven.* When Onesiphorus heard 
this, he was even more filled with rage and anger, and took his 
scarf off the neck of Andrew, and threw it upon the neck of 
Peter; and so he dragged him along, saying: Verily thou art 
a great sorcerer, more than the other; for a camel cannot go 
through the eye of a needle. But if thou wilt show me this 
miracle, I will believe in thy God; and not only I, but also 
the whole city. But if not, thou shalt be grievously punished 
in the midst of the city. And when Peter heard this, he was 
exceedingly grieved, and stood and stretched forth his hands 
towards heaven, and prayed, saying: O Lord our God, listen 
to me at this time; for they will ensnare us from Thine own 
words: for no prophet has spoken to set forth this his explana- 
tion, and no patriarch that we might learn the interpretation of 
it; and now we seek for ourselves the explanation with bold- 
ness. Do Thou then, Lord, not overlook us: for Thou art He 
who is praised by the cherubim. 

And after he had said this, the Saviour appeared in the form 
of a child of twelve years old, wearing a linen garment; and 
He says to them: Be courageous, and tremble not, my chosen 
disciples; for I am with you always. Let the needle and the 
camel be brought. And after saying this, He went up into the 
heavens. And there was a certain merchant’ in the city who 
had believed in the Lord through the Apostle Philip; and when 
he heard of this, he ran and searched for a needle with a big eye, 
to do a favour to the apostles. "When Peter learned this, he said: 
My son, do not search for a big needle; for nothing is impos- 
sible with God: rather bring us a small needle. And after the 
needle had been brought, and all the multitude of the city were 
standing by to see, Peter looked up and saw a camel coming. 
And he ordered her to be brought. Then he fixed the needle 
in the ground, and cried out with a loud voice, saying: In the 
name of Jesus Christ, who was crucified under Pontius Pilate, 
I order thee, O camel, to go through the eye of the needle. 
Then the eye of the needle was opened like a gate, and the 
camel went through it, and all the multitude saw it. Again 

1 Matt. xix. 24, οἷο. ὦ πανταπώλης. 


372 ACTS OF PETER AND ANDREW. 


Peter says to the camel: Go again through the needle. And 
the camel went a second time. When Onesiphorus saw this, 
he said to Peter: Truly thou art a great sorcerer; but I do not 
believe unless I send and bring a camel and a needle. And he 
called one of his servants, and said to him privately: Go and 
bring me here a camel and a needle; find also a polluted 
woman, and force her to come here: for these men are sorcerers. 
And Peter having learned the mystery through the Spirit, says 
to Onesiphorus: Send and bring the camel, and the woman, 
and the needle. And when they brought them, Peter took the 
needle, and fixed it in the ground. And the woman was sitting 
on the camel. Then Peter says: In the name of our Lord 
Jesus Christ the crucified, I order thee, O camel, to go through 
this needle. And immediately the eye of the needle was 
opened, and became like a gate, and the camel went through 
it. Peter again says to the camel: Go through it again, that 
all may see the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ, in order that 
some may believe on Him. Then the camel again went through 
the needle. And Onesiphorus seeing it, cried out, and said: 
Truly great is the God of Peter and Andrew, and I from this 
time forth believe in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ. Now 
then, hear my words, Ὁ Peter. I have corn lands, vineyards, 
and fields; I have also twenty-seven pounds of gold, and fifty 
pounds of silver; and I have very many slaves. I give my 
possessions to the poor, that I also may do one miracle like 
you. And Peter was grieved lest the powers should not work 
in him, seeing that he had not received the seal in Christ. 
And while he was considering this, behold, a voice out of the 
heaven saying to him:*Do to him what he wishes, because I 
will accomplish for him what he desires. Peter says to him: 
My son, come hither; do as we do. And Onesiphorus came 
up, and stood before the camel and the needle, and said: In the 
n... (Here the Ms. ends.) 


ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF ST. MATTHEW 
THE APOSTLE. 


Rete, DOUT that time Matthew, the holy apostle and 
evangelist of Christ, was abiding in the mountain 
resting, and praying in his tunic and apostolic robes 
without sandals; and, behold, Jesus came to Mat- 
thew in the likeness of the infants who sing in paradise, and 
said to him: Peace to thee, Matthew! And Matthew having 
gazed upon Him, and not known who He was, said: Grace to 
thee, and peace, O child highly favoured! And why hast thou 
come hither to me, having left those who sing in paradise, 
and the delights there? Because here the place is desert; and 
what sort of a table I shall lay for thee, O child, I know not, 
because I have no bread nor oil in a jar. Moreover, even 
the winds are at rest, so as not to cast down from the trees to 
the ground anything for food; because, for the accomplishing 
of my fast of forty days, I, partaking only of the fruits falling 
by the movement of the winds, am glorifying my Jesus. Now, 
therefore, what shall I bring thee, beautiful boy? There is not 
even water near, that I may wash thy feet. 

And the child said: What sayest thou, O Matthew? Under- 
stand and know that good discourse is better than a calf, and 
words of meekness better than every herb of the field, and a 
sweet saying as the perfume of love, and cheerfulness of coun- 
tenance better than feeding, and a pleasant look is as the 
appearance of sweetness. Understand, Matthew, and know 
that I am paradise, that I am the comforter, I am the power of 
the powers above, I the strength of those that restrain them- 
selves, I the crown of the virgins, I the self-control of the once 
married, I the boast of the widowed, I the defence of the 

373 


374 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


infants, I the foundation of the church, I the kingdom of the 
bishops, I the glory of the presbyters, I the praise of the 
deacons. Be a man, and be strong, Matthew, in these words. 
And Matthew said: The sight of thee has altogether de- 
lighted me, O child; moreover also, thy words are full of life. 
For assuredly thy face shines more than the lightning, and 
thy words are altogether most sweet. And that indeed I saw 
thee in paradise when thou didst sing with the other infants 
who were killed in Bethlehem, I know right well; but how 
thou hast suddenly come hither, this altogether astonishes me. 
But I shall ask thee one thing, O child: that impious Herod, 
where is he? The child says to him: Since thou hast asked, 
hear his dwelling-place. He dwells, indeed, in Hades; and 
there has been prepared for him fire unquenchable, Gehenna 
without end, bubbling mire, worm that sleeps not,’ because 
he cut off three’ thousand infants, wishing to slay the child 
Jesus, the ancient of the ages; but of all these ages I am 
father. Now therefore, O Matthew, take this rod of mine, and 
co down from the mountain, and go into Myrna, the city of the 
man-eaters, and plant it by the gate of the church which thou® 
and Andrew founded; and as soon as thou hast planted it, it 
shall be a tree, great and lofty and with many branches, and 
its branches shall extend to thirty cubits, and of each single 
branch the fruit shall be different both to the sight and the 
eating,* and from the top of the tree shall flow down much 
honey; and from its root there shall come forth a great foun- 
tain, giving drink to this country round about, and in it 
creatures that swim and creep; and in it the man-eaters shall 
wash themselves, and eat of the fruit of the trees of the vine 
and of the honey; and their bodies shall be changed, and their 
forms shall be altered so as to be like those of other men; and 
they shall be ashamed of the nakedness of their body, and they 
shall put on clothing of the rams of the sheep, and they shall 
no longer eat unclean things; and there shall be to them fire 
in superabundance, preparing the sacrifices for offerings, and 


1 Or, that dies not. 3 The other ms. has, eleven. 

8 In some of the mss. of the previous book the name of Matthew appears in 
place of that of Matthias—Matthaios for Mattheias, 

* Cf. Rev. xxii. 2. 


 ——— — ————OeeEeEeeEeEis-—S—“‘“‘ié;OSOCCC 


-- 


a a a ei eee 
. 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 375 


they shall bake their bread with fire; and they shall see each 
other in the likeness of the rest of men, and they shall acknow- 
ledge me, and glorify my Father who is in the heavens. Now 
therefore make haste, Matthew, and go down hence, because 
the departure from thy body through fire is at hand, and the 
crown of thy endurance. 

And the child having said this, and given him the rod, was 
taken up into the heavens. And Matthew went down from 
the mountain, hastening to the city. And as he was about to 
enter into the city, there met him Fulvana the wife of the 
king, and his son Fulvanus and his wife Erva, who were pos- 
sessed by an unclean spirit, and cried out shouting: Who has 
brought thee here again, Matthew? or who has given thee the 
rod for our destruction ? for we see also the child Jesus, the 
Son of God, who is with thee. Do not go then, O Matthew, to 
plant the rod for the food, and for the transformation of the 
man-eaters; for I have found what I shall do to thee. For 
since thou didst drive me out of this city, and prevent me from 
fulfilling my wishes among the man-eaters, behold, I will raise 
up against thee the king of this city, and he will burn thee 
alive. And Matthew, having laid his hands on each one of 
the demoniacs, put the demons to flight, and made the people 
whole; and they followed him. 

And thus the affair being made manifest, Plato the bishop, 
having heard of the presence of the holy Apostle Matthew, met 
him with all the clergy; and having fallen to the ground, they 
kissed his feet. And Matthew raised them, and went with them 
into the church, and the child Jesus was also with him. And 
Matthew, having come to the gate of the church, stood upon 
a certain lofty and immoveable stone; and when the whole 
city ran together, especially the brethren who had believed, 
began to say: Men and women who appear in our sight, here- 
tofore believing in the universe,’ but now knowing Him who 
has upheld and made the universe; until now worshipping 
the Satyr, and mocked by ten thousand false gods, but now 
through Jesus Christ acknowledging the one and only God, Lord, 
Judge ; who have laid aside the immeasurable greatness of evil, 
and put on love, which is of like nature with affectionateness, 

* The other Ms. has: heretofore worshipping every evil thing, 


970 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


towards men; once strangers to Christ, but now confessing Him 
Lord and God; formerly without form, but now transformed 
through Christ ;—behold, the staff which you see in my hand, 
which Jesus, in whom you have believed and will believe, gave — 
me; perceive now what comes to pass through me, and acknow- 
ledge the riches of the greatness which He will this day make 
for you. For, behold, I shall plant this rod in this place, and 
it shall be a sign to your generations, and it shall become a 
tree, great and lofty and flourishing, and its fruit beautiful to 
the view and good to the sight; and the fragrance of perfumes 
shall come forth from it, and there shall be a vine twining 
round it, full of clusters; and from the top of it honey com- 
ing down, and every flying creature shall find covert in its 
branches ; and a fountain of water shall come forth from the 
root of it, having swimming and creeping things, giving drink 
to all the country round about. 

And having said this, and called upon the name of the Lord 
Jesus, he fixed his rod in the ground, and straightway it sprung 
up to one cubit; and the sight was strange and wonderful. 
For the rod having straightway shot up, increased in size, and 
grew into a great tree, as Matthew had said. And the apostle 
said: Go into the fountain and wash your bodies in it, and 
then thus partake both of the fruits of the tree, and of the vine 
and the honey, and drink of the fountain, and you shall be 
transformed in your Jikeness to that of men; and after that, 
having gone into the church, you will clearly recognise that 
you have believed in the living and true God. And having 
done all these things, they saw themselves changed into the 
likeness of Matthew; then, having thus gone into the church, 
they worshipped and glorified God. And when they had been 
changed, they knew that they were naked; and they ran in 
haste each to his own house to cover their nakedness, because 
they were ashamed. 

And Matthew and Plato remained in the church spending 
the night, and glorifying God. And there remained also the 
king’s wife, and his son and his wife, and they prayed the 
apostle to give them the seal in Christ. And Matthew gave 
orders to Plato; and he, having gone forth, baptized them in 
the water of the fountain of the tree, in the name of the Father, 


Ss a einer ee a («νι νι σὰν νος δον. 
> 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 377 


and the Son, and the Holy Ghost. And so thereafter, having 
gone into the church, they communicated in the holy myste- 
ries of Christ; and they exulted and passed the night, they 
also, along with the apostle, many others having also come with 
them; and all in the church sang the whole night, glorifying 
God. 

And when the dawn had fully come, the blessed Matthew, 
having gone along with the bishop Plato, stood in the place in 
which the rod had been planted, and he sees the rod grown 
into a great tree, and near it a vine twined round it, and honey 
coming down from above even to its root; and that tree was 
at once beautiful and flourishing, like the plants in paradise, 


‘and a river proceeded from its root watering’ all the land of 


the city of Myrna.’ And all ran together, and ate of the fruit 
of the tree and the vine, just as any one wished. 

And when what had come to pass was reported in the 
palace, the king Fulvanus, having learned what had been done 
by Matthew about his wife, and his son, and his daughter-in- 
law, rejoiced for a time at their purification; but seeing that 
they were inseparable from Matthew, he.was seized with rage 
and anger, and endeavoured to put him to death by fire. And 
on that night* in which the king intended to lay hands on 
Matthew, Matthew saw Jesus saying to him: I am with thee 
always to save thee, Matthew; be strong, and be a man. 

And the blessed Matthew, having awoke, and sealed himself 
over all the body, rose up at dawn, and proceeded into the 
church ; and having bent his knees, prayed earnestly. Then 
the bishop having come, and the clergy, they stood in common 
in prayer, glorifying God. And after they had ended the 
prayer, the bishop Plato said: Peace to thee, Matthew, apostle 
of Christ! And the blessed Matthew said to him: Peace to 
you! And when they had sat down, the apostle said to the 
bishop Plato, and to all the clergy: I wish you, children, to 
know, Jesus having declared it to me, that the king of this city 
is going to send soldiers against me, the devil having entered 


1 The other ms. has: having communicated in the Eucharist. 
? Or, giving drink to. 

3 The other Ms. has Smyrna. WNicephorus calls it Myrmene. 
4 Cf. Acts xviii. 9, xxiii. 11. 


378 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


into him, and manifestly armed him against us. But let us 
give ourselves up to Jesus, and He will deliver us from every 
trial, and all who have believed in Him. 

And the king, plotting against the blessed Matthew how he 
should lay hands on him, and seeing also that the believers 
were very many, was very much at fault, and was in great 
difficulty. 

Therefore the wicked and unclean devil who had come forth 
from the king’s wife, and his son, and his daughter-in-law, put 
to flight by Matthew, having transformed himself into the 
likeness of a soldier, stood before the king, and said to him: 
O king, why art thou thus put to the worse by this stranger 
and sorcerer? Knowest thou not that he was a publican, but 
now he has been called an apostle’ by Jesus, who was crucified 
by the Jews? For, behold, thy wife, and thy son, and thy 
daughter-in-law, instructed by him, have believed in him, and 
along with him sing in the church. And now, behold, Matthew 
is going forth, and Plato with him, and they are going to 
the gate called Heavy; but make haste, and thou wilt find 
dein, and thou shalt do to him all that may be — in 
thine eyes. 

The king having heard this, and being the more exasperated 
by the pretended soldier, sent against the blessed Matthew four 
soldiers, having threatened them, and said: Unless you bring 
Matthew to me, I shall burn you alive with fire; and the 
punishment which he is to undergo, you shall endure. And 
the soldiers, having been thus threatened by the king, go in 
arms to where the Apostle Matthew and the bishop Plato are. 
And when they came near them, they heard their speaking 
indeed, but saw no one. And having come, they said to the 
king: We pray thee, O king, we went and found no one, but 
only heard the voices of persons talking. And the king, being 
enraged, and having blazed up like fire, gave orders to send 
other ten soldiers—man-eaters—saying to them: Go stealthily 
to the place, and tear them in pieces alive, and eat up Matthew, 
and Plato, who is with him. And when they were about to 
come near the blessed Matthew, the Lord Jesus Christ, having 
come in the likeness of a most beautiful boy, holding a torch 

1 Or, as an apostle. 


᾿ 
| 


= 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 579 


of fire, ran to meet them, burning out their eyes. And they, 
having cried out and thrown their arms from them, fled, and 
came to the king, being speechless. 

And the demon who had before appeared to the king in the 
form of a soldier, being again transformed into the form of a 
soldier, stood before the king, and said to him: Thou seest, 
O king, this stranger has bewitched them all. Learn, then, how 
thou shalt take him. The king says to him: Tell me first 
wherein his strength is, that I may know, and then I will draw 
up against him with a great force. And the demon, compelled 
by an angel, says to the king: Since thou wishest to hear 
accurately about him, O king, I will tell thee all the truth. 
Really, unless he shall be willing to be taken by thee of his 
own accord, thou labourest in vain, and thou wilt not be able 
to hurt him; but if thou wishest to lay hands on him, thou wilt 
be struck by him with blindness, and thou wilt be paralyzed. 
And if thou send a multitude of soldiers against him, they also 
will be struck with blindness, and will be paralyzed. And we 
shall go, even seven unclean demons, and immediately make 
away with thee and thy whole camp, and destroy all the city 
with lightning, except those naming that awful and holy name 
of Christ; for wherever a footstep of theirs has come, thence, 
pursued, we flee. And even if thou shalt apply fire to him, to 
him the fire will be dew; and if thou shalt shut him up in 
a furnace, to him the furnace will be a church; and if thou 
shalt put him in chains in prison, and seal up the doors, 
the doors will open to him of their own accord, and all who 
believe in that name will go in, even they, and say, This prison 
is a church of the living God, and a holy habitation of those 
that live alone! Behold, O king, I have told thee all the truth. 
The king therefore says to the pretended soldier: Since I do 
not know Matthew, come with me, and point him out to me 
from a distance, and take from me gold, as much as thou mayst 
wish, or go thyself, and with thy sword kill him, and Plato his 
associate.” The demon says to him: I cannot kill him. I dare 
not even look into his face, seeing that he has destroyed all our 
generation through the name of Christ, proclaimed through 
hin. 
lie. monks. 2 Lit., of the same form with him. 


980 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OL 


The king says to him: And who art thou? And he says: 
I am the demon who dwelt in thy wife, and in thy son, and in 
thy daughter-in-law; and my name is Asmodzus; and this 
Matthew drove me out of them. And now, behold, thy wife, 
and thy son, and thy daughter-in-law sing along with him in 
the church. And I know, O king, that thou also after this 
wilt believe in him. The king says to him: Whoever thou 
art, spirit of many shapes, I adjure thee by the God whom he 
whom thou callest Matthew proclaims, depart hence without 
doing hurt to any one. And straightway the demon, no longer 
like a soldier, but like smoke, became invisible; and as he fled 
he cried out: O secret name, armed against us, I pray thee, 
Matthew, servant of the holy God, pardon me, and I will no 
longer remain in this city. Keep thou thine own; but I go 
away into the fire everlasting. 

Then the king, affected with great fear at the answer of the 
demon, remained quiet that day. And the night having come, 
and le not being able to sleep because he was hunery,* leaped 
up at dawn, and went into the church, with only two soldiers 
without arms, to take Matthew by craft, that he might ΚΙ] 
him. And having summoned two friends of Matthew, he said 
to them: Show to Matthew, says he, that I wish to be his dis- 
ciple. And Matthew hearing, and knowing the craft of the 
tyrant, and having been warned also by the vision of the Lord 
to him, went forth out of the church, led by the hand by Plato, 
and stood in the gate of the church. 

And they say to the king: Behold Matthew in the gate! 
And he says: Who he is, or where he is, I see not. And they 
said to him: Behold, he is in sight of thee. And he says: All the 
while I see nobody. For he had been blinded by the power of 
God. And he began to cry out: Woe to me, miserable! what 
evil has come upon me, for my eyes have been blinded, and all 
my limbs paralyzed? O Asmodeeus Beelzebul Satan ! all that 
thou hast said to me has come upon me. But I pray thee, 
Matthew, servant of God, forgive me as the herald of the good 
God; for assuredly the Jesus proclaimed by thee three days 
ago through the night appeared to me altogether resplendent 


1 The other Ms. has: For he neither ate nor drank, in his concern about these 
things. 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 981 


as with lightning, like a beautiful young man, and said to me, 
Since thou art entertaining evil counsels in the wickedness of 
thine heart in regard to my servant Matthew, know I have dis- 
closed to him that through thee will be the release of his body. 
And straightway I saw him going up into heaven. If there- 
fore he is thy God, and a true God, and if he wishes thy body 
to be buried in our city for a testimony of the salvation of the 
generations after this, and for the banishing* of the demons, I 
shall know the truth for myself by this, by thee laying on 
hands upon me, and I shall receive my sight. And the apostle 
having laid his hands upon his eyes, and saying Lphphatha, 
Jesus,” he made him receive his sight instantly. 

And straightway the king, laying hold of the apostle, and 
leading him by the right hand, brought him by craft into the 
palace ; and Plato was on Matthew’s left hand, going along with 
him, and keeping hold of him. Then Matthew says: O crafty 
tyrant, how long dost thou not fulfil the works of thy father 
the devil? And he was enraged at what had been said ; for 
he perceived that he would inflict upon him a more bitter 
death. For he resolved to put him to death by fire. And he 
commanded several executioners to come, and to lead him away 
to the place by the sea-shore, where the execution of malefac- 
tors was wont to take place, saying to the executioners : I hear, 
says he, that the God whom he proclaims delivers from fire 
those who believe in him. Having laid him, therefore, on the 
eround on his back, and stretched him out, pierce his hands 
and feet with iron nails, and cover him over with paper, having 
smeared it with dolphins’ oil, and cover him up with brimstone 
and asphalt and pitch, and (put) tow and brushwood above. 
Thus apply the fire to him ; and if any of the same tribe with 
him rise up against you, he shall get the same punishment. 

And the apostle exhorted the brethren to remain undismayed, 
and that they should rejoice, and accompany him with great 
meekness, singing and praising God, because they were deemed 


1 The word thus translated is used by the LXX. in the sense of an asylum, or 
place of refuge. 

2 Cf. Mark vii. 34. The addition of Jesus here shows that the writer did not 
know the meaning of the Aramaic word. 

ὅ Or, holding him back, 


382 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


worthy to have the relics of the apostle. Having therefore 
come to the place, the executioners, like most evil wild beasts, 
pinned down to the ground Matthew’s hands and feet with long 
nails; and having done everything as they had been bid, ap- 
plied the fire. And they indeed laboured’ closely, kindling it 
all round; but all the fire was changed into dew, so that the 
brethren, rejoicing, cried out: The only God is the Christians’, 
who assists Matthew, in whom also we have believed: the only 
God is the Christians’, who preserves His own apostle in the 
fire. And by the voice the city was shaken. And some of 
the executioners, having gone forth, said to the king: We in- 
deed, O king, by every contrivance of vengeance, have kindled 
the fire ; but the sorcerer by a certain name puts it out, calling 
upon Christ, and invoking his cross; and éhe Christians sur- 
rounding him play with the fire, and walking (in it) with naked 
feet, laugh at us? and we have fled ashamed. 

Then he ordered a multitude to carry coals of fire from the 
furnace of the bath in the palace, and the twelve gods of gold 
and silver; and place them, says he, in a circle round the sor- 
cerer, lest he may even somehow bewitch the fire from the 
furnace of the palace. And there being many executioners 
and soldiers, some carried the coals; and others, bearing the 
gods, brought them. And the king accompanied them, watch- 
ing lest any of the Christians should steal one of his gods, or 
bewitch the fire. And when they came near the place where 
the apostle was nailed down, his face was looking towards 
heaven, and all his body was covered over with the paper, and 
much brushwood over his body to the height of ten cubits. 
And having ordered the soldiers to set the gods in a circle 
round Matthew, five cubits off, securely fastened that they 
might not fall, again he ordered the coal to be thrown on, and 
to kindle the fire at all points. 

And Matthew, having looked up to heaven, cried out, 
Adonai eloi sabaoth marmari marmunth ; that is, O God the 
Father, O Lord Jesus Christ, deliver me, and burn down their 
gods which they worship; and let the fire also pursue the king 
even to his palace, but not to his destruction: for perhaps he 


1 1 should be disposed to read ἔκαιον, set fire to, for ἔκαμνον, laboured. 
* The other Ms. has : at our gods. 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 383 


will repent and be converted. And when he saw the fire to 
be monstrous in height, the king, thinking that Matthew was 
burnt up, laughed aloud, and said: Has thy magic been of any 
avail to thee, Matthew? Can thy Jesus now give thee any 
help ? 

And as he said this a dreadful wonder appeared ; for all the 
fire along with the wood went away from Matthew, and was 
poured round about their gods, so that nothing of the gold or 
the silver was any more seen; and the king fled, and said: Woe’s 
me, that my gods are destroyed by the rebuke of Matthew, of 
which the weight was a thousand talents of gold and a thou- 
sand talents of silver. Better are the gods of stone and of 
earthenware, in that they are neither melted nor stolen.’ 

And when the fire had thus utterly destroyed their gods, 
and burnt up many soldiers, there came to pass again another 
stranger wonder. For the fire, in the likeness of a great and 
dreadful dragon, chased the tyrant as far as the palace, and ran 
hither and thither round the king, not letting him go into the 
palace. And the king, chased by the fire, and not allowed to 
go into his palace, turned back to where Matthew was, and cried 
out, saying: I beseech thee, whoever thou art, O man, whether 
magician or sorcerer or god, or angel of God, whom so great a 
pyre has not touched, remove from me this dreadful and fiery 
dragon ; forget the evil I have done, as also when thou madest 
me receive my sight. And Matthew, having rebuked the fire, 
and the flames having been extinguished, and the dragon having 
become invisible, stretching his eyes to heaven, and praying in 
Hebrew, and commending his spirit to the Lord, said: Peace 
to you! And having glorified the Lord, he went to his rest 
about the sixth hour. 

Then the king, having ordered more soldiers to come, and the 
bed to be brought from the palace, which had a great show of 
gold, he ordered the apostle to be laid on it, and carried to the 
palace. And the body of the apostle was lying as if in sleep, 
and his robe and his tunic unstained by the fire ; and sometimes 
they saw him on the bed, and sometimes following, and some- 
times going before the bed, and with his right hand put upon 


1 The other ms. adds: How my forefathers toiled, and with great trouble 
made the gods ; and now, behold, they have been destroyed by one magician. 


384 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


Plato’s head, and singing along with the multitude, so that 
both the king and the soldiers, with the crowd, were struck 
with astonishment. And many diseased persons and demoniacs, 
having only touched the bed, were made sound; and as many 
as were savage in appearance, in that same hour were changed 
into the likeness of other men. 

And as the bed was going into the palace, we’ all saw 
Matthew rising up, as it were, from the bed, and going into 
heaven, led by the hand by a beautiful boy ; and twelve men 
in shining garments came to meet him, having never-fading 
and golden crowns on their head; and we saw how that child 
crowned Matthew, so as to be like them, and in a flash of 
lightning they went away to heaven. 

And the king stood at the gate of the palace, and ordered 
that no one should come in but the soldiers carrying the bed. 
And having shut the doors,’ he ordered an iron coffin to be 
made, put the body of Matthew into it, and sealed it up with 
lead; through the eastern gate of the palace at midnight put 
it into a boat, no one knowing of it, and threw it into the deep 
part of the sea. 

And through the whole night the brethren remained before 
the gate of the palace, spending the night, and singing; and 
when the dawn rose there was a voice: O bishop Plato, carry 
the Gospel and the Psalter of David; go along with the multi- 
tude of the brethren to the east of the palace, and sing the 
Alleluia, and read the Gospel, and bring as an offering the holy 
bread ; and having pressed three clusters from the vine into a 
cup, communicate with me, as the Lord Jesus showed us how 
to offer up when He rose from the dead on the third day. 

And the bishop having run into the church, and taken the 
Gospel and the Psalter of David, and having assembled the 
presbyters and the multitude of the brethren, came to the 
east of the palace at the hour of sunrise; and having ordered 
the one who was singing to go up upon a certain lofty stone, 


1 The change of person is noticeable. 

* In the other Ms. the king prays: And now, since there is still in me a little 
unbelief, I beseech thee that thou wilt bring the body of Matthew from the sea. 
For, behold, I will order the body to be thrown into the depths of the sea ; and if 
thou deliver it as thou didst deliver it in the funeral pile, I will forsake all my 
gods at once, and believe in thee alone, 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 585 


he began to praise in singing of a song to God: Precious in the 
sight of God is the death of His saints." And again: I laid 
me down and slept; I arose: because the Lord will sustain 
me.” And they listened to the singing of a song of David: 
Shall he that is dead not rise again? Now I shall raise 
him up for myself, saith the Lord. And all shouted out the 
Alleluia. And the bishop read the Gospel, and all cried out: 
Glory to Thee, Thou who hast been glorified in heaven and 
on earth. And so then they offered the gift of the holy offer- 
ing for Matthew; and having partaken for thanksgiving® of 
the undefiled and life-giving mysteries of Christ, they all 
glorified God. | 

And it was about the sixth hour, and Plato sees the sea 
opposite about seven furlongs off; and, behold, Matthew was 
standing on the sea, and two men, one on each side, in shining 
garments, and the beautiful boy in front of them. And all the 
brethren saw these things, and they heard them saying Amen, 
Alleluia. And one could see the sea fixed like a stone of 
erystal, and the beautiful boy in front of them, when out of 
the depth of the sea a cross came up, and at the end of the 
eross the coffin going up in which was the body of Matthew ; 
and in the hour of the piercing on the cross,* the boy placed 


_ the coffin on the ground, behind the palace towards the east, 


where the bishop had offered the offering for Matthew. 

And the king having seen these things from the upper part 
of the house, and being -terror-struck, went forth from the 
palace, and ran and worshipped towards the east at the coffin, 
and fell down before the bishop, and the presbyters, and the 
deacons, in repentance and confession, saying:’ Truly I believe 
in the true God, Christ Jesus. I entreat, give me the seal in - 
Christ, and I will give you my palace, in testimony of Matthew, 


1 Ps, exvi. 15. 2 Ps. iii. 5 according to the LXX. 

° Or, of the Eucharist. 

4The meaning is not clear. The other ms. has: After one hour he sees in 
that place an image of a cross coming up from the depth of the sea. 

©The other Ms. is much fuller here: And the cry of the multitude came to 
the king. And he asked: What is the uproar and shouting among the people ? 
And he learned that Matthew’s coffin had come of itself. Then, filled with 
great joy, the king straightway goes to the coffin, crying out, and saying with 
a loud voice: The God of Matthew is the only God, and there is none other but 

2B 


386 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF 


and you shall put the coffin upon my golden bed, in the great 
dining-room ; only, having baptized me in it, communicate to 
me the Eucharist of Christ. And the bishop having prayed, 
and ordered him to take off his clothes, and having examined 
him for a long time, and he having confessed and wept over 
what he had done, having sealed him, and anointed him with 
oil, put him down into the sea, in the name of Father, and Son, 
and Holy Ghost. And when he came up from the water he 
ordered him to put on himself splendid garments, and so then 
having given praise and thanks, communicating the holy bread 
and mixed cup, the bishop first gave them to the king, saying: 
Let this body of Christ, and this cup, His blood shed for us, be 
to thee for the remission of sins unto life. And a voice was 
heard from on high: Amen, amen, amen. And when he had 
thus communicated in fear and joy, the apostle appeared and 
said: King Fulvanus, thy name shall no longer be Fulvanus; 
but thou shalt be called Matthew. And thou, the son of the 
king, shalt no longer be called Fulvanus, but Matthew also ; 
and thou Ziphagia, the wife of the king, shalt be called Sophia;* 
and Erva, the wife of your son, shall be called Synesis.27 And 
these names of yours shall be’ written in the heavens, and there 
shall not fail of your loins from generation to generation. And 
in that same hour Matthew appointed the king a presbyter, 
and he was thirty-seven years old; and the king’s son he 
appointed deacon, being seventeen years old; and the king’s 
wife he appointed a presbyteress; and his son’s wife he ap- 
pointed a deaconess,® and she also was seventeen: years old. 
And then he thus blessed them, saying: The blessing and the 
erace of our Lord Jesus Christ shall be with you to time ever- 
lasting. 

Then the king, having awakened out of sleep, and rejoiced 


Him. And he fell on his face near the coffin, saying: Pardon me, Lord Jesus 
Christ, for what I have done against this holy man, for I was in ignorance. 
And the bishop, seeing the repentance and tears of the king, gave him a hand, 
and raised him from the ground, and said to him: Rise up, and be of good 
courage ; for the Lord God hath accepted thy repentance and conversion through 
the good offices of His servant and apostle Thomas. And the king rose up from 
the ground, and fell at the bishop’s feet, etc.—as in the text. 

1 Wisdom. 2 Understanding. 

3 The other Ms. has: And likewise his wife and his daughter-in-law deaconesses. 


EE πὰ πΠῆΦᾳΠ 


ST. MATTHEW THE APOSTLE. 387 


with all his house at the vision of the holy Apostle Matthew, 
praised God. 

And the king, having gone into his palace, broke all the idols 
to pieces, and gave a decree to those in his kingdom, writing 
thus: King Matthew, to all those under my kingdom, greeting. 
Christ having appeared upon earth, and having saved the human 
race, the so-called gods have been found to be deceivers, and 
soul-destroyers, and plotters against the human race. Whence, 
divine grace having shone abroad, and come even to us, and 
we having come to the knowledge of the deception of the idols, 
that it is vain and false, it has seemed good to our divinity 
that there should not be many gods, but one, and one only, the 
God in the heavens. And you, having received this our decree, 
keep to the purport of it, and break to pieces and destroy every 
idol; and if any one shall be detected from this time forth 
serving idols, or concealing them, let such an one be subjected 
to punishment by the sword. Farewell all, because we also 
are well. 

And when this order was given out, all, rejoicing and exult- 
ing, broke their idols to pieces, crying out and saying: There 
is one only God, He who is in the heavens, who does good to 
men. 

And after all these things had come to pass, Matthew the 
apostle of Christ appeared to the bishop Plato, and said to 
him: Plato, servant of God, and our brother, be it known unto 
thee, that after three years shall be thy rest in the Lord, and 
exultation to ages of ages. And the king himself, whom after 
my own name I have called Matthew, shall receive the throne 
of thy bishopric, and after him his son. And he, having said 
Peace to thee and all the saints, went to heaven. 

And after three years the bishop Plato rested in the Lord. 
And King Matthew succeeded him, having given up his king- 
dom willingly to another, whence there was given him grace 
against unclean demons, and he cured every affliction. And 
he advanced his son to be a presbyter, and made him second 
to himself. 

And Saint Matthew finished his course in the country of 
the man-eaters, in the city of Myrna, on the sixteenth of the 
month of November, our Lord Jesus Christ reigning, to whom 


588 ACTS AND MARTYRDOM OF MATTHEW, 


be glory and strength, now and ever, and to ages of ages. 
Amen.” 


1 The other s. ends differently : And there came a voice, Peace to you, and 
joy, for there shall not be war nor stroke of sword in this city, because of 
Matthew, mine elect, whom I have loved forever. Blessed are they who observe 
his memory, for they shall be glorified to ages of ages. 

And the day of his commemoration shall be the fourteenth of the month of 
Gorpieus.' Glory, honour, and worship to God, and to the Son, and to the 
Holy Spirit, now and ever, and to the ages. 


1 Gorpieus was the eleventh month of the Macedonian year, and fell partly in 
August and partly in September. 


Γ΄. α- 


ACTS OF THE HOLY APOSTLE THOMAS. 


fq) Το that time we the apostles were all in Jerusalem— 
Simon called Peter, and Andrew his brother; James 
the son of Zebedee, and John his brother; Philip 
and Bartholomew; Thomas, and Matthew the tax- 
gatherer ; James of Alphzeus and Simon the Cananezan; and 
Judas of James;’—and we portioned out the regions of the 
world, in order that each one of us might go into the region 
that fell to him, and to the nation to which the Lord sent him. 
By lot, then, India fell to Judas Thomas,’ also called Didymus. 
And he did not wish to go, saying that he was not able to go 
on account of the weakness of the flesh; and how can I, being 
an Hebrew man, go among the Indians to proclaim the truth ? 
And while he was thus reasoning and speaking, the Saviour 
appeared to him through the night, and said to him: Fear not, 
Thomas ; go away to India, and proclaim the word; for my 
grace shall be with thee. But he did not obey, saying: Wher- 
ever Thou wishest to send me, send me elsewhere; for to the 
Indians I am not going. 

And as he was thus speaking and growing angry, there 
happened to be there a certain merchant come from India, by 
name Abbanes, sent from the king Gundaphoros, and having 
received an order from him to buy a carpenter and bring him 
to him. And the Lord, having seen him walking about in the 
market at noon, said to him: Dost thou wish to buy a car- 
penter? And he said to Him: Yes. And the Lord said to him: 
I have a slave a carpenter, and I wish to sell him. And having 


1 This list is a transcript of Matt. x. 2-4, except in the last name. 
5. This double name is in accordance with a tradition preserved by Eusebius 
(Π. £. i. 13), that the true name of Thomas was Judas. 
389 


390 ACTS OF THE APOSTLE THOMAS. 


said this, He showed him Thomas at a distance, and agreed 
with him for three pounds of uncoined silver; and He wrote a 
bill of sale, saying: I Jesus, the son of Joseph the carpenter, 
declare that, I have sold my slave, Judas by name, to thee 
Abbanes, a merchant of Gundaphoros, the king of the Indians. 
And the purchase * being completed, the Saviour taking Judas, 
who also is Thomas, led him to Abbanes the merchant; and 
Abbanes seeing him, said to him: Is this thy master? And 
the apostle answered and said: Yes, He is my Lord. And he 
says: I have bought thee from him. And the apostle held his 
peace. 

And at dawn of the following day, the apostle having prayed 
and entreated the Lord, said: I'’go wherever Thou wishest, O 
Lord Jesus ; Thy will be done. And he went to Abbanes the 
merchant, carrying nothing at all with him, but only his price. 
For the Lord had given it to him, saying: Let thy worth also 
be with thee along with my grace, wherever thou mayst go. 
And the apostle came up with Abbanes, who was carrying his 
effects into the boat. He began therefore also to carry them 
along with him. And when they had gone on board and sat 
down, Abbanes questioned the apostle, saying: What kind of 
work dost thou know? And he said: In wood, ploughs, and 
yokes, and balances,’ and boats, and boats’ oars, and masts, and 
blocks; in stone, slabs,* and temples, and royal palaces. And 
Abbanes the merchant said to him: Of such a workman, to be 
sure, we have need. They began, therefore, to sail away. And 
they had a fair wind, and they sailed fast until they came to 
Andrapolis, a royal city. Σ 

And having gone out of the boat, they went into the city. 
And, behold, the voices of flute-players, and of water-organs, 
and trumpets, sounding round them ; and the apostle inquired, 
saying: What festival is this in this city? And those who — 
were there said to him: The gods have brought thee also, that 
thou mayst be feasted in this city. For the king has an only- — 
begotten daughter, and he is now giving her to a husband in 
marriage: this festival, then, which thou seest to-day, is the 
rejoicing and public assembly for the marriage. And the king 
has sent forth heralds to proclaim everywhere that all are to— 

1 Or, bill of sale. 2 Or, scales. 3 i.e. monuments. 


! 


ACTS OF THE APOSTLE THOMAS. 991 


come to the marriage, rich and poor, bond and free, strangers 
and citizens. And if any one shall refuse and not come to the 
marriage, he will be answerable to the king." And Abbanes 
having heard, said to the apostle: Let us also go, then, that we 
may not offend the king, and especially as we are strangers. 
And he said: Let us go. And having turned into the inn, and 
rested a little, they went to the marriage. And the apostle 
seeing them all reclining, reclined he also in the midst. And 
they all looked at him as a stranger, and coming from a foreign 
land. And Abbanes the merchant, as being a lord, reclined in 
another place. 

And when they had dined and drunk, the apostle tasted 
nothing. Those, then, about him said to him: Why hast thou 
come hither, neither eating nor drinking? And he answered 
and said to them: For something greater than food or even 
drink have I came hither, even that I might accomplish the 
will of the King. For the heralds proclaim the wishes of the 
King, and whoever will not hear the heralds will be liable to 
the judgment of the King. When, therefore, they had dined 
and drunk, and crowns and perfumes had been brought, each 
took perfume, and one anointed his face, another his cheek,’ 
and one one part of his body, and another another. And the 
apostle anointed the crown of his head, and put a little of the 
ointment in his nostrils, and dropped it also into his ears, and 
applied it also to his teeth, and carefully anointed the parts 
round about his heart; and having taken the crown that was 
brought to him wreathed of myrtle and other flowers, he put 
it on his head, and took a branch of reed in his hand, and 
held it. 

And the flute-girl, holding the flutes in her hand, went round 
them all; and when she came to the place where the apostle 
was, she stood over him, playing the flute over his head a long 
time. And that flute-girl was Hebrew by race. | 

And as the apostle looked away to the ground, a certain one 
of the wine-powrers® stretched forth his hand and struck him. 
And the apostle, having raised his eyes, and regarded him who 
had struck him, said: My God will forgive thee this wrong in 
the world to come, but in this world He will show His wonders, 

1 Cf. Matt. xxii. 3-14. 2 Or, chin. 3 Or, cup-bearers. 


992 ACTS OF THE APOSTLE THOMAS. 


and I shall soon see that hand that struck me dragged along 
by a dog. And having thus spoken, he began to sing and to 
repeat this song :— 

Maiden, daughter of the light, in whom there exists and 
abides the majestic splendour of kings; and delightsome is the 
sight of her, resplendent with brilliant beauty. Her garments 
are like spring flowers, and the odour of a sweet smell is given 
forth from them; and on the crown of her head the king is 
seated, feeding with his own ambrosia those who are seated 
beside him; and truth rests upon her head, and she shows 
forth joy with her feet; and becomingly does she open her 
- mouth; thirty-and-two are they who sing her praises, and their 
tongue is like a curtain of the door which is drawn for them 
who go in; and her neck is made in the likeness of the stairs 
which the first Creator created; and her two hands signify and 
represent the choral dance of the blessed ages, proclaiming it; 
and her fingers represent the gates of the city. Her chamber 
lighted up breathes forth scent from balsam and every perfume, 
and gives forth a sweet odour of myrrh and savoury herbs; and 
within are strewn myrtles and sweet-smelling flowers of all 
kinds; and the bridal chambers are adorned with calamus.* 
And her groomsmen, of whom the number is seven, whom she 
has chosen for herself, surround her like a wall; and her brides- 
maids are seven, who dance before her; and twelve are they in 
number who minister before her and are at her bidding, having 
their gaze and their sight upon the bridegroom, that through 
the sight of him they may be enlightened. And they shall be 
with him to everlasting in that everlasting joy, and they shall 
sit down in that wedding to which the great ones are gathered 
together, and they shall abide in the festivities of which the 
eternals are deemed worthy ; and they shall be arrayed in royal 
raiment, and shall put on shining robes; and in joy and exul- 
tation both of them’ shall be, and they shall glorify the Father 
of the universe, whose majestic light they have received, and 
they have been enlightened by the sight of Him their Lord, 
whose ambrosial food they have received, of which there is no 
failing at all; and they have drunk also of the wine which 
brings to them no thirst, neither desire of the flesh ; and they 

1 Ex. xxx. 23; Cant. iv. 14; Ezek. xxvii. 19. 


ACTS OF THE APOSTLE THOMAS. 593 


have with the living spirit glorified and praised the father of 
truth and the mother of wisdom. 

And when he had sung and finished this song, all who were 
there present looked upon him and kept silence, and they also 
saw his form changed; and what had been said by him they 
did not understand, since